Lixisenatide: A New Daily GLP-1 Agonist for Type 2 Diabetes Management.
Objective: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), lixisenatide, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Data sources: A PubMed (1966-2016) search was conducted using the following keywords: lixisenatide, AVE0010, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist, and type 2 diabetes. References were reviewed to identify additional sources.
Study selection and data extraction: Articles written in English were included if they evaluated the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, or safety of lixisenatide in human subjects.
Data synthesis: Lixisenatide lowers blood glucose through a glucose-dependent increase in insulin release from pancreatic β-cells and a decreased release of glucagon from pancreatic α-cells. Additionally, lixisenatide delays gastric emptying and increases satiety. Lixisenatide has been studied head to head against exenatide and insulin glulisine. It has also been studied as monotherapy and in combination with metformin, sulfonylureas, pioglitazone, and insulin glargine. In the GetGoal clinical trial series, lixisenatide resulted in a hemoglobin A1C reduction of 0.6% to 1% and a reduction in body weight of 0.2 to 2.96 kg. The adverse effect profile of lixisenatide was consistent with that of other GLP-1RAs, with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea most commonly reported.
Conclusion: Lixisenatide provides an additional GLP-1RA option, which may have more postprandial blood glucose-lowering effects than the other agents in the class because of its shorter half-life and effects on delaying gastric emptying.