Pharmacological strategies for managing pain in OA include paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), intra-articular treatments and opioid analgesics for severe cases. These treatments are often inadequate, particularly in older patients that are less able to deal with adverse events or who possess contraindicated comorbidities.
Adverse events include paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity, gastrointestinal toxicities from NSAIDs and the risk of falls, delirium and dependency from opioids1. There is consequently a medical need for long-lasting, effective and tolerable treatments for OA pain.
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