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Fibrinogen levels in trauma patients during the first seven days after fibrinogen concentrate therapy: a retrospective study.

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Published:12th Mar 2016
Author: Schlimp CJ, Ponschab M, Voelckel W, Treichl B, Maegele M, Schöchl H.
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Ref.:Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2016;24:29.

Background: Fibrinogen concentrate (FC) is increasingly used as first line therapy in bleeding trauma patients. It remains unproven whether FC application increases post-traumatic plasma fibrinogen concentration (FIB) in injured patients, possibly constituting a prothrombotic risk. Thus, we investigated the evolution of FIB following trauma in patients with or without FC therapy.

Methods: At the AUVA Trauma Centre, Salzburg, we performed a retrospective study of patients admitted to the emergency room and whose FIB levels were documented thereafter up to day 7 post-trauma. Patients were categorized into those with (treatment group) or without (control group) FC therapy during the first 24 h after hospital admission. A subgroup analysis was carried out to investigate the influence of the amount of FC given.

Results: The study enrolled 435 patients: treatment group, n = 242 (56 %); control group, n = 193 (44 %), with median Injury Severity Score of 34 vs. 22 (P < 0.001) and massive transfusion rate of 18.4 % vs. 0.2 % (P < 0.001). In the treatment group (median FC dose 6 g), FIB was lower on admission and up to day 2 compared with the control group. In patients receiving high (≥10 g) doses of FC, FIB was lower up to day 5 as compared to controls. At other timepoints, FIB did not differ significantly between the groups. In the treatment vs. the control group, other coagulation parameters such as prothrombin time index and platelet count were consistently lower, while activated partial thromboplastin time was consistently prolonged at most timepoints. Inflammatory parameters such as C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and procalcitonin were generally lower in controls.

Discussion: The rise of FIB levels from day 2 onwards in our study can be attributed to an upregulated fibrinogen synthesis in the liver, occurring in both study groups as part of the acute phase response after tissue injury.

Conclusions: The treatment of severe trauma patients with FC during bleeding management in the first 24 h after hospital admission does not lead to higher FIB levels post-trauma beyond that occurring naturally due to the acute phase response.

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