Treatment of Latent TB Infection and the Risk of Tuberculosis After Solid Organ Transplantation: Comprehensive Review
Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease may occur after treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI). Prompted by a case of reactivation TB disease in a solid organ transplant (SOT) recipient who received LTBI treatment, we reviewed the literature to examine outcomes, adverse effects, resistance, and treatment choices of tuberculosis after LTBI therapy.
Methods: MEDLINE and Web of Science from inception to 5/2019 were reviewed using key words “latent tuberculosis infection” and “SOT” or “transplantation.” The search yielded nine cases, 41 cohort studies and six randomized controlled trials (RCT).
Results: Cohort and RCT demonstrated significant reduction in TB disease among transplanted patients who received LTBI therapy; only 56/2651 (2.1%) SOT patients developed TB after LTBI therapy. Adverse drug reactions occurred in 149/1148 (12.9%) and 73/641 (11.4%) of cohort and RCT patients, respectively. Among liver recipients, 56/266 (21%) developed side effects, of which half (29/56, 51.8%) was INH‐related. There was no reported INH resistance.
Conclusions: Latent TB infection treatment is efficacious in SOT recipients at risk of TB disease. However, tuberculosis may still occur despite LTBI treatment. Hepatotoxicity associated with LTBI therapy is infrequent, although more commonly observed among liver recipients.
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