Androgen deprivation therapy in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients: Indications, treatment effects, and new predictive biomarkers.
Men with prostate cancer with positive margins, extraprostatic extension, positive lymph nodes, high prostate?specific antigen, or high Gleason Score are at high risk of recurrence following primary therapy. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), which includes medical/surgical castration, antiandrogen therapy, and combined androgen blockade, can be combined with primary therapy to shrink the tumor, reduce margin positivity, and reduce the risk of recurrence. However, many problems still remain, such as optimizing the application of ADT in the treatment of prostate cancer, for example, ideal patient population and optimal timing and duration of therapy. To investigate these problems, we searched PubMed for relevant publications on clinical studies of deprivation therapy for nonmetastatic prostate cancer. In this review, we discuss our findings on the role of ADT in the treatment of castrate?sensitive nonmetastatic prostate cancer and the adverse effects associated with ADT. We also examine the recent advances in new predictive biomarkers for ADT, many of which are currently in the exploratory phase. Overall, the addition of ADT to primary therapy improves outcomes for patients with intermediate? or high?risk prostate cancer.