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Staged versus concurrent native nephrectomy and renal transplantation in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: A systematic review

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Published:1st Jan 2022
Author: Xu J, D'Souza K, Lau NS, Leslie S, Lee T, Yao J et al.
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Ref.:Transplant Rev (Orlando). 2022 Jan;36(1):100652.
Staged versus concurrent native nephrectomy and renal transplantation in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: A systematic review

Patients with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD) frequently undergo native nephrectomy before transplantation. The nephrectomy may be a staged procedure or undertaken simultaneously with transplantation. When performed simultaneously, the transplant procedure is more prolonged, involves a larger operative field and incision. There is also a concern of a greater risk of graft loss with simultaneous nephrectomy and transplantation. Moreover, staged surgery may allow nephrectomy to be performed before immunosuppression introduction via a smaller incision or involving a minimally invasive approach. However, staged nephrectomy may require a period of dialysis not otherwise necessary if a transplant and nephrectomy were simultaneous. Moreover, only a single procedure is needed, implying the avoidance of a prior nephrectomy and its attendant morbidity in a patient with chronic renal insufficiency. To account for these issues, this study aims to compare the cumulative morbidity of two-staged procedures versus a single simultaneous approach in term of morbidity and graft outcomes.

Objectives: This study aims to systematically review the literature to determine whether a staged or simultaneous approach to native nephrectomy in ADPKD is the optimal approach in terms of morbidity and graft outcomes.

Methods: A literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted to identify published systematic reviews, randomized control trials, case-controlled studies and case studies. Data comparing outcomes of staged and simultaneous nephrectomy for patients undergoing kidney transplantation was extracted and analyzed. The main outcomes analyzed were length of hospitalization, blood loss, operative time, other early postoperative complications and risk of graft thrombosis. Meta-analysis was conducted where appropriate.

Results: Seven retrospective cohort studies were included in the review. There was a total of 385 patients included in the analysis, of whom 273 patients underwent simultaneous native nephrectomy and kidney transplantation. Meta-analysis showed an increased cumulative operative time in staged procedures (RR 1.86;95% CI 0.43-3.29 p = 0.01) and increased risk of blood transfusions (RR 2.69; 95% CI 1.92-3.46 p < 0.00001). For the transplant procedure, there were no significant difference in the length of stay (RR 1.03; 95% CI -2.01-4.14 p = 0.52), major postoperative complications (RR 0.02; 95% CI -0.15-0.10 p = 0.74) and vascular thromboses (RR 1.42 95% CI 0.23-8.59 p = 0.7).

Conclusion: The results suggest that staged nephrectomy followed by kidney transplantation is associated with a longer cumulative operative time and increased cumulative risk of blood transfusions. There is no evidence to suggest that performing a simultaneous nephrectomy and kidney transplant procedure increases the perioperative mortality rate, major postoperative complication rates or risk of vascular thrombosis.

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