Emergent reversal of vitamin K antagonists: addressing all the factors.
Reversal of warfarin-induced coagulopathy after traumatic injury may be done exclusively with prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs). No direct comparisons between different PCC regimens exist to guide clinical decision-making. Our institution has used 2 distinct PCC strategies for warfarin reversal; a 3-Factor PCC (Profilnine) combined with activated Factor VII (3F-PCC+rVIIa), and a 4-Factor PCC (Kcentra) given without additional factor supplementation.
Retrospective review of all PCC administrations to trauma patients with acute bleeding who were taking warfarin before injury. Primary endpoints were international normalized ratio (INR) reduction, in-hospital mortality, and diagnosis of deep venous thrombosis (DVT).
Eighty-seven patients were identified from 2011 to 2015. Fifty-three were treated with 3F-PCC+rVIIa and 34 with 4F-PCC. Patient demographics, injury severity, and presenting laboratory data were similar. The 3F-PCC+rVIIa produced a lower median (IQR) INR postreversal compared with 4F-PCC (.75 (.69, 1.00) vs 1.28 (1.13, 1.36), P<.001). Both regimens were able to obtain an INR lower than 1.5 immediately after administration (3F+rVIIA 93.9% vs 4F 97.1%, P =.51). In the 4F-PCC group, there was a significant decrease in the incidence of DVT (2.9% vs 22.6%), P < .01), and a nonsignificant reduction in mortality (2.9% vs 17.0%, P = .08).
Use of 4F-PCC for warfarin reversal after traumatic hemorrhage is associated with a less severe decrease in INR, a significant reduction in DVT rates and a trend toward reduced mortality when compared with similar patients treated with 3F-PCC+rVIIa.