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FDA Drug information

Baclofen

Read time: 8 mins
Marketing start date: 21 Jul 2024

Summary of product characteristics


Adverse Reactions

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The most common adverse reactions in patients with spasticity of spinal origin were somnolence, dizziness, nausea, hypotension, headache, convulsions and hypotonia ( 6.1 ) The most common adverse reactions in patients with spasticity of cerebral origin were agitation, constipation, somnolence, leukocytosis, chills, urinary retention and hypotonia ( 6.2 ) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Sagent Pharmaceuticals, Inc. at 1-866-625-1618 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch . 6.1 Spasticity of Spinal Cord Origin Most Common Adverse Reactions in Patients with Spasticity of Spinal Origin In pre- and post-marketing clinical trials, the most common adverse reactions associated with use of intrathecal baclofen which were not seen at an equivalent incidence among placebo-treated patients were: somnolence, dizziness, nausea, hypotension, headache, convulsions and hypotonia. Adverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment 8/474 patients with spasticity of spinal cord origin receiving long term infusion of intrathecal baclofen in pre- and post-marketing clinical studies in the U.S. discontinued treatment due to adverse reactions. These include: pump pocket infections (3), meningitis (2), wound dehiscence (1), gynecological fibroids (1) and pump overpressurization (1) with unknown, if any, sequela. Eleven patients who developed coma secondary to overdose had their treatment temporarily suspended, but all were subsequently re-started and were not, therefore, considered to be true discontinuations. Fatalities - [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6 )] . Incidence in Controlled Trials Experience with intrathecal baclofen obtained in parallel, placebo-controlled, randomized studies provides only a limited basis for estimating the incidence of adverse reactions because the studies were of very brief duration (up to three days of infusion) and involved only a total of 63 patients. The following events occurred among the 31 patients receiving intrathecal baclofen in two randomized, placebo-controlled trials: hypotension (2), dizziness (2), headache (2), dyspnea (1). No adverse reactions were reported among the 32 patients receiving placebo in these studies. Events Observed during the Pre- and Post-marketing Evaluation of Intrathecal Baclofen Adverse events associated with the use of intrathecal baclofen reflect experience gained with 576 patients followed prospectively in the United States. They received intrathecal baclofen for periods of one day (screening) (N=576) to over eight years (maintenance) (N=10). The usual screening bolus dose administered prior to pump implantation in these studies was typically 50 mcg. The maintenance dose ranged from 12 mcg to 2,003 mcg per day. Because of the open, uncontrolled nature of the experience, a causal linkage between events observed and the administration of intrathecal baclofen cannot be reliably assessed in many cases and many of the adverse reactions reported are known to occur in association with the underlying conditions being treated. Nonetheless, many of the more commonly reported reactions — hypotonia, somnolence, dizziness, paresthesia, nausea/vomiting and headache — appear clearly drug-related. Adverse experiences reported during all U.S. studies (both controlled and uncontrolled) are shown in Table 1 . Eight of 474 patients who received chronic infusion via implanted pumps had adverse experiences which led to a discontinuation of long term treatment in the pre- and post- marketing studies. Table 1: Most Common (≥1%) Adverse Reactions in Patients with Spasticity of Spinal Origin in Prospectively Monitored Clinical Trials * Following administration of test bolus † Two month period following implant ‡ Beyond two months following implant N=Total number of patients entering each period %=% of patients evaluated Adverse Reactions Percent N=576 Screening * Percent N=474 Titration † Percent N=430 Maintenance ‡ Hypotonia 5.4 13.5 25.3 Somnolence 5.7 5.9 20.9 Dizziness 1.7 1.9 7.9 Paresthesia 2.4 2.1 6.7 Nausea and Vomiting 1.6 2.3 5.6 Headache 1.6 2.5 5.1 Constipation 0.2 1.5 5.1 Convulsion 0.5 1.3 4.7 Urinary Retention 0.7 1.7 1.9 Dry Mouth 0.2 0.4 3.3 Accidental Injury 0.0 0.2 3.5 Asthenia 0.7 1.3 1.4 Confusion 0.5 0.6 2.3 Death 0.2 0.4 3.0 Pain 0.0 0.6 3.0 Speech Disorder 0.0 0.2 3.5 Hypotension 1.0 0.2 1.9 Ambylopia 0.5 0.2 2.3 Diarrhea 0.0 0.8 2.3 Hypoventilation 0.2 0.8 2.1 Coma 0.0 1.5 0.9 Impotence 0.2 0.4 1.6 Peripheral Edema 0.0 0.0 2.3 Urinary Incontinence 0.0 0.8 1.4 Insomnia 0.0 0.4 1.6 Anxiety 0.2 0.4 0.9 Depression 0.0 0.0 1.6 Dyspnea 0.3 0.0 1.2 Fever 0.5 0.2 0.7 Pneumonia 0.2 0.2 1.2 Urinary Frequency 0.0 0.6 0.9 Urticaria 0.2 0.2 1.2 Anorexia 0.0 0.4 0.9 Diplopia 0.0 0.4 0.9 Dysautonomia 0.2 0.2 0.9 Hallucinations 0.3 0.4 0.5 Hypertension 0.2 0.6 0.5 In addition to the more common (1% or more) adverse reactions reported in the prospectively followed 576 domestic patients in pre- and post-marketing studies, experience from an additional 194 patients exposed to intrathecal baclofen from foreign studies has been reported. The following adverse reactions, not described in the table, and arranged in decreasing order of frequency, and classified by body system, were reported: Nervous System: Abnormal gait, thinking abnormal, tremor, amnesia, twitching, vasodilatation, cerebrovascular accident, nystagmus, personality disorder, psychotic depression, cerebral ischemia, emotional lability, euphoria, hypertonia, ileus, drug dependence, incoordination, paranoid reaction and ptosis. Digestive System: Flatulence, dysphagia, dyspepsia and gastroenteritis. Cardiovascular: Postural hypotension, bradycardia, palpitations, syncope, arrhythmia ventricular, deep thrombophlebitis, pallor and tachycardia. Respiratory: Respiratory disorder, aspiration pneumonia, hyperventilation, pulmonary embolus and rhinitis. Urogenital: Hematuria and kidney failure. Skin and Appendages: Alopecia and sweating. Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Weight loss, albuminuria, dehydration and hyperglycemia. Special Senses: Abnormal vision, abnormality of accommodation, photophobia, taste loss and tinnitus. Body as a Whole: Suicide, lack of drug effect, abdominal pain, hypothermia, neck rigidity, chest pain, chills, face edema, flu syndrome and overdose. Hemic and Lymphatic System: Anemia. 6.2 Spasticity of Cerebral Origin Most Common Adverse Reactions In pre-marketing clinical trials, the most common adverse reactions associated with use of intrathecal baclofen which were not seen at an equivalent incidence among placebo-treated patients included: agitation, constipation, somnolence, leukocytosis, chills, urinary retention and hypotonia. Adverse Reactions Associated with Discontinuation of Treatment Nine of 211 patients receiving intrathecal baclofen in pre-marketing clinical studies in the U.S. discontinued long-term infusion due to adverse reactions associated with intrathecal therapy. The nine adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were: infection (3), CSF leaks (2), meningitis (2), drainage (1), and unmanageable trunk control (1). Fatalities Three deaths, none of which were attributed to intrathecal baclofen, were reported in patients in clinical trials involving patients with spasticity of cerebral origin. See Warnings on other deaths reported in spinal spasticity patients. Incidence in Controlled Trials Experience with intrathecal baclofen obtained in parallel, placebo-controlled, randomized studies provides only a limited basis for estimating the incidence of adverse reactions because the studies involved a total of 62 patients exposed to a single 50 mcg intrathecal bolus. The following adverse reactions occurred among the 62 patients receiving intrathecal baclofen in two randomized, placebo-controlled trials involving cerebral palsy and head injury patients, respectively: agitation, constipation, somnolence, leukocytosis, nausea, vomiting, nystagmus, chills, urinary retention, and hypotonia. Events Observed during the Pre-marketing Evaluation of Intrathecal Baclofen Adverse events associated with the use of intrathecal baclofen reflect experience gained with a total of 211 U.S. patients with spasticity of cerebral origin, of whom 112 were pediatric patients (under age 16 at enrollment). They received intrathecal baclofen for periods of one day (screening) (N=211) to 84 months (maintenance) (N=1). The usual screening bolus dose administered prior to pump implantation in these studies was 50 mcg to 75 mcg. The maintenance dose ranged from 22 mcg to 1,400 mcg per day. Doses used in this patient population for long-term infusion are generally lower than those required for patients with spasticity of spinal cord origin. Because of the open, uncontrolled nature of the experience, a causal linkage between events observed and the administration of intrathecal baclofen cannot be reliably assessed in many cases. Nonetheless, many of the more commonly reported reactions — somnolence, dizziness, headache, nausea, hypotension, hypotonia and coma — appear clearly drug-related. The most frequent (≥1%) adverse reactions reported during all clinical trials are shown in Table 2 . Nine patients discontinued long term treatment due to adverse reactions. Table 2: Most Common (≥1%) Adverse Reactions in Patients with Spasticity of Cerebral Origin * Following administration of test bolus † Two month period following implant ‡ Beyond two months following implant N=Total number of patients entering each period. 211 patients received drug; (1 of 212) received placebo only Adverse Reactions Percent N=211 Screening * Percent N=153 Titration † Percent N=150 Maintenance ‡ Hypotonia 2.4 14.4 34.7 Somnolence 7.6 10.5 18.7 Headache 6.6 7.8 10.7 Nausea and Vomiting 6.6 10.5 4.0 Vomiting 6.2 8.5 4.0 Urinary Retention 0.9 6.5 8.0 Convulsion 0.9 3.3 10.0 Dizziness 2.4 2.6 8.0 Nausea 1.4 3.3 7.3 Hypoventilation 1.4 1.3 4.0 Hypertonia 0.0 0.7 6.0 Paresthesia 1.9 0.7 3.3 Hypotension 1.9 0.7 2.0 Increased Salivation 0.0 2.6 2.7 Back Pain 0.9 0.7 2.0 Constipation 0.5 1.3 2.0 Pain 0.0 0.0 4.0 Pruritus 0.0 0.0 4.0 Diarrhea 0.5 0.7 2.0 Peripheral Edema 0.0 0.0 3.3 Thinking Abnormal 0.5 1.3 0.7 Agitation 0.5 0.0 1.3 Asthenia 0.0 0.0 2.0 Chills 0.5 0.0 1.3 Coma 0.5 0.0 1.3 Dry Mouth 0.5 0.0 1.3 Pneumonia 0.0 0.0 2.0 Speech Disorder 0.5 0.7 0.7 Tremor 0.5 0.0 1.3 Urinary Incontinence 0.0 0.0 2.0 Urination Impaired 0.0 0.0 2.0 The more common (1% or more) adverse reactions reported in the prospectively followed 211 patients exposed to intrathecal baclofen have been reported. In the total cohort, the following adverse reactions, not described in Table 2 , and arranged in decreasing order of frequency, and classified by body system, were reported: Nervous System: Akathisia, ataxia, confusion, depression, opisthotonos, amnesia, anxiety, hallucinations, hysteria, insomnia, nystagmus, personality disorder, reflexes decreased, and vasodilitation. Digestive System: Dysphagia, fecal incontinence, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and tongue disorder. Cardiovascular: Bradycardia. Respiratory: Apnea, dyspnea and hyperventilation. Urogenital: Abnormal ejaculation, kidney calculus, oliguria and vaginitis. Skin and Appendages: Rash, sweating, alopecia, contact dermatitis and skin ulcer. Special Senses: Abnormality of accommodation. Body as a Whole: Death, fever, abdominal pain, carcinoma, malaise and hypothermia. Hemic and Lymphatic System: Leukocytosis and petechial rash.

Contraindications

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Baclofen injection is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to baclofen. Do not use baclofen injection for intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous or epidural administration. Hypersensitivity to baclofen ( 4 ) Do not use baclofen injection for intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous or epidural administration. ( 4 )

Description

11 DESCRIPTION Baclofen injection, USP* is a muscle relaxant and antispastic. Baclofen's pharmacological class is a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ergic agonist. Baclofen's chemical name is 4-amino- 3-(4- chlorophenyl) butanoic acid, and its structural formula is: Baclofen Baclofen is a white to off-white, odorless or practically odorless crystalline powder, with a molecular weight of 213.66. It is slightly soluble in water, very slightly soluble in methanol, and insoluble in chloroform. Structural Formula

Dosage And Administration

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Baclofen injection is intended for use by the intrathecal route in single bolus test doses (via spinal catheter or lumbar puncture) and, for chronic use in the Medtronic SynchroMed ® II Programmable Pump or other pumps labeled for intrathecal administration of baclofen injection; Refer to the pump manufacturer's manual and follow the specific instructions and precautions for programming the pump and/or refilling the reservoir ( 2.1 ) Screening : Patients who do not respond to a 100 mcg intrathecal bolus should not be considered for an implanted pump for chronic infusion ( 2.2 ) Dose Titration : Spasticity may be necessary to sustain upright posture and balance in locomotion or may be useful to obtain optimal function and care ( 2.5 ) Maintenance Therapy : Titrate patients individually; Lowest dose with an optimal response should be used, generally 300 mcg/day to 800 mcg/day for spasticity of spinal cord origin and 90 mcg/day to 700 mcg/day for spasticity of cerebral origin; Titrate baclofen injection to maintain some degree of muscle tone and allow occasional spasms. ( 2.6 ) 2.1 Use Only in Medtronic SynchroMed ® II Programmable Pump (or other pumps labeled for intrathecal administration of baclofen injection) Baclofen injection is approved only for use with the Medtronic SynchroMed ® II Programmable Pump or other pumps labeled for intrathecal administration of baclofen injection. Refer to the manufacturer's manual for specific instructions and precautions for programming the pump and/or refilling the reservoir. It is important to select the appropriate refill kit for the pump used to administer baclofen injection. Baclofen injection is not to be compounded with other medications. 2.2 Screening Phase Prior to pump implantation and initiation of chronic infusion of baclofen injection, patients must demonstrate a positive clinical response to a baclofen injection bolus dose administered intrathecally in a screening trial. The screening trial employs baclofen injection at a concentration of 50 mcg per mL. A 1 mL syringe (50 mcg per mL) is available for use in the screening trial. The screening procedure is as follows. An initial bolus containing 50 micrograms in a volume of 1 milliliter is administered into the intrathecal space by barbotage over a period of not less than one minute. The patient is observed over the ensuing 4 to 8 hours. A positive response consists of a significant decrease in muscle tone and/or frequency and/or severity of spasms. If the initial response is less than desired, a second bolus injection may be administered 24 hours after the first. The second screening bolus dose consists of 75 micrograms in 1.5 milliliters. Again, the patient should be observed for an interval of 4 to 8 hours. If the response is still inadequate, a final bolus screening dose of 100 micrograms in 2 milliliters may be administered 24 hours later. Pediatric Patients The starting screening dose for pediatric patients is the same as in adult patients, i.e., 50 mcg. However, for very small patients, a screening dose of 25 mcg may be tried first. Patients who do not respond to a 100 mcg intrathecal bolus should not be considered candidates for an implanted pump for chronic infusion. 2.3 Preparation Information Screening Use the 1 mL screening syringe only (50 mcg per mL) for bolus injection into the subarachnoid space. For a 50 mcg bolus dose, use 1 mL of the screening syringe. Use 1.5 mL of 50 mcg per mL baclofen injection for a 75 mcg bolus dose. For the maximum screening dose of 100 mcg, use 2 mL of 50 mcg per mL baclofen injection (2 screening syringes). Maintenance The specific concentration that should be used depends upon the total daily dose required as well as the delivery rate of the pump. For patients who require concentrations other than 500 mcg per mL, 1,000 mcg per mL, or 2,000 mcg per mL, baclofen injection must be diluted with sterile preservative free Sodium Chloride for Injection, USP. 2.4 Administration Information Parenteral drug products should be inspected for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. The external surface of baclofen injection prefilled syringes (all strengths, including the 50 mcg per mL strength) are non-sterile. The use of baclofen injection prefilled syringe in an aseptic setting (i.e., operating room) to fill sterile intrathecal pumps prior to implantation in patients is not recommended. For outpatient use, modify aseptic procedures to avoid contamination of sterile surfaces through contact with the non-sterile exterior of the baclofen injection prefilled syringe when filling the pump reservoir [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] . Delivery Regimen Baclofen injection is most often administered in a continuous infusion mode immediately following implant. For those patients implanted with programmable pumps who have achieved relatively satisfactory control on continuous infusion, further benefit may be attained using more complex schedules of baclofen injection delivery. For example, patients who have increased spasms at night may require a 20% increase in their hourly infusion rate. Changes in flow rate should be programmed to start two hours before the time of desired clinical effect. 2.5 Dose Titration Post-Implant Dose Titration Period To determine the initial total daily dose of baclofen injection following implant, the screening dose that gave a positive effect should be doubled and administered over a 24-hour period, unless the efficacy of the bolus dose was maintained for more than 8 hours, in which case the starting daily dose should be the screening dose delivered over a 24-hour period. No dose increases should be given in the first 24 hours (i.e., until the steady state is achieved). In most patients, it will be necessary to increase the dose gradually over time to maintain effectiveness; a sudden requirement for substantial dose escalation typically indicates a catheter complication (i.e., catheter kink or dislodgement). Adult Patients with Spasticity of Spinal Cord Origin After the first 24 hours, for adult patients, the daily dosage should be increased slowly by 10% to 30% increments and only once every 24 hours, until the desired clinical effect is achieved. Adult Patients with Spasticity of Cerebral Origin After the first 24 hours, the daily dose should be increased slowly by 5% to 15% only once every 24 hours, until the desired clinical effect is achieved. Pediatric Patients After the first 24 hours, the daily dose should be increased slowly by 5% to 15% only once every 24 hours, until the desired clinical effect is achieved. If there is not a substantive clinical response to increases in the daily dose, check for proper pump function and catheter patency. Patients must be monitored closely in a fully equipped and staffed environment during the screening phase and dose-titration period immediately following implant. Resuscitative equipment should be immediately available for use in case of life-threatening or intolerable side effects. Additional Considerations Pertaining to Dosage Adjustment Careful dose titration of baclofen injection is needed when spasticity is necessary to sustain upright posture and balance in locomotion or whenever spasticity is used to obtain optimal function and care. It may be important to titrate the dose to maintain some degree of muscle tone and allow occasional spasms to: 1) help support circulatory function, 2) possibly prevent the formation of deep vein thrombosis, 3) optimize activities of daily living and ease of care. Except in overdose related emergencies, the dose of baclofen injection should ordinarily be reduced slowly if the drug is discontinued for any reason. An attempt should be made to discontinue concomitant oral antispasticity medication to avoid possible overdose or adverse drug interactions, either prior to screening or following implant and initiation of chronic baclofen injection infusion. Reduction and discontinuation of oral anti-spasmotics should be done slowly and with careful monitoring by the physician. Abrupt reduction or discontinuation of concomitant antispastics should be avoided. 2.6 Maintenance Therapy Spasticity of Spinal Cord Origin Patients The clinical goal is to maintain muscle tone as close to normal as possible, and to minimize the frequency and severity of spasms to the extent possible, without inducing intolerable side effects. Very often, the maintenance dose needs to be adjusted during the first few months of therapy while patients adjust to changes in lifestyle due to the alleviation of spasticity. During periodic refills of the pump, the daily dose may be increased by 10% to 40%, but no more than 40%, to maintain adequate symptom control. The daily dose may be reduced by 10% to 20% if patients experience side effects. Most patients require gradual increases in dose over time to maintain optimal response during chronic therapy. A sudden large requirement for dose escalation suggests a catheter complication (i.e., catheter kink or dislodgement). Maintenance dosage for long term continuous infusion of intrathecal baclofen has ranged from 12 mcg/day to 2,003 mcg/day, with most patients adequately maintained on 300 micrograms to 800 micrograms per day. There is limited experience with daily doses greater than 1,000 mcg/day. Determination of the optimal baclofen injection dose requires individual titration. The lowest dose with an optimal response should be used. Spasticity of Cerebral Origin Patients The clinical goal is to maintain muscle tone as close to normal as possible and to minimize the frequency and severity of spasms to the extent possible, without inducing intolerable side effects, or to titrate the dose to the desired degree of muscle tone for optimal functions. Very often the maintenance dose needs to be adjusted during the first few months of therapy while patients adjust to changes in lifestyle due to the alleviation of spasticity. During periodic refills of the pump, the daily dose may be increased by 5% to 20%, but no more than 20%, to maintain adequate symptom control. The daily dose may be reduced by 10% to 20% if patients experience side effects. Many patients require gradual increases in dose over time to maintain optimal response during chronic therapy. A sudden large requirement for dose escalation suggests a catheter complication (i.e., catheter kink or dislodgement). Maintenance dosage for long term continuous infusion of intrathecal baclofen has ranged from 22 mcg/day to 1,400 mcg/day, with most patients adequately maintained on 90 micrograms to 703 micrograms per day. In clinical trials, only 3 of 150 patients required daily doses greater than 1,000 mcg/day. Pediatric Patients Use same dosing recommendations for patients with spasticity of cerebral origin. Pediatric patients under 12 years seemed to require a lower daily dose in clinical trials. Average daily dose for patients under 12 years was 274 mcg/day, with a range of 24 mcg/day to 1,199 mcg/day. Dosage requirement for pediatric patients over 12 years does not seem to be different from that of adult patients. Determination of the optimal baclofen injection dose requires individual titration. The lowest dose with an optimal response should be used. Potential Need for Dose Adjustments in Chronic Use During long term treatment, approximately 5% (28/627) of patients become refractory to increasing doses. There is not sufficient experience to make firm recommendations for tolerance treatment; however, this “tolerance” has been treated on occasion, in hospital, by a “drug holiday” consisting of the gradual reduction of intrathecal baclofen over a 2 to 4 week period and switching to alternative methods of spasticity management. After the “drug holiday,” intrathecal baclofen may be restarted at the initial continuous infusion dose.

Indications And Usage

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Baclofen injection is indicated for use in the management of severe spasticity in adult and pediatric patients age 4 years and above. Patients should first respond to a screening dose of intrathecal baclofen prior to consideration for long term infusion via an implantable pump. For spasticity of spinal cord origin, chronic infusion of baclofen injection via an implantable pump should be reserved for patients unresponsive to oral baclofen therapy, or those who experience intolerable CNS side effects at effective doses. Patients with spasticity due to traumatic brain injury should wait at least one year after the injury before consideration of long term intrathecal baclofen therapy. Baclofen injection is intended for use by the intrathecal route in single bolus test doses (via spinal catheter or lumbar puncture) and, for chronic use, only with the Medtronic SynchroMed ® II Programmable Pump or other pumps labeled for intrathecal administration of baclofen injection [see Clinical Studies ( 14 )] . Prior to implantation of a device for chronic intrathecal infusion of baclofen injection, patients must show a response to baclofen injection in a screening trial [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.2 )] . Baclofen injection is a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ergic agonist indicated for use in the management of severe spasticity of cerebral or spinal origin in adult and pediatric patients age 4 years and above ( 1 ) Baclofen injection should be reserved for patients unresponsive to oral baclofen therapy, or those who experience intolerable central nervous system side effects at effective doses ( 1 ) Patients should first respond to a screening dose of intrathecal baclofen prior to consideration for long term infusion via an implantable pump. ( 1 ) Spasticity due to traumatic brain injury: wait at least one year after injury before considering baclofen injection therapy ( 1 )

Overdosage

10 OVERDOSAGE Special attention must be given to recognizing the signs and symptoms of overdosage, especially during the initial screening and dose-titration phase of treatment, but also during re-introduction of baclofen injection after a period of interruption in therapy. Symptoms of Intrathecal Baclofen Overdose Drowsiness, lightheadedness, dizziness, somnolence, respiratory depression, seizures, rostral progression of hypotonia and loss of consciousness progressing to coma of up to 72 hours duration. In most cases reported, coma was reversible without sequelae after drug was discontinued. Symptoms of intrathecal baclofen overdose were reported in a sensitive adult patient after receiving a 25 mcg intrathecal bolus. Treatment Suggestions for Overdose There is no specific antidote for treating overdoses of baclofen injection; however, the following steps should ordinarily be undertaken: 1) Residual intrathecal baclofen solution should be removed from the pump as soon as possible. 2) Patients with respiratory depression should be intubated if necessary, until the drug is eliminated. Anecdotal reports suggest that intravenous physostigmine may reverse central side effects, notably drowsiness and respiratory depression. Caution in administering physostigmine is advised, however, because its use has been associated with the induction of seizures and bradycardia. Physostigmine Doses for Adult Patients Administer 2 mg of physostigmine intramuscularly or intravenously at a slow controlled rate of no more than 1 mg per minute. Dosage may be repeated if life-threatening signs, such as arrhythmia, convulsions or coma occur. Physostigmine Doses for Pediatric Patients Administer 0.02 mg/kg physostigmine intramuscularly or intravenously, do not give more than 0.5 mg per minute. The dosage may be repeated at 5 to 10 minute intervals until a therapeutic effect is obtained or a maximum dose of 2 mg is attained. Physostigmine may not be effective in reversing large overdoses and patients may need to be maintained with respiratory support. If lumbar puncture is not contraindicated, consideration should be given to withdrawing 30 to 40 mL of CSF to reduce CSF baclofen concentration.

Adverse Reactions Table

Table 1: Most Common (≥1%) Adverse Reactions in Patients with Spasticity of Spinal Origin in Prospectively Monitored Clinical Trials

* Following administration of test bolus

Two month period following implant

Beyond two months following implant N=Total number of patients entering each period

%=% of patients evaluated

Adverse ReactionsPercent N=576 Screening*Percent N=474 TitrationPercent N=430 Maintenance
Hypotonia 5.4 13.5 25.3
Somnolence 5.7 5.9 20.9
Dizziness 1.7 1.9 7.9
Paresthesia 2.4 2.1 6.7
Nausea and Vomiting 1.6 2.3 5.6
Headache 1.6 2.5 5.1
Constipation 0.2 1.5 5.1
Convulsion 0.5 1.3 4.7
Urinary Retention 0.7 1.7 1.9
Dry Mouth 0.2 0.4 3.3
Accidental Injury 0.0 0.2 3.5
Asthenia 0.7 1.3 1.4
Confusion 0.5 0.6 2.3
Death 0.2 0.4 3.0
Pain 0.0 0.6 3.0
Speech Disorder 0.0 0.2 3.5
Hypotension 1.0 0.2 1.9
Ambylopia 0.5 0.2 2.3
Diarrhea 0.0 0.8 2.3
Hypoventilation 0.2 0.8 2.1
Coma 0.0 1.5 0.9
Impotence 0.2 0.4 1.6
Peripheral Edema 0.0 0.0 2.3
Urinary Incontinence 0.0 0.8 1.4
Insomnia 0.0 0.4 1.6
Anxiety 0.2 0.4 0.9
Depression 0.0 0.0 1.6
Dyspnea 0.3 0.0 1.2
Fever 0.5 0.2 0.7
Pneumonia 0.2 0.2 1.2
Urinary Frequency 0.0 0.6 0.9
Urticaria 0.2 0.2 1.2
Anorexia 0.0 0.4 0.9
Diplopia 0.0 0.4 0.9
Dysautonomia 0.2 0.2 0.9
Hallucinations 0.3 0.4 0.5
Hypertension 0.2 0.6 0.5

Drug Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS There is inadequate systematic experience with the use of intrathecal baclofen in combination with other medications to predict specific drug-drug interactions. Interactions attributed to the combined use of baclofen injection and epidural morphine include hypotension and dyspnea. Combined use with morphine: hypotension and dyspnea ( 7 )

Clinical Pharmacology

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 12.1 Mechanism of Action The precise mechanism of action of baclofen as a muscle relaxant and antispasticity agent is not fully understood. Baclofen inhibits both monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflexes at the spinal level, possibly by decreasing excitatory neurotransmitter release from primary afferent terminals, although actions at supraspinal sites may also occur and contribute to its clinical effect. Baclofen is a structural analog of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and may exert its effects by stimulation of the GABA B receptor subtype. Baclofen when introduced directly into the intrathecal space permits effective CSF concentrations to be achieved with resultant plasma concentrations 100 times less than those occurring with oral administration. In people, as well as in animals, baclofen has been shown to have general CNS depressant properties as indicated by the production of sedation with tolerance, somnolence, ataxia, and respiratory and cardiovascular depression. 12.2 Pharmacodynamics Intrathecal Bolus Adult Patients The onset of action is generally one-half hour to one hour after an intrathecal bolus. Peak spasmolytic effect is seen at approximately four hours after dosing and effects may last four to eight hours. Onset, peak response, and duration of action may vary with individual patients depending on the dose and severity of symptoms. Pediatric Patients The onset, peak response and duration of action are similar to those seen in adult patients. Continuous Infusion Adult Patients Intrathecal baclofen's antispastic action is first seen at 6 to 8 hours after initiation of continuous infusion. Maximum activity is observed in 24 to 48 hours. Pediatric Patients No additional information on continuous infusions is available for pediatric patients. 12.3 Pharmacokinetics The pharmacokinetics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance of intrathecal baclofen calculated from intrathecal bolus or continuous infusion studies approximates CSF turnover, suggesting elimination is by bulk-flow removal of CSF. Intrathecal Bolus After a bolus lumbar injection of 50 mcg or 100 mcg intrathecal baclofen in seven patients, the average CSF elimination half-life was 1.51 hours over the first four hours and the average CSF clearance was approximately 30 mL/hour. Continuous Infusion The mean CSF clearance for intrathecal baclofen was approximately 30 mL/hour in a study involving ten patients on continuous intrathecal infusion. Concurrent plasma concentrations of baclofen during intrathecal administration are expected to be low (0 to 5 ng/mL). Limited pharmacokinetic data suggest that a lumbar-cisternal concentration gradient of about 4:1 is established along the neuroaxis during baclofen infusion. This is based upon simultaneous CSF sampling via cisternal and lumbar tap in 5 patients receiving continuous baclofen infusion at the lumbar level at doses associated with therapeutic efficacy; the interpatient variability was great. The gradient was not altered by position. Six pediatric patients (age 8 to 18 years) receiving continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion at doses of 77 to 400 mcg/day had plasma baclofen levels near or below 10 ng/mL.

Mechanism Of Action

12.1 Mechanism of Action The precise mechanism of action of baclofen as a muscle relaxant and antispasticity agent is not fully understood. Baclofen inhibits both monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflexes at the spinal level, possibly by decreasing excitatory neurotransmitter release from primary afferent terminals, although actions at supraspinal sites may also occur and contribute to its clinical effect. Baclofen is a structural analog of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and may exert its effects by stimulation of the GABA B receptor subtype. Baclofen when introduced directly into the intrathecal space permits effective CSF concentrations to be achieved with resultant plasma concentrations 100 times less than those occurring with oral administration. In people, as well as in animals, baclofen has been shown to have general CNS depressant properties as indicated by the production of sedation with tolerance, somnolence, ataxia, and respiratory and cardiovascular depression.

Pharmacodynamics

12.2 Pharmacodynamics Intrathecal Bolus Adult Patients The onset of action is generally one-half hour to one hour after an intrathecal bolus. Peak spasmolytic effect is seen at approximately four hours after dosing and effects may last four to eight hours. Onset, peak response, and duration of action may vary with individual patients depending on the dose and severity of symptoms. Pediatric Patients The onset, peak response and duration of action are similar to those seen in adult patients. Continuous Infusion Adult Patients Intrathecal baclofen's antispastic action is first seen at 6 to 8 hours after initiation of continuous infusion. Maximum activity is observed in 24 to 48 hours. Pediatric Patients No additional information on continuous infusions is available for pediatric patients.

Pharmacokinetics

12.3 Pharmacokinetics The pharmacokinetics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance of intrathecal baclofen calculated from intrathecal bolus or continuous infusion studies approximates CSF turnover, suggesting elimination is by bulk-flow removal of CSF. Intrathecal Bolus After a bolus lumbar injection of 50 mcg or 100 mcg intrathecal baclofen in seven patients, the average CSF elimination half-life was 1.51 hours over the first four hours and the average CSF clearance was approximately 30 mL/hour. Continuous Infusion The mean CSF clearance for intrathecal baclofen was approximately 30 mL/hour in a study involving ten patients on continuous intrathecal infusion. Concurrent plasma concentrations of baclofen during intrathecal administration are expected to be low (0 to 5 ng/mL). Limited pharmacokinetic data suggest that a lumbar-cisternal concentration gradient of about 4:1 is established along the neuroaxis during baclofen infusion. This is based upon simultaneous CSF sampling via cisternal and lumbar tap in 5 patients receiving continuous baclofen infusion at the lumbar level at doses associated with therapeutic efficacy; the interpatient variability was great. The gradient was not altered by position. Six pediatric patients (age 8 to 18 years) receiving continuous intrathecal baclofen infusion at doses of 77 to 400 mcg/day had plasma baclofen levels near or below 10 ng/mL.

Effective Time

20210624

Version

1

Dosage Forms And Strengths

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Baclofen injection, USP is a sterile, nonpyrogenic, isotonic solution free of antioxidants, preservatives or other potentially neurotoxic additives indicated only for intrathecal administration. The drug is stable in solution at 37°C and compatible with CSF. Each milliliter of baclofen injection contains baclofen USP 1,000 mcg and sodium chloride 9 mg in Water for Injection; pH range is 5.5 to 7.5. Each vial is intended for single use only. Discard any unused portion. Do not autoclave. Injection: 1,000 mcg per mL ( 3 )

Spl Product Data Elements

Baclofen Baclofen Baclofen Baclofen Sodium Chloride Water Nitrogen

Carcinogenesis And Mutagenesis And Impairment Of Fertility

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenesis No increase in tumors was seen in rats receiving baclofen orally for two years. Mutagenesis Mutagenicity assays with baclofen have not been performed. Impairment of Fertility Studies to assess the potential for adverse effects of baclofen on fertility have not been conducted.

Nonclinical Toxicology

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY 13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenesis No increase in tumors was seen in rats receiving baclofen orally for two years. Mutagenesis Mutagenicity assays with baclofen have not been performed. Impairment of Fertility Studies to assess the potential for adverse effects of baclofen on fertility have not been conducted.

Application Number

ANDA210315

Brand Name

Baclofen

Generic Name

Baclofen

Product Ndc

25021-680

Product Type

HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG

Route

INTRATHECAL

Package Label Principal Display Panel

PACKAGE LABEL – PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL – Vial Label NDC 25021-680-20 Rx only Baclofen Injection, USP 20,000 mcg per 20 mL (1,000 mcg per mL) For Intrathecal Use Only 20 mL Single-Dose Vial Discard unused portion PACKAGE LABEL – PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL – Vial Label

Information For Patients

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION Risks Related to Sudden Withdrawal of Baclofen Injection Advise patients and caregivers that sudden withdrawal of baclofen injection, regardless of the cause, can result in serious complications that include high fever, confusion, muscle stiffness, multiple organ-system failure, and death. Inform patients that early symptoms of baclofen injection withdrawal may include increased spasticity, itching, and tingling of extremities. If baclofen injection withdrawal or a pump malfunction is suspected, patients should be brought immediately to a hospital for assessment and treatment. Inform patients and caregivers that sudden withdrawal occurs most frequently due to a delivery problem with the catheter or the pump, or failure to refill the pump on schedule. Advise patients and their caregivers to pay careful attention to infusion system alarms. Instruct patients and caregivers that if they miss their scheduled pump refill, they should immediately contact their physician to reschedule the refill before the pump runs out of drug. Baclofen Injection Overdose Inform patients and their caregivers that baclofen injection overdose may occur suddenly or insidiously, and that symptoms may include confusion, drowsiness, lightheadedness, dizziness, slow or shallow breathing, seizures, loss of muscle tone, loss of consciousness, and coma. If an overdose appears likely, patients should be brought immediately to a hospital for assessment and possible emptying of the pump. Operation of Automobiles and Other Dangerous Machinery Advise patients that baclofen injection may cause drowsiness, and that they should exercise caution regarding the operation of automobiles or other dangerous machinery, or activities made hazardous by decreased alertness. Increased Risk of Drowsiness with Alcohol and Other CNS Depressants Inform patients and their caregivers that the drowsiness associated with baclofen injection use can be worsened by alcohol and other CNS depressants. Advise patients to read all medicine labels carefully, and to tell their physician about all prescription and nonprescription drugs they may use. Trademarks are the property of their respective owners. SAGENT ® Mfd. for SAGENT Pharmaceuticals Schaumburg, IL 60195 (USA) Made in India ©2021 Sagent Pharmaceuticals, Inc. June 2021 SAGENT Pharmaceuticals ®

Clinical Studies

14 CLINICAL STUDIES Spasticity of Spinal Cord Origin Evidence supporting the efficacy of intrathecal baclofen was obtained in randomized, controlled investigations that compared the effects of either a single intrathecal dose or a three day intrathecal infusion of intrathecal baclofen to placebo in patients with severe spasticity and spasms due to either spinal cord trauma or multiple sclerosis. Intrathecal baclofen was superior to placebo on both principal outcome measures employed: change from baseline in the Ashworth rating of spasticity and the frequency of spasms. Spasticity of Cerebral Origin The efficacy of intrathecal baclofen was investigated in three controlled clinical trials; two enrolled patients with cerebral palsy and one enrolled patients with spasticity due to previous brain injury. The first study, a randomized controlled cross-over trial of 51 patients with cerebral palsy, provided strong, statistically significant results; intrathecal baclofen was superior to placebo in reducing spasticity as measured by the Ashworth Scale. A second cross-over study was conducted in 11 patients with spasticity arising from brain injury. Despite the small sample size, the study yielded a nearly significant test statistic (p=0.066) and provided directionally favorable results. The last study, however, did not provide data that could be reliably analyzed.

Pediatric Use

8.4 Pediatric Use Children should be of sufficient body mass to accommodate the implantable pump for chronic infusion. Please consult pump manufacturer's manual for specific recommendations. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 4 have not been established.

Pregnancy

8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary There are no adequate data on the developmental risk associated with the use of baclofen injection in pregnant women. In animal studies, oral administration of baclofen to pregnant rats produced an increase in fetal malformations (see Data ) . There are no animal data on developmental risk associated with baclofen administered via continuous intrathecal infusion. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. Data Animal Data Baclofen given orally to pregnant rats has been shown to increase the incidence of omphaloceles (ventral hernias) in fetuses at a dose associated with maternal toxicity. This abnormality was not seen in mice or rabbits.

Use In Specific Populations

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: Based on animal data, may cause fetal harm ( 8.1 ) Pediatric use: Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 4 years have not been established ( 8.4 ) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary There are no adequate data on the developmental risk associated with the use of baclofen injection in pregnant women. In animal studies, oral administration of baclofen to pregnant rats produced an increase in fetal malformations (see Data ) . There are no animal data on developmental risk associated with baclofen administered via continuous intrathecal infusion. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. Data Animal Data Baclofen given orally to pregnant rats has been shown to increase the incidence of omphaloceles (ventral hernias) in fetuses at a dose associated with maternal toxicity. This abnormality was not seen in mice or rabbits. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There is insufficient information regarding levels of baclofen in milk of nursing mothers receiving baclofen injection. There are no adequate data on the effects of baclofen injection on the breastfed infant or on milk production. At recommended oral doses, baclofen is present in human milk and withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfed infants when maternal administration of baclofen is stopped or when breastfeeding is stopped. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for baclofen injection and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from baclofen injection or from the underlying maternal condition. 8.4 Pediatric Use Children should be of sufficient body mass to accommodate the implantable pump for chronic infusion. Please consult pump manufacturer's manual for specific recommendations. Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below the age of 4 have not been established.

How Supplied

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING Baclofen injection, USP* is a clear, colorless, isotonic solution consisting of the active ingredient, Baclofen USP, and the excipients Sodium Chloride USP and Water for Injection USP and is supplied in single-dose clear glass vials as follows: NDC Baclofen Injection, USP* (1,000 mcg per mL) Package Factor 25021-680-20 20,000 mcg per 20 mL Single-Dose Vial 1 vial per carton Sterile, Nonpyrogenic, Preservative-free. The container closure is not made with natural rubber latex. Storage Conditions Does not require refrigeration. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.] Do not freeze. Do not heat sterilize. *The USP osmolality specification is pending

How Supplied Table

NDCBaclofen Injection, USP* (1,000 mcg per mL)Package Factor
25021-680-20 20,000 mcg per 20 mL Single-Dose Vial 1 vial per carton

Storage And Handling

Storage Conditions Does not require refrigeration. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.] Do not freeze. Do not heat sterilize. *The USP osmolality specification is pending

Boxed Warning

WARNING: DO NOT DISCONTINUE ABRUPTLY Abrupt discontinuation of intrathecal baclofen, regardless of the cause, has resulted in sequelae that include high fever, altered mental status, exaggerated rebound spasticity, and muscle rigidity, that in rare cases has advanced to rhabdomyolysis, multiple organ-system failure and death. Prevention of abrupt discontinuation of intrathecal baclofen requires careful attention to programming and monitoring of the infusion system, refill scheduling and procedures, and pump alarms. Patients and caregivers should be advised of the importance of keeping scheduled refill visits and should be educated on the early symptoms of baclofen withdrawal. Special attention should be given to patients at apparent risk (e.g., spinal cord injuries at T-6 or above, communication difficulties, history of withdrawal symptoms from oral or intrathecal baclofen). Consult the technical manual of the implantable infusion system for additional post-implant clinician and patient information [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )] . WARNING: DO NOT DISCONTINUE ABRUPTLY See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning Abrupt discontinuation of intrathecal baclofen, regardless of the cause, has resulted in sequelae that include high fever, altered mental status, exaggerated rebound spasticity, and muscle rigidity, that in rare cases has advanced to rhabdomyolysis, multiple organ-system failure and death. Prevention of abrupt discontinuation of intrathecal baclofen requires careful attention to programming and monitoring of the infusion system, refill scheduling and procedures, and pump alarms. Patients and caregivers should be advised of the importance of keeping scheduled refill visits and should be educated on the early symptoms of baclofen withdrawal. Special attention should be given to patients at apparent risk (e.g., spinal cord injuries at T-6 or above, communication difficulties, history of withdrawal symptoms from oral or intrathecal baclofen). Consult the technical manual of the implantable infusion system for additional post-implant clinician and patient information. ( 5.4 )

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