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FDA Drug information

POTASSIUM CHLORIDE

Read time: 2 mins
Marketing start date: 21 May 2024

Summary of product characteristics


Adverse Reactions

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The most common adverse reactions to oral potassium salts are nausea, vomiting, flatulence, abdominal pain/discomfort, and diarrhea. Most common adverse reactions are nausea, vomiting, flatulence, abdominal pain/discomfort, and diarrhea. ( 6 ) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Advagen Pharma Ltd, at 888-413-0949 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

Contraindications

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Potassium chloride is contraindicated in patients on potassium sparing diuretics. Concomitant use with potassium sparing diuretics. ( 4 )

Description

11 DESCRIPTION Potassium chloride, USP is a white to off white granular powder. It is freely soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. Chemically, Potassium Chloride is K-Cl with a molecular mass of 74.55. Oral Solution 10%: Each 15 mL of solution contains 1.5 g of potassium chloride, USP and the following inactive ingredients: propylene glycol, glycerin, methylparaben, propylparaben, FD & C yellow #6, orange flavor, sucralose, citric acid anhydrous, sodium citrate dihydrate, purified water. Oral Solution 20%: Each 15 mL of solution contains 3.0 g of potassium chloride, USP and the following inactive ingredients: propylene glycol, glycerin, methylparaben, propylparaben, FD & C Yellow #6, orange flavor, sucralose, citric acid anhydrous, sodium citrate dihydrate, purified water.

Dosage And Administration

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Dilute prior to administration. ( 2.1 , 5.1 ) Monitor serum potassium and adjust dosage accordingly. ( 2.2 , 2.3 ) Treatment of hypokalemia: Adults: Initial doses range from 40-100 mEq/day in 2-5 divided doses: limit doses to 40 mEq per dose. Total daily dose should not exceed 200 mEq. ( 2.2 ) Pediatric patients aged birth to 16 years old: 2-4 mEq/kg/day in divided doses; not to exceed 1 mEq/kg as a single dose or 40 mEq whichever is lower; if deficits are severe or ongoing losses are great, consider intravenous therapy. Total daily dose should not exceed 100 mEq. ( 2.3 ) Maintenance or Prophylaxis of hypokalemia: Adults: Typical dose is 20 mEq per day. ( 2.2 ) Pediatric patients aged birth to 16 years old: typical dose is 1 mEq/kg/day. Do not exceed 3 mEq/kg/day.( 2.3 ) 2.1 Administration and Monitoring Monitoring Monitor serum potassium and adjust dosages accordingly. For treatment of hypokalemia, monitor potassium levels daily or more often depending on the severity of hypokalemia until they return to normal. Monitor potassium levels monthly to biannually for maintenance or prophylaxis. The treatment of potassium depletion, particularly in the presence of cardiac disease, renal disease, or acidosis requires careful attention to acid-base balance, volume status, electrolytes, including magnesium, sodium, chloride, phosphate, and calcium, electrocardiograms and the clinical status of the patient. Correct volume status, acid-base balance and electrolyte deficits as appropriate. Administration Dilute the potassium chloride solution with at least 4 ounces of cold water [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. Take with meals or immediately after eating. If serum potassium concentration is <2.5 mEq/L, use intravenous potassium instead of oral supplementation. 2.2 Adult Dosing Treatment of hypokalemia Daily dose range from 40 to 100 mEq. Give in 2 to 5 divided doses: limit doses to 40 mEq per dose. The total daily dose should not exceed 200 mEq in a 24 hour period. Maintenance or Prophylaxis Typical dose is 20 mEq per day. Individualize dose based upon serum potassium levels. Studies support the use of potassium replacement in digitalis toxicity. When alkalosis is present, normokalemia and hyperkalemia may obscure a total potassium deficit. The advisability of use of potassium replacement in the setting of hyperkalemia is uncertain. 2.3 Pediatric Dosing Treatment of hypokalemia Pediatric patients aged birth to 16 years old: The initial dose is 2 to 4 mEq/kg/day in divided doses; do not exceed as a single dose 1 mEq/kg or 40 mEq, whichever is lower; maximum daily doses should not exceed 100 mEq. If deficits are severe or ongoing losses are great, consider intravenous therapy. Maintenance or Prophylaxis Pediatric patients aged birth to 16 years old: Typical dose is 1 mEq/kg/day. Do not exceed 3 mEq/kg/day.

Indications And Usage

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Potassium chloride is indicated for the treatment and prophylaxis of hypokalemia with or without metabolic alkalosis, in patients for whom dietary management with potassium-rich foods or diuretic dose reduction are insufficient. Potassium chloride is indicated for the treatment and prophylaxis of hypokalemia with or without metabolic alkalosis, in patients for whom dietary management with potassium-rich foods or diuretic dose reduction are insufficient. ( 1 )

Overdosage

10 OVERDOSAGE 10.1 Symptoms The administration of oral potassium salts to persons with normal excretory mechanisms for potassium rarely causes serious hyperkalemia. However, if excretory mechanisms are impaired or if potassium is administered too rapidly potentially fatal hyperkalemia can result. Hyperkalemia is usually asymptomatic and may be manifested only by an increased serum potassium concentration (6.5–8.0 mEq/L) and characteristic electrocardiographic changes (peaking of T-waves, loss of P-waves, depression of S-T segment, and prolongation of the QT-interval). Late manifestations include muscle paralysis and cardiovascular collapse from cardiac arrest (9–12 mEq/L). 10.2 Treatment Treatment measures for hyperkalemia include the following: Monitor closely for arrhythmias and electrolyte changes. Eliminate foods and medications containing potassium and of any agents with potassium-sparing properties such as potassium-sparing diuretics, ARBS, ACE inhibitors, NSAIDS, certain nutritional supplements and many others. Administer intravenous calcium gluconate if the patient is at no risk or low risk of developing digitalis toxicity. Administer intravenously 300 to 500 mL/hr of 10% dextrose solution containing 10 to 20 units of crystalline insulin per 1000 mL. Correct acidosis, if present, with intravenous sodium bicarbonate. Use exchange resins, hemodialysis, or peritoneal dialysis. In patients who have been stabilized on digitalis, too rapid a lowering of the serum potassium concentration can produce digitalis toxicity.

Drug Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Potassium sparing diuretics: Avoid concomitant use ( 7.1 ) Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors: Monitor for hyperkalemia ( 7.2 ) Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory drugs: Monitor for hyperkalemia ( 7.3 ) 7.1 Potassium-Sparing Diuretics Use with potassium-sparing diuretics can produce severe hyperkalemia. Avoid concomitant use. 7.2 Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors Drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), spironolactone, eplerenone, or aliskiren produce potassium retention by inhibiting aldosterone production. Closely monitor potassium in patients receiving concomitant RAAS therapy. 7.3 Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) NSAIDS may produce potassium retention by reducing renal synthesis of prostaglandin E and impairing the renin-angiotensin system. Closely monitor potassium in patients on concomitant NSAIDs.

Clinical Pharmacology

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 12.1 Mechanism of Action The potassium ion (K+) is the principal intracellular cation of most body tissues. Potassium ions participate in a number of essential physiological processes including the maintenance of intracellular tonicity; the transmission of nerve impulses; the contraction of cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle; and the maintenance of normal renal function. The intracellular concentration of potassium is approximately 150 to 160 mEq per liter. The normal adult plasma concentration is 3.5 to 5 mEq per liter. An active ion transport system maintains this gradient across the plasma membrane. Potassium is a normal dietary constituent, and under steady-state conditions the amount of potassium absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract is equal to the amount excreted in the urine. The usual dietary intake of potassium is 50 to 100 mEq per day. 12.3 Pharmacokinetics Based on published literature, the rate of absorption and urinary excretion of potassium from KCl oral solution were higher during the first few hours after dosing relative to modified release KCl products. The bioavailability of potassium, as measured by the cumulative urinary excretion of K+ over a 24 hour post dose period, is similar for KCl solution and modified release products.

Mechanism Of Action

12.1 Mechanism of Action The potassium ion (K+) is the principal intracellular cation of most body tissues. Potassium ions participate in a number of essential physiological processes including the maintenance of intracellular tonicity; the transmission of nerve impulses; the contraction of cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle; and the maintenance of normal renal function. The intracellular concentration of potassium is approximately 150 to 160 mEq per liter. The normal adult plasma concentration is 3.5 to 5 mEq per liter. An active ion transport system maintains this gradient across the plasma membrane. Potassium is a normal dietary constituent, and under steady-state conditions the amount of potassium absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract is equal to the amount excreted in the urine. The usual dietary intake of potassium is 50 to 100 mEq per day.

Pharmacokinetics

12.3 Pharmacokinetics Based on published literature, the rate of absorption and urinary excretion of potassium from KCl oral solution were higher during the first few hours after dosing relative to modified release KCl products. The bioavailability of potassium, as measured by the cumulative urinary excretion of K+ over a 24 hour post dose period, is similar for KCl solution and modified release products.

Effective Time

20231224

Version

3

Dosage Forms And Strengths

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Oral Solution 10%: 1.3 mEq potassium per mL. Oral Solution 20%: 2.6 mEq potassium per mL. Oral Solution: 10%; 1.3 mEq potassium per mL ( 3 ) Oral Solution: 20%; 2.6 mEq potassium per mL ( 3 )

Spl Product Data Elements

POTASSIUM CHLORIDE POTASSIUM CHLORIDE GLYCERIN PROPYLENE GLYCOL METHYLPARABEN PROPYLPARABEN FD&C YELLOW NO. 6 SUCRALOSE ANHYDROUS CITRIC ACID TRISODIUM CITRATE DIHYDRATE WATER POTASSIUM CHLORIDE POTASSIUM CATION POTASSIUM CHLORIDE POTASSIUM CHLORIDE PROPYLENE GLYCOL GLYCERIN METHYLPARABEN PROPYLPARABEN FD&C YELLOW NO. 6 SUCRALOSE ANHYDROUS CITRIC ACID TRISODIUM CITRATE DIHYDRATE WATER POTASSIUM CHLORIDE POTASSIUM CATION

Application Number

ANDA214656

Brand Name

POTASSIUM CHLORIDE

Generic Name

POTASSIUM CHLORIDE

Product Ndc

72888-042

Product Type

HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG

Route

ORAL

Package Label Principal Display Panel

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - Potassium Chloride Oral Solution USP Potassium Chloride Oral Solution USP, 10% (20 mEq per 15 mL) - NDC 72888-041-13 Bottle of 473 mL Potassium Chloride Oral Solution USP, 20% (40 mEq per 15 mL) - NDC 72888-042-13 Bottle of 473 mL Potassium Chloride Oral Solution USP, 10% (20 mEq per 15 mL) - NDC 72888-041-13 Bottle of 473 mL Potassium Chloride Oral Solution USP, 20% (40 mEq per 15 mL) - NDC72888-042-13 Bottle of 473 mL

Spl Unclassified Section

Rx only Distributed by: Advagen Pharma Ltd 666 Plainsboro Road Suite 605 Plainsboro, NJ 08536, USA. Revision: 01/2021

Geriatric Use

8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical studies of Potassium Chloride did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Nursing Mothers

8.2 Lactation Risk Summary The normal potassium ion content of human milk is about 13 mEq per liter. Since oral potassium becomes part of the body potassium pool, so long as body potassium is not excessive, the contribution of potassium chloride supplementation should have little or no effect on the level in human milk.

Pediatric Use

8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of potassium chloride have been demonstrated in children with diarrhea and malnutrition from birth to 16 years.

Pregnancy

8.1 Pregnancy There are no human data related to use of Potassium Chloride during pregnancy, and animal studies have not been conducted. Potassium supplementation that does not lead to hyperkalemia is not expected to cause fetal harm. The background risk for major birth defects and miscarriage in the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.

Use In Specific Populations

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Cirrhosis: Initiate therapy at the low end of the dosing range ( 8.6 ) Renal Impairment: Initiate therapy at the low end of the dosing range ( 8.7 ) 8.1 Pregnancy There are no human data related to use of Potassium Chloride during pregnancy, and animal studies have not been conducted. Potassium supplementation that does not lead to hyperkalemia is not expected to cause fetal harm. The background risk for major birth defects and miscarriage in the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary The normal potassium ion content of human milk is about 13 mEq per liter. Since oral potassium becomes part of the body potassium pool, so long as body potassium is not excessive, the contribution of potassium chloride supplementation should have little or no effect on the level in human milk. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of potassium chloride have been demonstrated in children with diarrhea and malnutrition from birth to 16 years. 8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical studies of Potassium Chloride did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. 8.6 Cirrhotics Patients with cirrhosis should usually be started at the low end of the dosing range, and the serum potassium level should be monitored frequently. [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3 )] . 8.7 Renal Impairment Patients with renal impairment have reduced urinary excretion of potassium and are at substantially increased risk of hyperkalemia. Patients with impaired renal function, particularly if the patient is on ACE inhibitors, ARBs, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should usually be started at the low end of the dosing range because of the potential for development of hyperkalemia. The serum potassium level should be monitored frequently. Renal function should be assessed periodically.

How Supplied

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING Potassium Chloride Oral Solution, USP is available as clear, dark orange to orange colored solution, with orange flavor as follows: 10%: 20 mEq/15 mL oral solution NDC # 72888-041-13 Bottle of 473 mL Potassium Chloride Oral Solution, USP is available as clear, light orange to orange colored solution, with orange flavor as follows: 20%: 40 mEq/15 mL oral solution NDC # 72888-042-13 Bottle of 473 mL Storage Store at Controlled Room Temperature, 25°C (77°F); excursions are permitted to 15° - 30°C (59° - 86°F). Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP. PROTECT from LIGHT and FREEZING.

Storage And Handling

Storage Store at Controlled Room Temperature, 25°C (77°F); excursions are permitted to 15° - 30°C (59° - 86°F). Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP. PROTECT from LIGHT and FREEZING.

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