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Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Learning Zone
Declaration of sponsorship Novartis Pharma AG


Declaration of sponsorship Novartis Pharma AG
Read time: 160 mins
Last updated:15th Nov 2022
Published:11th Aug 2021

MS is an immune-mediated disease, caused by peripherally driven inflammation and neurodegeneration of the central nervous system (CNS).

To learn more about why early intervention can maximise the chances of altering the course of MS before the disease progresses further1-4, discover Understanding MS.

High-efficacy therapies (HETs) are traditionally associated with a higher risk of serious adverse events compared to lower-efficacy disease-modifying therapies (DMTs)5,6, but safety data from recently available immunosuppressants, including B-cell and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor HETs, show that high-efficacy is not always associated with high-safety risk in patients with MS1,7,8. Explore such developments and clinical trials in Treatment advances in MS. 

Dozens of biomarkers are currently being evaluated to improve diagnostic accuracy and to monitor disease activity9-11. These include serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), which we present with other recent research. 


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  2. Giovannoni G, Butzkueven H, Dhib-Jalbut S, Hobart J, Kobelt G, Pepper G, et al. Brain health: time matters in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders. 2016;9:S5-S48.
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