Fibrinogen concentrates in hereditary fibrinogen disorders: Past, present and future.
Hereditary fibrinogen disorders (HFD) are rare coagulation disorders. Even if the spectrum of symptoms is broad depending on the sub?type, bleeding is the most common complication. Of the available sources of fibrinogen replacement, fibrinogen concentrate provides a safer and more effective option to treat and prevent bleeding. Recent clinical trials on established and new fibrinogen concentrates have increased our knowledge on the clinical pharmacology of these products, pointing out possible age and weight differences for dose adjustment. The efficacy of fibrinogen infusions has been demonstrated, especially for the management of acute bleeding with an excellent response based on investigator rating. The target fibrinogen levels in the setting of both minor and major surgeries have been better specified. The safety has been confirmed with a low number of adverse events but there still remains concern over possible thrombotic risks. Pharmacological, clinical aspects and future perspectives on the utilization of fibrinogen concentrates in the treatment and prevention of bleeding in patients with HFD are reviewed.