Type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus: A review on current treatment approach and gene therapy as potential intervention.
Type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus: A review on current treatment approach and gene therapy as potential intervention
Type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus is a serious and lifelong condition commonly characterised by abnormally elevated blood glucose levels due to a failure in insulin production or a decrease in insulin sensitivity and function. Over the years, prevalence of diabetes has increased globally and it is classified as one of the leading cause of high mortality and morbidity rate. Furthermore, diabetes confers a huge economic burden due to its management costs as well as its complications are skyrocketing. The conventional medications in diabetes treatment focusing on insulin secretion and insulin sensitisation cause unwanted side effects to patients and lead to incompliance as well as treatment failure. Besides insulin and oral hypoglycaemic agents, other treatments such as gene therapy and induced β-cells regeneration have not been widely introduced to manage diabetes. Therefore, this review aims to deliver an overview of the current conventional medications in diabetes, discovery of newer pharmacological drugs and gene therapy as a potential intervention of diabetes in the future.