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Predictors of Incident ESRD among Patients with Primary Hyperoxaluria Presenting Prior to Kidney Failure

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Published:6th Jan 2016
Author: Zhao F, Bergstralh EJ, Mehta RA, Vaughan LE, Olson JB, Seide BM et al.
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Ref.:Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2016 Jan 7;11(1):119-26.
Predictors of Incident ESRD among Patients with Primary Hyperoxaluria Presenting Prior to Kidney Failure

Background and objectives:
Overproduction of oxalate in patients with primary hyperoxaluria (PH) leads to calcium oxalate deposition in the kidney and ESRD in a substantial number of cases. However, the key determinants for renal outcome remain unclear. Thus, we performed a retrospective analysis to identify predictors for renal outcome among patients with PH participating in the Rare Kidney Stone Consortium (RKSC) PH Registry.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We characterized clinical and laboratory features of patients enrolled in the RKSC PH Registry. We assessed correlation between urinary measures and eGFR at diagnosis by Spearman rank correlation and estimated renal survival using the Kaplan-Meier method. We determined factors associated with renal survival by Cox proportional hazard models.

Results: Of 409 patients enrolled in the RKSC Registry as of March 2014, we excluded 112 patients who had ESRD at PH diagnosis from analysis. Among the remaining 297 patients, 65% had PH type 1, 12% had type 2, 13% had type 3, and 11% had unclassified PH. Median (25th, 75th percentile) age at PH diagnosis was 8.1 (4.0, 18.2) years with an eGFR of 73.0 (56.4, 97.5) ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and urinary oxalate excretion rate of 1.64 (1.11, 2.44) mmol/1.73 m(2) per 24 hours. During a median follow-up of 3.9 (1.0, 12.8) years, 59 (20%) patients developed ESRD. Urinary oxalate excretion at diagnosis stratified by quartile was strongly associated with incident ESRD (hazard ratio [HR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.4 to 7.9). During follow-up there was a significant association between urinary oxalate quartile (Q) and incident ESRD (Q4 versus Q1: HR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 9.3). This association remained even when adjusted for sex, age, and baseline eGFR (HR, 4.2; 95% CI, 1.6 to 10.8).

Conclusions: Among patients with PH, higher urinary oxalate excretion is predictive of poor renal outcome.

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