Anti-IgE treatment in allergic rhinitis.
Anti-IgE treatment in allergic rhinitis
Objectives: To review the efficacy of anti-IgE therapy in allergic rhinitis (AR).
Methods: Literature search was performed using the PubMed and Proquest Central databases at K?r?kkale University Library.
Results: Although the skin prick testing in patients suffering from AR is positive (indicating that antigen-specific Immunoglobulin E has been produced), there is no association with overall circulating IgE levels. Correlation was lacking between circulating IgE level and either skin prick tests or laboratory testing for specific IgE. Omalizumab binds to uncomplexed IgE in man more avidly than does Fc-epsilon. The effect of omalizumab is to lower the level of IgE and downgrade production of FceRI receptors (which bind IgE) in mast cells and basophils, causing less mast cell recruitment and responsivity and thus diminishing eosinophilic infiltration and activation. Anti-IgE therapy through omalizumab may shorten the lifetime of mast cells and causes dendritic cells to downgrade their production of FcεRI. There are reports indicating benefit from omalizumab in managing food allergies, nasal polyp formation, essential anaphylaxis, AR, venom allergy and eczema. Omalizumab acts to lessen circulating IgE levels, whilst reducing production of FceRI by mast cells and basophils. The fact that omalizumab influences how eosinophils respond may be down to disruption of the antigen-IgE-mast cell interactions, with mast cells being recruited at lower levels and thus chemotactic eosinophilic recruitment via cytokines being greatly reduced. Omalizumab has the effect in cases of perennial AR of blocking the increased eosinophilic recruitment and tissue infiltration initiated by seasonal antigens. Likewise, in omalizumab-treated cases, circulating unbound IgE levels showed significant decreases. For patients with perennial AR, the average daily nasal severity score was significantly reduced where omalizumab was administered, compared to placebo.
Conclusion: Omalizumab has efficacy in ameliorating symptoms and reduces the necessity for additional medication in both seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis