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Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Learning Zone
Declaration of sponsorship Novartis Pharma AG


Declaration of sponsorship Novartis Pharma AG
Read time: 250 mins
Last updated:12th Aug 2021
Published:12th Aug 2021

Choosing the right treatment is critical to managing multiple sclerosis (MS). Consider your options with the latest data from over 40 MS clinical trial and congress resources.

  • View and download a diverse selection of short videos, oral presentations and ePosters
  • Browse all resources, then deep-dive based on your specific clinical and educational goals
  • Learning materials presented and analysed by leading MS experts

MS is an immune-mediated disease, caused by peripherally driven inflammation and neurodegeneration of the central nervous system (CNS)1–4.

To learn from your clinical peers why early intervention can maximise the chances of altering the course of MS before the disease progresses further8–11, click on Understanding MS.

High-efficacy therapies (HETs) are traditionally associated with a higher risk of serious adverse events compared to lower-efficacy disease-modifying therapies (DMTs)12,13, but safety data from recently available immunosuppressants, including B-cell and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor HETs, show that high-efficacy is not always associated with high-safety risk in patients with MS9,14,15. Explore this new development in Novartis-sponsored clinical trial investigations – click High-Efficacy Therapies in MS, above.

Learn what matters most to people with MS by viewing content from the Novartis-sponsored Satellite symposium, 7th EAN Congress – Partnering with patients at the start of the MS journey: Priorities, practicalities and progress, in the Expert Opinion section.

Dozens of biomarkers are currently being evaluated to improve diagnostic accuracy and to monitor disease activity5–7. These include serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which we present in Congresses.


  1. Filippi M, Bar-Or A, Piehl F, Preziosa P, Solari A, Vukusic S, et al. Multiple sclerosis. Nat Rev Dis Prim. 2018;4(1):1–27.
  2. Dendrou CA, Fugger L, Friese MA. Immunopathology of multiple sclerosis. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2015;15(9):545–558.
  3. Baecher-Allan C, Kaskow BJ, Weiner HL. Multiple Sclerosis: Mechanisms and Immunotherapy. Neuron. 2018;97(4):742–768.
  4. Hemmer B, Kerschensteiner M, Korn T. Role of the innate and adaptive immune responses in the course of multiple sclerosis. The Lancet Neurology. 2015;14(4):406–419.
  5. Toscano S, Patti F. CSF biomarkers in multiple sclerosis: beyond neuroinflammation. Neuroimmunol Neuroinflammation. 2020;2020(1):14–41.
  6. Kapoor R, Smith KE, Allegretta M, Arnold DL, Carroll W, Comabella M, et al. Serum neurofilament light as a biomarker in progressive multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2020;95(10):436–444.
  7. Ziemssen T, Akgün K, Brück W. Molecular biomarkers in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neuroinflammation. 2019;16(1):1–11.
  8. Giovannoni G, Butzkueven H, Dhib-Jalbut S, Hobart J, Kobelt G, Pepper G, et al. Brain health: time matters in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. 2016;9:S5–S48.
  9. Gartner J, Hauser S, Bar-OR A et al. Benefit-risk of ofatumumab in treatment-naive early relapsing multiple sclerosis patients. In: MS Virtual 2020 Joint ACTRIMS-ECTRIMS meeting, September 11–13, 2020. 2020: Abstract P0192.
  10. Turner B, Cree BAC, Kappos L, Montalban X, Papeix C, Wolinsky JS, et al. Ocrelizumab efficacy in subgroups of patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. J Neurol. 2019;266(5):1182–1193.
  11. He A, Merkel B, Brown JWL, Zhovits Ryerson L, Kister I, Malpas CB, et al. Timing of high-efficacy therapy for multiple sclerosis: a retrospective observational cohort study. Lancet Neurol. 2020;19(4):307–316.
  12. Thompson AJ, Baranzini SE, Geurts J, Hemmer B, Ciccarelli O. Multiple sclerosis. The Lancet. 2018;391(10130):1622–1636.
  13. Marriott JJ. Safety and Efficacy of Fingolimod in Treatment-Naïve Multiple Sclerosis Patients. J Cent Nerv Syst Dis. 2011;3:JCNSD.S5120.
  14. Hauser SL, Bar-Or A, Cohen JA, Comi G, Correale J, Coyle PK, et al. Ofatumumab versus Teriflunomide in Multiple Sclerosis. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(6):546–557.
  15. Kappos L, Bar-Or A, Cree BAC, Fox RJ, Giovannoni G, Gold R, et al. Siponimod versus placebo in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (EXPAND): a double-blind, randomised, phase 3 study. Lancet. 2018;391(10127):1263–1273.