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FDA Drug information

EPINEPHRINE

Read time: 1 mins
Marketing start date: 24 Jun 2024

Summary of product characteristics


Adverse Reactions

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Most common adverse reactions to systemically administered epinephrine are headache; anxiety; apprehensiveness; restlessness; tremor; weakness; dizziness; sweating; palpitations; pallor; peripheral coldness; nausea/vomiting; and/or respiratory difficulties. Arrhythmias, including fatal ventricular fibrillation, rapid rises in blood pressure producing cerebral hemorrhage, and angina have occurred. To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact BPI Labs, LLC at (727) 471-0850 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. The following adverse reactions associated with the infusion of epinephrine were identified in the literature. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency reliably or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Cardiovascular disorders : tachycardia, supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular arrhythmias, myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarction, limb ischemia, pulmonary edema Gastrointestinal disorders : Nausea, vomiting General disorders and administrative site conditions : Chest pain, extravasation, Metabolic : hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, hypokalemia, lactic acidosis Nervous system disorders : Headache, nervousness, paresthesia, tremor, stroke, central nervous system bleeding Psychiatric disorders : Excitability Renal disorders : Renal insufficiency Respiratory : Pulmonary edema, rales Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders : Diaphoresis, pallor, piloerection, skin blanching, skin necrosis with extravasation

Contraindications

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS None None

Description

11 DESCRIPTION Epinephrine Injection USP is a clear, colorless, sterile solution containing 1 mg/mL epinephrine, packaged as a 1 mL solution in a 1 mL single dose syringe. Each mL of Epinephrine Injection, USP solution contains 1 mg epinephrine, 8.6 mg sodium chloride, 0.5 mg sodium metabisulfite, hydrochloric acid for pH adjustment and water for injection. The pH range is 2.2-5.0. Solution must be diluted prior to intravenous use. Epinephrine is a sympathomimetic catecholamine. The chemical name of epinephrine is: 1,2- Benzenediol, 4-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]-, or (-)-3,4-Dihydroxy- α -[2- (methylamino)ethyl]benzyl alcohol. The chemical structure of epinephrine is: The molecular weight of epinephrine is 183.2. Epinephrine solution deteriorates rapidly on exposure to air or light, turning pink from oxidation to adrenochrome and brown from the formation of melanin. structure

Dosage And Administration

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Hypotension associated with septic shock (2.2): o Dilute epinephrine in dextrose solution prior to infusion. o Infuse epinephrine into a large vein. o Titrate 0.05 mcg/kg/min to 2 mcg/kg/min to achieve desired blood pressure. o Wean gradually 2.1 General Considerations Inspect visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. Do not use if the solution is colored or cloudy, or if it contains particulate matter. Discard any unused portion. 2.2 Hypotension associated with Septic Shock Dilute epinephrine in 5 percent dextrose solution or 5 percent dextrose and sodium chloride solution. These dextrose containing fluids provide protection against significant loss of potency by oxidation. Administration in saline solution alone is not recommended . Whole blood or plasma, if indicated to increase blood volume, should be administered separately. Add 1 mL (1 mg) of epinephrine from its Syringe to 1,000 mL of a 5 percent dextrose containing solution. Each mL of this dilution contains 1 mcg of epinephrine. Correct blood volume depletion as fully as possible before any vasopressor is administered. When, as an emergency measure, intraaortic pressures must be maintained to prevent cerebral or coronary artery ischemia, epinephrine can be administered before and concurrently with blood volume replacement. Whenever possible, give infusions of epinephrine into a large vein. Avoid using a catheter tie-in technique, because the obstruction to blood flow around the tubing may cause stasis and increased local concentration of the drug. Occlusive vascular diseases (for example, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, diabetic endarteritis, Buerger’s disease) are more likely to occur in the lower than in the upper extremity; therefore, avoid the veins of the leg in elderly patients or in those suffering from such disorders. There is potential for gangrene in a lower extremity when infusions of catecholamine are given in an ankle vein. To provide hemodynamic support in septic shock associated hypotension in adult patients, the suggested dosing infusion rate of intravenously administered epinephrine is 0.05 mcg/kg/min to 2 mcg/kg/min, and is titrated to achieve a desired mean arterial pressure (MAP). The dosage may be adjusted periodically, such as every 10 to 15 minutes, in increments of 0.05 mcg/kg/min to 0.2 mcg/kg/min, to achieve the desired blood pressure goal. Continuous epinephrine infusion is generally required over several hours or days until the patient’s hemodynamic status improves. The duration of perfusion or total cumulative dose cannot be predicted. After hemodynamic stabilization, wean incrementally over time, such as by decreasing doses of epinephrine every 30 minutes over a 12- to 24-hour period.

Indications And Usage

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Epinephrine is a non-selective alpha and beta adrenergic agonist indicated: To increase mean arterial blood pressure in adult patients with hypotension associated with septic shock. (1.1) 1.1 Hypotension associated with Septic Shock Epinephrine Injection USP, 1 mg/mL is indicated to increase mean arterial blood pressure in adult patients with hypotension associated with septic shock.

Overdosage

10 OVERDOSAGE Overdosage of epinephrine may produce extremely elevated arterial pressure, which may result in cerebrovascular hemorrhage, particularly in elderly patients. Overdosage may also result in pulmonary edema because of peripheral vascular constriction together with cardiac stimulation. Epinephrine overdosage may also cause transient bradycardia followed by tachycardia and these may be accompanied by potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Premature ventricular contractions may appear within one minute after injection and may be followed by multifocal ventricular tachycardia (prefibrillation rhythm). Subsidence of the ventricular effects may be followed by atrial tachycardia and occasionally by atrioventricular block. Myocardial ischemia and infarction, cardiomyopathy, extreme pallor and coldness of the skin, metabolic acidosis due to elevated blood lactic acid levels, and renal insufficiency and failure have also been reported. Epinephrine is rapidly inactivated in the body and treatment following overdose is primarily supportive. Treatment of pulmonary edema consists of a rapidly acting alpha-adrenergic blocking drug (such as phentolamine mesylate) and respiratory support. Treatment of arrhythmias consists of administration of a beta-adrenergic blocking drug (such as propranolol). If necessary, pressor effects may be counteracted by rapidly acting vasodilators (such as nitrites) or alpha-adrenergic blocking drugs. If prolonged hypotension follows such measures, it may be necessary to administer another pressor drug.

Drug Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Drugs antagonizing pressor effects of epinephrine α-blockers, such as phentolamine Vasodilators, such as nitrates Diuretics Antihypertensives Ergot alkaloids Drugs potentiating pressor effects of epinephrine Sympathomimetics β-blockers, such as propranolol Tricyclic anti-depressants Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitors, such as entacapone Clonidine Doxapram Oxytocin Drugs potentiating arrhythmogenic effects of epinephrine Patients who are concomitantly receiving any of the following drugs should be observed carefully for the development of cardiac arrhythmias [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) and Adverse Reactions (6) ]. β-blockers, such as propranolol Cyclopropane or halogenated hydrocarbon anesthetics, such as halothane Antihistamines Thyroid hormones Diuretics Cardiac glycosides, such as digitalis glycosides Quinidine Drugs potentiating hypokalemic effects of epinephrine Potassium depleting diuretics Corticosteroids Theophylline Epinephrine should not be used to counteract circulatory collapse or hypotension caused by phenothiazines, as a reversal of the pressor effects of epinephrine may result in further lowering of blood pressure. Epinephrine may antagonize the neuronal blockade produced by guanethidine resulting in decreased antihypertensive effect and requiring increased dosage of the latter. Drugs that counter the pressor effects of epinephrine include alpha blockers, vasodilators such as nitrates, diuretics, antihypertensives, and ergot alkaloids. (7) Drugs that potentiate the effects of epinephrine include sympathomimetics, beta blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, MAO inhibitors, COMT inhibitors, clonidine, doxapram, oxytocin, levothyroxine sodium, and certain antihistamines. (7) Drugs that increase the arrhythmogenic potential of epinephrine include beta blockers, cyclopropane and halogenated hydrocarbon anesthetics, quinidine, antihistamines, exogenous thyroid hormones, diuretics, and cardiac glycosides. Observe for development of cardiac arrhythmias. (7) Potassium-depleting drugs, including corticosteroids, diuretics, and theophylline, potentiate the hypokalemic effects of epinephrine. (7)

Clinical Pharmacology

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 12.1 Mechanism of Action Epinephrine acts on both alpha (α)- and beta (β)-adrenergic receptors. The mechanism of the rise in blood pressure is 3-fold: a direct myocardial stimulation that increases the strength of ventricular contraction (positive inotropic action), an increased heart rate (positive chronotropic action), and peripheral vasoconstriction. 12.2 Pharmacodynamics Intravenous use for hypotension associated with septic shock Following intravenous administration of epinephrine, increases in systolic blood pressure and heart rate are observed. Decreases in systemic vascular resistance and diastolic blood pressure are observed at low doses of epinephrine because of β 2 -mediated vasodilation, but are overtaken by α 1 -mediated peripheral vasoconstriction at higher doses leading to increase in diastolic blood pressure. The onset of blood pressure increase following an intravenous dose of epinephrine is < 5 minutes and the time to offset blood pressure response occurs within 20 min. Most vascular beds are constricted including renal, splanchnic, mucosal and skin. 12.3 Pharmacokinetics When administered parenterally, epinephrine has a rapid onset and short duration of action. Following intravenous injection, epinephrine is rapidly cleared from the plasma with an effective half-life of < 5 min. A pharmacokinetic steady state following continuous intravenous infusion is achieved within 10-15 min. In patients with septic shock, epinephrine displays dose-proportional pharmacokinetics in the infusion dose range of 0.03 to 1.7 mcg/kg/min. Epinephrine is extensively metabolized with only a small amount excreted unchanged. Epinephrine is rapidly degraded to vanillylmandelic acid, an inactive metabolite, by monoamine oxidase and catechol-O-methyltransferase that are abundantly expressed in the liver, kidneys and other extraneuronal tissues. The tissues with the highest contribution to removal of circulating exogenous epinephrine are the liver (32%), kidneys (25%), skeletal muscle (20%), and mesenteric organs (12%). Special Populations Elderly In a pharmacokinetic study of 45-minute epinephrine infusions given to healthy men aged 20 to 25 years and healthy men aged 60 to 65 years, the mean plasma metabolic clearance rate of epinephrine at steady state was greater among the older men (144.8 versus 78 mL/kg/min for a 14.3 ng/kg/min infusion). Body Weight Body weight has been found to influence epinephrine pharmacokinetics. Higher body weight was associated with a higher plasma epinephrine clearance and a lower concentration plateau.

Effective Time

20231005

Version

2

Dosage Forms And Strengths

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Injection solution: 1 mg/mL epinephrine as a sterile solution in a 1 mL glass syringe, marked Epinephrine Injection USP, 1 mg/mL. Injection solution: 1 mg/mL Syringe.

Spl Product Data Elements

EPINEPHRINE EPINEPHRINE SODIUM CHLORIDE SODIUM METABISULFITE HYDROCHLORIC ACID WATER EPINEPHRINE EPINEPHRINE

Nonclinical Toxicology

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY 13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Long-term studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of epinephrine have not been conducted. Epinephrine and other catecholamines have been shown to have mutagenic potential in vitro . Epinephrine was positive in the Salmonella bacterial reverse mutation assay, positive in the mouse lymphoma assay, and negative in the in vivo micronucleus assay. Epinephrine is an oxidative mutagen based on the E. coli WP2 Mutoxitest bacterial reverse mutation assay. This should not prevent the use of epinephrine under the conditions noted under the Indications and Usage. The potential for epinephrine to impair reproductive performance has not been evaluated, but epinephrine has been shown to decrease implantation in female rabbits dosed subcutaneously with 1.2 mg/kg/day (15-fold the highest human intramuscular or subcutaneous daily dose) during gestation days 3 to 9. 13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology Epinephrine was associated with metabolic effects, decreased mesentery, coronary and renal conductance in a sheep model of septic shock. Data from hemolysis study have shown that epinephrine at 1:1000 dilution is non-hemolytic. Epinephrine infusion significantly increased the MAP (69 vs. 86 mmHg) and cardiac output (6.4 vs. 7.1 L/min) and decreased renal blood flow (330 vs. 247 mL/min).

Application Number

NDA205029

Brand Name

EPINEPHRINE

Generic Name

EPINEPHRINE

Product Ndc

54288-117

Product Type

HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG

Route

INTRAVENOUS

Package Label Principal Display Panel

PACKAGE LABEL PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL label Carton

Clinical Studies

14 CLINICAL STUDIES 14.1 Hypotension associated with Septic Shock Fourteen clinical studies from the literature documented that epinephrine increases the mean arterial pressure (MAP) in patients with hypotension associated with septic shock.

Use In Specific Populations

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: May cause fetal harm (8.1) Elderly patients and pregnant women may be at greater risk of developing adverse reactions when epinephrine is administered parenterally. (8.1, 8.5) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Prolonged experience with epinephrine use in pregnant women over several decades, based on published literature, does not identify a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. However, there are risks to the mother and fetus associated with epinephrine use during labor or delivery (see Clinical Considerations ). In animal reproduction studies, epinephrine administered by the subcutaneous route to pregnant rabbits, mice, and hamsters, during the period of organogenesis, resulted in adverse developmental effects (including gastroschisis, embryonic lethality, and delayed skeletal ossification) at doses approximately 2 times the maximum recommended daily intramuscular, subcutaneous, or intravenous dose (see Data ). The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the United States general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk Hypotension associated with septic shock is a medical emergency in pregnancy which can be fatal if left untreated. Delaying treatment in pregnant women with hypotension associated with septic shock may increase the risk of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Life-sustaining therapy for the pregnant woman should not be withheld due to potential concerns regarding the effects of epinephrine on the fetus. Labor or Delivery Epinephrine usually inhibits spontaneous or oxytocin-induced contractions of the pregnant human uterus and may delay the second stage of labor. Avoid epinephrine during the second stage of labor. In dosage sufficient to reduce uterine contractions, the drug may cause a prolonged period of uterine atony with hemorrhage. Avoid epinephrine in obstetrics when maternal blood pressure exceeds 130/80 mmHg. Although epinephrine may improve maternal hypotension associated with septic shock and anaphylaxis, it may result in uterine vasoconstriction, decreased uterine blood flow, and fetal anoxia. Data Animal Data In an embryofetal development study with pregnant rabbits dosed during the period of organogenesis (on days 3 to 5, 6 to 7, or 7 to 9 of gestation), epinephrine caused teratogenic effects (including gastroschisis) at doses approximately 15 times the maximum recommended intramuscular, subcutaneous, or intravenous dose (on a mg/m 2 basis at a maternal subcutaneous dose of 1.2 mg/kg/day for 2 to 3 days). Animals treated on days 6 to 7 had decreased number of implantations. In an embryofetal development study, pregnant mice were administered epinephrine (0.1 to 10 mg/kg/day) on Gestation Days 6 to 15. Teratogenic effects, embryonic lethality, and delays in skeletal ossification were observed at approximately 3 times the maximum recommended intramuscular, subcutaneous, or intravenous dose (on a mg/m 2 basis at maternal subcutaneous dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 10 days). These effects were not seen in mice at approximately 2 times the maximum recommended daily intramuscular or subcutaneous dose (on a mg/m 2 basis at a subcutaneous maternal dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day for 10 days). In an embryofetal development study with pregnant hamsters dosed during the period of organogenesis from gestation days 7 to 10, epinephrine produced reductions in litter size and delayed skeletal ossification at doses approximately 2 times the maximum recommended intramuscular, subcutaneous, or intravenous dose (on a mg/m 2 basis at a maternal subcutaneous dose of 0.5 mg/kg/day). 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There is no information regarding the presence of epinephrine in human milk or the effects of epinephrine on the breastfed infant or on milk production. However, due to its poor oral bioavailability and short half-life, epinephrine exposure is expected to be very low in the breastfed infant. 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of epinephrine in pediatric patients with septic shock have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical studies of epinephrine for the treatment of hypotension associated with septic shock did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

How Supplied

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING Each carton contains 10 single-dose prefilled syringes containing 1 mL of a 1 mg/mL epinephrine injection, USP solution in a clear glass syringe. NDC 54288-117-10 10 Single-Dose Prefilled Syringes Containing 1 mL Epinephrine is light sensitive. Protect from light until ready to use. Do not refrigerate. Protect from freezing. Store at room temperature, between 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). (See USP Controlled Room Temperature.) Protect from alkalis and oxidizing agents. Inspect visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. Do not use the solution if it is colored or cloudy, or if it contains particulate matter. Revised: May 2023 Manufactured by: BPI Labs LLC 12393 Belcher Rd S, Suite 450, Largo, FL 33773 LI11I D-2304

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