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Advances in bladder cancer biology and therapy

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Published:1st Feb 2021
Author: Tran L, Xiao JF, Agarwal N, Duex JE, Theodorescu D.
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Ref.:Nat Rev Cancer. 2021 Feb;21(2):104-121.
Advances in bladder cancer biology and therapy

The field of research in bladder cancer has seen significant advances in recent years. Next-generation sequencing has identified the genes most mutated in bladder cancer. This wealth of information allowed the definition of driver mutations, and identification of actionable therapeutic targets, as well as a clearer picture of patient prognosis and therapeutic direction. In a similar vein, our understanding of the cellular aspects of bladder cancer has grown. The identification of the cellular geography and the populations of different cell types and quantifications of normal and abnormal cell types in tumours provide a better prediction of therapeutic response. Non-invasive methods of diagnosis, including liquid biopsies, have seen major advances as well. These methods will likely find considerable utility in assessing minimal residual disease following treatment and for early-stage diagnosis. A significant therapeutic impact on patients with bladder cancer is found in the use of immune checkpoint inhibitor therapeutics. These therapeutics have been shown to cure some patients with bladder cancer and significantly decrease adverse events. These developments provide patients with better monitoring opportunities, unique therapeutic options and greater hope for prolonged survival.

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