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Haematological and Bone Marrow Cancers

Read time: 5 mins
Last updated: 20th Jul 2020
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Haematological cancers are cancers which affect the blood, bone marrow and lymph nodes. The most common types include leukaemias, lymphomas, myelomas and myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs). All affect cell types that are important for regulating the activity of the immune system.  

Leukaemias start in blood-forming tissue such as the bone marrow and results in the release of large numbers of abnormal blood cells into the bloodstream. Leukaemias may be classed as acute or chronic and may stem from lymphocytic or myeloid cells. This equates to four subtypes; acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL).

Lymphomas impact on lymphocytes and presents as a solid tumour that generally develops in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow or blood. There are two subtypes, Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Myelomas lead to an accumulation of plasma cells in bone marrow which impacts on the production of normal blood cells.

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