This site is intended for healthcare professionals
  • Home
  • /
  • Journals
  • /
  • Complications of surgical procedures or medical ca...
  • /
  • Randomized clinical trial of immersive virtual rea...

Randomized clinical trial of immersive virtual reality tour of the operating theatre in children before anaesthesia.

Read time: 1 mins
Published:1st Nov 2017
Author: Ryu JH, Park SJ, Park JW, Kim JW, Yoo HJ, Kim TW.
Availability: Pay for access, or by subscription
Ref.:Br J Surg. 2017;104(12):1628-1633.

Background: A virtual reality (VR) tour of the operating theatre before anaesthesia could provide a realistic experience for children. This study was designed to determine whether a preoperative VR tour could reduce preoperative anxiety in children.

Methods: Children scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia were randomized into a control or VR group. The control group received conventional information regarding anaesthesia and surgery. The VR group watched a 4-min video showing Pororo, the famous little penguin, visiting the operating theatre and explaining what is in it. The main outcome was preoperative anxiety, assessed using the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale (m-YPAS) before entering the operating theatre. Secondary outcomes included induction compliance checklist (ICC) and procedural behaviour rating scale (PBRS) scores during anaesthesia.

Results: A total of 69 children were included in the analysis, 35 in the control group and 34 in the VR group. Demographic data and induction time were similar in the two groups. Children in the VR group had a significantly lower m-YPAS score than those in the control group (median 31·7 (i.q.r. 23·3-37·9) and 51·7 (28·3-63·3) respectively; P < 0·001). During anaesthesia, the VR group had lower ICC and PBRS scores than the control group.

Conclusion: This preoperative VR tour of the operating theatre was effective in alleviating preoperative anxiety and increasing compliance during induction of anaesthesia in children undergoing elective surgery. Registration number: UMIN000025232 (

Read abstract on library site

Access full article