This site is intended for healthcare professionals
  • Home
  • /
  • Journals
  • /
  • Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency
  • /
  • Known Mutations at the Cause of Alpha-1 Antitrypsi...

Known Mutations at the Cause of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency an Updated Overview of SERPINA1 Variation Spectrum

Read time: 1 mins
Published:21st Mar 2021
Author: Seixas S, Marques PI.
Availability: Free full text
Ref.:Appl Clin Genet. 2021 Mar 22;14:173-194.
Known Mutations at the Cause of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency an Updated Overview of SERPINA1 Variation Spectrum

Alpha-1-Antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), caused by SERPINA1 mutations, is one of the most prevalent Mendelian disorders among individuals of European descend. However, this condition, which is characterized by reduced serum levels of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) and associated with increased risks of pulmonary emphysema and liver disease in both children and adults, remains frequently underdiagnosed. AATD clinical manifestations are often correlated with two pathogenic variants, the Z allele (p.Glu342Lys) and the S allele (p.Glu264Val), which can be combined in severe ZZ or moderate SZ risk genotypes. Yet, screenings of AATD cases and large sequencing efforts carried out in both control and disease populations are disclosing outstanding numbers of rare SERPINA1 variants (>500), including many pathogenic and other likely deleterious mutations. Generally speaking, pathogenic variants can be subdivided into either loss- or gain-of-function according to their pathophysiological effects. In AATD, the loss-of-function is correlated with an uncontrolled activity of elastase by its natural inhibitor, the AAT. This phenomenon can result from the absence of circulating AAT (null alleles), poor AAT secretion from hepatocytes (deficiency alleles) or even from a modified inhibitory activity (dysfunctional alleles). On the other hand, the gain-of-function is connected with the formation of AAT polymers and their switching on of cellular stress and inflammatory responses (deficiency alleles). Less frequently, the gain-of-function is related to a modified protease affinity (dysfunctional alleles). Here, we revisit SERPINA1 mutation spectrum, its origins and population history with a greater emphasis on variants fitting the aforementioned processes of AATD pathogenesis. Those were selected based on their clinical significance and wider geographic distribution. Moreover, we also provide some directions for future studies of AATD clinically heterogeneity and comprehensive diagnosis.

Read abstract on library site    Access full article