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FDA Drug information

Divalproex Sodium

Read time: 6 mins
Marketing start date: 22 Jul 2024

Summary of product characteristics


Adverse Reactions

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Most common adverse reactions (reported > 5%) are abdominal pain, accidental injury, alopecia, amblyopia/blurred vision, amnesia, anorexia, asthenia, ataxia, back pain, bronchitis, constipation, depression, diarrhea, diplopia, dizziness, dyspepsia, dyspnea, ecchymosis, emotional lability, fever, flu syndrome, headache, increased appetite, infection, insomnia, nausea, nervousness, nystagmus, peripheral edema, pharyngitis, rash, rhinitis, somnolence, thinking abnormal, thrombocytopenia, tinnitus, tremor, vomiting, weight gain, weight loss, ( 6.1 , 6.2 , 6.3 ). The safety and tolerability of valproate in pediatric patients were shown to be comparable to those in adults ( 8.4 ). To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc. at 1- 877-993-8779 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling: Hepatic failure [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] Birth defects [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] Decreased IQ following in utero exposure [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 )] Pancreatitis [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5 )] Hyperammonemic encephalopathy [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6 , 5.9 , 5.10 )] Suicidal behavior and ideation [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.7 )] Bleeding and other hematopoietic disorders [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8 )] Hypothermia [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.11 )] Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS)/Multiorgan hypersensitivity reactions [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.12 )] Somnolence in the elderly [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.14 )] Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. 6.1 Mania The incidence of treatment-emergent events has been ascertained based on combined data from two three week placebo-controlled clinical trials of divalproex sodium in the treatment of manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder. The adverse reactions were usually mild or moderate in intensity, but sometimes were serious enough to interrupt treatment. In clinical trials, the rates of premature termination due to intolerance were not statistically different between placebo, divalproex sodium, and lithium carbonate. A total of 4%, 8% and 11% of patients discontinued therapy due to intolerance in the placebo, divalproex sodium, and lithium carbonate groups, respectively. Table 2 summarizes those adverse reactions reported for patients in these trials where the incidence rate in the divalproex sodium-treated group was greater than 5% and greater than the placebo incidence, or where the incidence in the divalproex sodium-treated group was statistically significantly greater than the placebo group. Vomiting was the only reaction that was reported by significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more patients receiving divalproex sodium compared to placebo. Table 2 Adverse Reactions Reported by > 5% of Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets-Treated Patients During Placebo-Controlled Trials of Acute Mania 1 1. The following adverse reactions occurred at an equal or greater incidence for placebo than for divalproex sodium: back pain, headache, constipation, diarrhea, tremor, and pharyngitis. Adverse Reaction Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets (N = 89) % Placebo (N = 97) % Nausea 22 15 Somnolence 19 12 Dizziness 12 4 Vomiting 12 3 Accidental Injury 11 5 Asthenia 10 7 Abdominal Pain 9 8 Dyspepsia 9 8 Rash 6 3 The following additional adverse reactions were reported by greater than 1% but not more than 5% of the 89 divalproex sodium-treated patients in controlled clinical trials: Body as a Whole Chest pain, chills, chills and fever, fever, neck pain, neck rigidity. Cardiovascular System Hypertension, hypotension, palpitations, postural hypotension, tachycardia, vasodilation. Digestive System Anorexia, fecal incontinence, flatulence, gastroenteritis, glossitis, periodontal abscess. Hemic and Lymphatic System Ecchymosis. Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders Edema, peripheral edema. Musculoskeletal System Arthralgia, arthrosis, leg cramps, twitching. Nervous System Abnormal dreams, abnormal gait, agitation, ataxia, catatonic reaction, confusion, depression, diplopia, dysarthria, hallucinations, hypertonia, hypokinesia, insomnia, paresthesia, reflexes increased, tardive dyskinesia, thinking abnormalities, vertigo. Respiratory System Dyspnea, rhinitis. Skin and Appendages Alopecia, discoid lupus erythematosus, dry skin, furunculosis, maculopapular rash, seborrhea. Special Senses Amblyopia, conjunctivitis, deafness, dry eyes, ear pain, eye pain, tinnitus. Urogenital System Dysmenorrhea, dysuria, urinary incontinence. 6.2 Epilepsy Based on a placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive therapy for treatment of complex partial seizures, divalproex sodium was generally well tolerated with most adverse reactions rated as mild to moderate in severity. Intolerance was the primary reason for discontinuation in the divalproex sodium-treated patients (6%), compared to 1% of placebo-treated patients. Table 3 lists treatment-emergent adverse reactions which were reported by ≥ 5% of divalproex sodium-treated patients and for which the incidence was greater than in the placebo group, in the placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive therapy for treatment of complex partial seizures. Since patients were also treated with other antiepilepsy drugs, it is not possible, in most cases, to determine whether the following adverse reactions can be ascribed to divalproex sodium alone, or the combination of divalproex sodium and other antiepilepsy drugs. Table 3 Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥ 5% of Patients Treated with Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets During Placebo-Controlled Trial of Adjunctive Therapy for Complex Partial Seizures Body System/Reaction Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets (N = 77) (%) Placebo (N = 70) (%) Body as a Whole Headache 31 21 Asthenia 27 7 Fever 6 4 Gastrointestinal System Nausea 48 14 Vomiting 27 7 Abdominal Pain 23 6 Diarrhea 13 6 Anorexia 12 0 Dyspepsia 8 4 Constipation 5 1 Nervous System Somnolence 27 11 Tremor 25 6 Dizziness 25 13 Diplopia 16 9 Amblyopia/Blurred Vision 12 9 Ataxia 8 1 Nystagmus 8 1 Emotional Lability 6 4 Thinking Abnormal 6 0 Amnesia 5 1 Respiratory System Flu Syndrome 12 9 Infection 12 6 Bronchitis 5 1 Rhinitis 5 4 Other Alopecia 6 1 Weight Loss 6 0 Table 4 lists treatment-emergent adverse reactions which were reported by ≥ 5% of patients in the high dose valproate group, and for which the incidence was greater than in the low dose group, in a controlled trial of divalproex sodium monotherapy treatment of complex partial seizures. Since patients were being titrated off another antiepilepsy drug during the first portion of the trial, it is not possible, in many cases, to determine whether the following adverse reactions can be ascribed to divalproex sodium alone, or the combination of valproate and other antiepilepsy drugs. Table 4 Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥ 5% of Patients in the High Dose Group in the Controlled Trial of Valproate Monotherapy for Complex Partial Seizures 1 1. Headache was the only adverse reaction that occurred in ≥ 5% of patients in the high dose group and at an equal or greater incidence in the low dose group. Body System/Reaction High Dose (N = 131) (%) Low Dose (N = 134) (%) Body as a Whole Asthenia 21 10 Digestive System Nausea 34 26 Diarrhea 23 19 Vomiting 23 15 Abdominal Pain 12 9 Anorexia 11 4 Dyspepsia 11 10 Hemic/Lymphatic System Thrombocytopenia 24 1 Ecchymosis 5 4 Metabolic/Nutritional Weight Gain 9 4 Peripheral Edema 8 3 Nervous System Tremor 57 19 Somnolence 30 18 Dizziness 18 13 Insomnia 15 9 Nervousness 11 7 Amnesia 7 4 Nystagmus 7 1 Depression 5 4 Respiratory System Infection 20 13 Pharyngitis 8 2 Dyspnea 5 1 Skin and Appendages Alopecia 24 13 Special Senses Amblyopia/Blurred Vision 8 4 Tinnitus 7 1 The following additional adverse reactions were reported by greater than 1% but less than 5% of the 358 patients treated with valproate in the controlled trials of complex partial seizures: Body as a Whole Back pain, chest pain, malaise. Cardiovascular System Tachycardia, hypertension, palpitation. Digestive System Increased appetite, flatulence, hematemesis, eructation, pancreatitis, periodontal abscess. Hemic and Lymphatic System Petechia. Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders SGOT increased, SGPT increased. Musculoskeletal System Myalgia, twitching, arthralgia, leg cramps, myasthenia. Nervous System Anxiety, confusion, abnormal gait, paresthesia, hypertonia, incoordination, abnormal dreams, personality disorder. Respiratory System Sinusitis, cough increased, pneumonia, epistaxis. Skin and Appendages Rash, pruritus, dry skin. Special Senses Taste perversion, abnormal vision, deafness, otitis media. Urogenital System Urinary incontinence, vaginitis, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, urinary frequency. 6.3 Migraine Based on two placebo-controlled clinical trials and their long term extension, valproate was generally well tolerated with most adverse reactions rated as mild to moderate in severity. Of the 202 patients exposed to valproate in the placebo-controlled trials, 17% discontinued for intolerance. This is compared to a rate of 5% for the 81 placebo patients. Including the long term extension study, the adverse reactions reported as the primary reason for discontinuation by ≥ 1% of 248 valproate-treated patients were alopecia (6%), nausea and/or vomiting (5%), weight gain (2%), tremor (2%), somnolence (1%), elevated SGOT and/or SGPT (1%), and depression (1%). Table 5 includes those adverse reactions reported for patients in the placebo-controlled trials where the incidence rate in the divalproex sodium-treated group was greater than 5 % and was greater than that for placebo patients. Table 5 Adverse Reactions Reported by > 5% of Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets-Treated Patients During Migraine Placebo-Controlled Trials with a Greater Incidence Than Patients Taking Placebo 1 1. The following adverse reactions occurred in at least 5% of divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets-treated patients and at an equal or greater incidence for placebo than for divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets: flu syndrome and pharyngitis. Body System Reaction Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets (N = 202) (%) Placebo (N = 81) (%) Gastrointestinal System Nausea 31 10 Dyspepsia 13 9 Diarrhea 12 7 Vomiting 11 1 Abdominal Pain 9 4 Increased Appetite 6 4 Nervous System Asthenia 20 9 Somnolence 17 5 Dizziness 12 6 Tremor 9 0 Other Weight Gain 8 2 Back Pain 8 6 Alopecia 7 1 The following additional adverse reactions were reported by greater than 1% but not more than 5% of the 202 divalproex sodium-treated patients in the controlled clinical trials: Body as a Whole Chest pain, chills, face edema, fever and malaise. Cardiovascular System Vasodilatation. Digestive System Anorexia, constipation, dry mouth, flatulence, gastrointestinal disorder (unspecified), and stomatitis. Hemic and Lymphatic System Ecchymosis. Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders Peripheral edema, SGOT increase, and SGPT increase. Musculoskeletal System Leg cramps and myalgia. Nervous System Abnormal dreams, amnesia, confusion, depression, emotional lability, insomnia, nervousness, paresthesia, speech disorder, thinking abnormalities, and vertigo. Respiratory System Cough increased, dyspnea, rhinitis, and sinusitis. Skin and Appendages Pruritus and rash. Special Senses Conjunctivitis, ear disorder, taste perversion, and tinnitus. Urogenital System Cystitis, metrorrhagia, and vaginal hemorrhage. 6.4 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of divalproex sodium. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Dermatologic Hair texture changes, hair color changes, photosensitivity, erythema multiforme, toxic epidermal necrolysis, nail and nail bed disorders, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Psychiatric Emotional upset, psychosis, aggression, psychomotor hyperactivity, hostility, disturbance in attention, learning disorder and behavioral deterioration. Neurologic Paradoxical convulsion, parkinsonism There have been several reports of acute or subacute cognitive decline and behavioral changes (apathy or irritability) with cerebral pseudoatrophy on imaging associated with valproate therapy; both the cognitive/behavioral changes and cerebral pseudoatrophy reversed partially or fully after valproate discontinuation. There have been reports of acute or subacute encephalopathy in the absence of elevated ammonia levels, elevated valproate levels, or neuroimaging changes. The encephalopathy reversed partially or fully after valproate discontinuation. Musculoskeletal Fractures, decreased bone mineral density, osteopenia, osteoporosis, and weakness. Hematologic Relative lymphocytosis, macrocytosis, leukopenia, anemia including macrocytic with or without folate deficiency, bone marrow suppression, pancytopenia, aplastic anemia, agranulocytosis, and acute intermittent porphyria. Endocrine Irregular menses, secondary amenorrhea, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, elevated testosterone level, breast enlargement, galactorrhea, parotid gland swelling, polycystic ovary disease, decreased carnitine concentrations, hyponatremia, hyperglycinemia, and inappropriate ADH secretion. There have been rare reports of Fanconi's syndrome occurring chiefly in children. Metabolism and nutrition Weight gain. Reproductive Aspermia, azoospermia, decreased sperm count, decreased spermatozoa motility, male infertility, and abnormal spermatozoa morphology. Genitourinary Enuresis and urinary tract infection. Special Senses Hearing loss. Other Allergic reaction, anaphylaxis, developmental delay, bone pain, bradycardia, and cutaneous vasculitis.

Contraindications

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Hepatic disease or significant hepatic dysfunction ( 4 , 5.1 ) Known mitochondrial disorders caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) ( 4 , 5.1 ) Suspected POLG-related disorder in children under two years of age ( 4 , 5.1 ) Known hypersensitivity to the drug ( 4 , 5.12 ) Urea cycle disorders ( 4 , 5.6 ) Prophylaxis of migraine headaches: Pregnant women, women of childbearing potential not using effective contraception ( 4 , 8.1 ) Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets should not be administered to patients with hepatic disease or significant hepatic dysfunction [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] . Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets are contraindicated in patients known to have mitochondrial disorders caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG; e.g., Alpers-Huttenlocher Syndrome) and children under two years of age who are suspected of having a POLG-related disorder [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )]. Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to the drug [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.12 )] . Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets are contraindicated in patients with known urea cycle disorders [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6 )] . For use in prophylaxis of migraine headaches: Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets are contraindicated in women who are pregnant and in women of childbearing potential who are not using effective contraception [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 , 5.3 , 5.4 ) and Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1 )] .

Description

11 DESCRIPTION Divalproex sodium is a stable co-ordination compound comprised of sodium valproate and valproic acid in a 1:1 molar relationship. Chemically it is designated as sodium hydrogen bis(2-propylpentanoate). Divalproex sodium has the following structure: Divalproex sodium, USP is a white, crystalline powder and almost odorless. It is very soluble in chloroform, freely soluble in methanol and in ethyl ether; soluble in acetone and practically insoluble in acetonitrile. Each divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets, intended for oral administration contains divalproex sodium equivalent to 125 mg or 250 mg or 500 mg of valproic acid. In addition each tablet also contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, methacrylic acid copolymer dispersion, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, povidone, sodium starch glycolate, starch (botanical source: maize), talc and triethyl citrate. Each tablet is imprinted with black pharmaceutical ink which contains following inactive ingredients: ammonium hydroxide, ferrosoferric oxide, isopropyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, propylene glycol and shellac. Divalproex Sodium

Dosage And Administration

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets are administered orally in divided doses Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets should be swallowed whole and should not be crushed or chewed ( 2.1 , 2.2 ). Mania: Initial dose is 750 mg daily increasing as rapidly as possible to achieve therapeutic response or desired plasma level ( 2.1 ). The maximum recommended dosage is 60 mg/kg/day ( 2.1 , 2.2 ). Complex Partial Seizures: Start at 10 to 15 mg/kg/day, increasing at 1 week intervals by 5 to 10 mg/kg/day to achieve optimal clinical response; if response is not satisfactory, check valproate plasma level; see full prescribing information for conversion to monotherapy ( 2.2 ). The maximum recommended dosage is 60 mg/kg/day ( 2.1 , 2.2 ). Absence Seizures: Start at 15 mg/kg/day, increasing at 1 week intervals by 5 to 10 mg/kg/day until seizure control or limiting side effects ( 2.2 ). The maximum recommended dosage is 60 mg/kg/day ( 2.1 , 2.2 ). Migraine: The recommended starting dose is 250 mg twice daily, thereafter increasing to a maximum of 1,000 mg/day as needed ( 2.3 ). Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets are intended for oral administration. Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets should be swallowed whole and should not be crushed or chewed. Patients should be informed to take divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets every day as prescribed. If a dose is missed it should be taken as soon as possible, unless it is almost time for the next dose. If a dose is skipped, the patient should not double the next dose. 2.1 Mania Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets are administered orally. The recommended initial dose is 750 mg daily in divided doses. The dose should be increased as rapidly as possible to achieve the lowest therapeutic dose which produces the desired clinical effect or the desired range of plasma concentrations. In placebo-controlled clinical trials of acute mania, patients were dosed to a clinical response with a trough plasma concentration between 50 and 125 mcg/mL. Maximum concentrations were generally achieved within 14 days. The maximum recommended dosage is 60 mg/kg/day. There is no body of evidence available from controlled trials to guide a clinician in the longer term management of a patient who improves during divalproex sodium treatment of an acute manic episode. While it is generally agreed that pharmacological treatment beyond an acute response in mania is desirable, both for maintenance of the initial response and for prevention of new manic episodes, there are no data to support the benefits of divalproex sodium in such longer-term treatment. Although there are no efficacy data that specifically address longer-term antimanic treatment with divalproex sodium, the safety of divalproex sodium in long-term use is supported by data from record reviews involving approximately 360 patients treated with divalproex sodium for greater than 3 months. 2.2 Epilepsy Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets are administered orally. Divalproex sodium is indicated as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy in complex partial seizures in adults and pediatric patients down to the age of 10 years, and in simple and complex absence seizures. As the divalproex sodium dosage is titrated upward, concentrations of clonazepam, diazepam, ethosuximide, lamotrigine, tolbutamide, phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and/or phenytoin may be affected [see Drug Interactions ( 7.2 )] . Complex Partial Seizures For adults and children 10 years of age or older. Monotherapy (Initial Therapy) Divalproex sodium has not been systematically studied as initial therapy. Patients should initiate therapy at 10 to 15 mg/kg/day. The dosage should be increased by 5 to 10 mg/kg/week to achieve optimal clinical response. Ordinarily, optimal clinical response is achieved at daily doses below 60 mg/kg/day. If satisfactory clinical response has not been achieved, plasma levels should be measured to determine whether or not they are in the usually accepted therapeutic range (50 to 100 mcg/mL). No recommendation regarding the safety of valproate for use at doses above 60 mg/kg/day can be made. The probability of thrombocytopenia increases significantly at total trough valproate plasma concentrations above 110 mcg/mL in females and 135 mcg/mL in males. The benefit of improved seizure control with higher doses should be weighed against the possibility of a greater incidence of adverse reactions. Conversion to Monotherapy Patients should initiate therapy at 10 to 15 mg/kg/day. The dosage should be increased by 5 to 10 mg/kg/week to achieve optimal clinical response. Ordinarily, optimal clinical response is achieved at daily doses below 60 mg/kg/day. If satisfactory clinical response has not been achieved, plasma levels should be measured to determine whether or not they are in the usually accepted therapeutic range (50 to 100 mcg/mL). No recommendation regarding the safety of valproate for use at doses above 60 mg/kg/day can be made. Concomitant antiepilepsy drug (AED) dosage can ordinarily be reduced by approximately 25% every 2 weeks. This reduction may be started at initiation of divalproex sodium therapy, or delayed by 1 to 2 weeks if there is a concern that seizures are likely to occur with a reduction. The speed and duration of withdrawal of the concomitant AED can be highly variable, and patients should be monitored closely during this period for increased seizure frequency. Adjunctive Therapy Divalproex sodium may be added to the patient's regimen at a dosage of 10 to 15 mg/kg/day. The dosage may be increased by 5 to 10 mg/kg/week to achieve optimal clinical response. Ordinarily, optimal clinical response is achieved at daily doses below 60 mg/kg/day. If satisfactory clinical response has not been achieved, plasma levels should be measured to determine whether or not they are in the usually accepted therapeutic range (50 to 100 mcg/mL). No recommendation regarding the safety of valproate for use at doses above 60 mg/kg/day can be made. If the total daily dose exceeds 250 mg, it should be given in divided doses. In a study of adjunctive therapy for complex partial seizures in which patients were receiving either carbamazepine or phenytoin in addition to valproate, no adjustment of carbamazepine or phenytoin dosage was needed [see Clinical Studies ( 14.2 )] . However, since valproate may interact with these or other concurrently administered AEDs as well as other drugs, periodic plasma concentration determinations of concomitant AEDs are recommended during the early course of therapy [see Drug Interactions ( 7 )] . ` Simple and Complex Absence Seizures The recommended initial dose is 15 mg/kg/day, increasing at one week intervals by 5 to 10 mg/kg/day until seizures are controlled or side effects preclude further increases. The maximum recommended dosage is 60 mg/kg/day. If the total daily dose exceeds 250 mg, it should be given in divided doses. A good correlation has not been established between daily dose, serum concentrations, and therapeutic effect. However, therapeutic valproate serum concentrations for most patients with absence seizures is considered to range from 50 to 100 mcg/mL. Some patients may be controlled with lower or higher serum concentrations [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )] . As the divalproex sodium dosage is titrated upward, blood concentrations of phenobarbital and/or phenytoin may be affected [see Drug Interactions ( 7.2 )] . Antiepilepsy drugs should not be abruptly discontinued in patients in whom the drug is administered to prevent major seizures because of the strong possibility of precipitating status epilepticus with attendant hypoxia and threat to life. In epileptic patients previously receiving valproic acid therapy, divalproex sodium tablets should be initiated at the same daily dose and dosing schedule. After the patient is stabilized on divalproex sodium tablets, a dosing schedule of two or three times a day may be elected in selected patients. 2.3 Migraine Divalproex sodium is indicated for prophylaxis of migraine headaches in adults. Divalproex sodium tablets are administered orally. The recommended starting dose is 250 mg twice daily. Some patients may benefit from doses up to 1,000 mg/day. In the clinical trials, there was no evidence that higher doses led to greater efficacy. 2.4 General Dosing Advice Dosing in Elderly Patients Due to a decrease in unbound clearance of valproate and possibly a greater sensitivity to somnolence in the elderly, the starting dose should be reduced in these patients. Dosage should be increased more slowly and with regular monitoring for fluid and nutritional intake, dehydration, somnolence, and other adverse reactions. Dose reductions or discontinuation of valproate should be considered in patients with decreased food or fluid intake and in patients with excessive somnolence. The ultimate therapeutic dose should be achieved on the basis of both tolerability and clinical response [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.14 ), Use in Specific Populations ( 8.5 ) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )] . Dose-Related Adverse Reactions The frequency of adverse effects (particularly elevated liver enzymes and thrombocytopenia) may be dose-related. The probability of thrombocytopenia appears to increase significantly at total valproate concentrations of ≥ 110 mcg/mL (females) or ≥ 135 mcg/mL (males) [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8 )] . The benefit of improved therapeutic effect with higher doses should be weighed against the possibility of a greater incidence of adverse reactions. G.I. Irritation Patients who experience G.I. irritation may benefit from administration of the drug with food or by slowly building up the dose from an initial low level. 2.5 Dosing in Patients Taking Rufinamide Patients stabilized on rufinamide before being prescribed valproate should begin valproate therapy at a low dose, and titrate to a clinically effective dose [see Drug Interactions ( 7.2 )] .

Indications And Usage

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets are anti-epileptic drug indicated for: Treatment of manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder ( 1.1 ) Monotherapy and adjunctive therapy of complex partial seizures and simple and complex absence seizures; adjunctive therapy in patients with multiple seizure types that include absence seizures ( 1.2 ) Prophylaxis of migraine headaches ( 1.3 ) 1.1 Mania Divalproex sodium is a valproate and is indicated for the treatment of the manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder. A manic episode is a distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood. Typical symptoms of mania include pressure of speech, motor hyperactivity, reduced need for sleep, flight of ideas, grandiosity, poor judgment, aggressiveness, and possible hostility. The efficacy of divalproex sodium was established in 3 week trials with patients meeting DSM-III-R criteria for bipolar disorder who were hospitalized for acute mania [see Clinical Studies ( 14.1 )] . The safety and effectiveness of divalproex sodium for long-term use in mania, i.e., more than 3 weeks, has not been demonstrated in controlled clinical trials. Therefore, healthcare providers who elect to use divalproex sodium for extended periods should continually reevaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient. 1.2 Epilepsy Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets are indicated as monotherapy and adjunctive therapy in the treatment of patients with complex partial seizures that occur either in isolation or in association with other types of seizures. Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets are also indicated for use as sole and adjunctive therapy in the treatment of simple and complex absence seizures, and adjunctively in patients with multiple seizure types that include absence seizures. Simple absence is defined as very brief clouding of the sensorium or loss of consciousness accompanied by certain generalized epileptic discharges without other detectable clinical signs. Complex absence is the term used when other signs are also present. 1.3 Migraine Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets are indicated for prophylaxis ofmigraine headaches. There is no evidence that divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets are useful in the acute treatment of migraine headaches. 1.4 Important Limitations Because of the risk to the fetus of decreased IQ, neurodevelopmental disorders, neural tube defects, and other major congenital malformations, which may occur very early in pregnancy, valproate should not be used to treat women with epilepsy or bipolar disorder who are pregnant or who plan to become pregnant unless other medications have failed to provide adequate symptom control or are otherwise unacceptable. Valproate should not be administered to a woman of childbearing potential unless other medications have failed to provide adequate symptom control or are otherwise unacceptable [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 , 5.3 , 5.4 ), Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1 ), and Patient Counseling Information ( 17 )] . For prophylaxis of migraine headaches, Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets are contraindicated in women who are pregnant and in women of childbearing potential who are not using effective contraception [see Contraindications ( 4 )] .

Overdosage

10 OVERDOSAGE Overdosage with valproate may result in somnolence, heart block, deep coma and hypernatremia. Fatalities have been reported; however patients have recovered from valproate levels as high as 2,120 mcg/mL. In overdose situations, the fraction of drug not bound to protein is high and hemodialysis or tandem hemodialysis plus hemoperfusion may result in significant removal of drug. The benefit of gastric lavage or emesis will vary with the time since ingestion. General supportive measures should be applied with particular attention to the maintenance of adequate urinary output. Naloxone has been reported to reverse the CNS depressant effects of valproate overdosage. Because naloxone could theoretically also reverse the antiepileptic effects of valproate, it should be used with caution in patients with epilepsy.

Adverse Reactions Table

Table 2 Adverse Reactions Reported by > 5% of Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets-Treated Patients During Placebo-Controlled Trials of Acute Mania1

1.The following adverse reactions occurred at an equal or greater incidence for placebo than for divalproex sodium: back pain, headache, constipation, diarrhea, tremor, and pharyngitis.

Adverse Reaction Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets (N = 89) % Placebo (N = 97) %
Nausea 22 15
Somnolence 19 12
Dizziness 12 4
Vomiting 12 3
Accidental Injury 11 5
Asthenia 10 7
Abdominal Pain 9 8
Dyspepsia 9 8
Rash 6 3

Drug Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Hepatic enzyme-inducing drugs (e.g., phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, primidone, rifampin) can increase valproate clearance, while enzyme inhibitors (e.g., felbamate) can decrease valproate clearance. Therefore increased monitoring of valproate and concomitant drug concentrations and dosage adjustment are indicated whenever enzyme-inducing or inhibiting drugs are introduced or withdrawn ( 7.1 ) Aspirin, carbapenem antibiotics, estrogen-containing hormonal contraceptives: Monitoring of valproate concentrations is recommended ( 7.1 ) Coadministration of valproate can affect the pharmacokinetics of other drugs (e.g. diazepam, ethosuximide, lamotrigine, phenytoin) by inhibiting their metabolism or protein binding displacement ( 7.2 ) Patients stabilized on rufinamide should begin valproate therapy at a low dose, and titrate to clinically effective dose ( 7.2 ) Dosage adjustment of amitriptyline/nortriptyline, propofol, warfarin, and zidovudine may be necessary if used concomitantly with divalproex sodium ( 7.2 ) Topiramate: Hyperammonemia and encephalopathy ( 5.10 , 7.3 ) 7.1 Effects of Coadministered Drugs on Valproate Clearance Drugs that affect the level of expression of hepatic enzymes, particularly those that elevate levels of glucuronosyltransferases (such as ritonavir), may increase the clearance of valproate. For example, phenytoin, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital (or primidone) can double the clearance of valproate. Thus, patients on monotherapy will generally have longer half-lives and higher concentrations than patients receiving polytherapy with antiepilepsy drugs. In contrast, drugs that are inhibitors of cytochrome P450 isozymes, e.g., antidepressants, may be expected to have little effect on valproate clearance because cytochrome P450 microsomal mediated oxidation is a relatively minor secondary metabolic pathway compared to glucuronidation and beta-oxidation. Because of these changes in valproate clearance, monitoring of valproate and concomitant drug concentrations should be increased whenever enzyme inducing drugs are introduced or withdrawn. The following list provides information about the potential for an influence of several commonly prescribed medications on valproate pharmacokinetics. The list is not exhaustive nor could it be, since new interactions are continuously being reported. Drugs for which a potentially important interaction has been observed Aspirin A study involving the coadministration of aspirin at antipyretic doses (11 to 16 mg/kg) with valproate to pediatric patients (n=6) revealed a decrease in protein binding and an inhibition of metabolism of valproate. Valproate free fraction was increased 4-fold in the presence of aspirin compared to valproate alone. The β-oxidation pathway consisting of 2-E-valproic acid, 3-OH-valproic acid, and 3-keto valproic acid was decreased from 25% of total metabolites excreted on valproate alone to 8.3% in the presence of aspirin. Caution should be observed if valproate and aspirin are to be coadministered. Carbapenem Antibiotics A clinically significant reduction in serum valproic acid concentration has been reported in patients receiving carbapenem antibiotics (for example, ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem; this is not a complete list) and may result in loss of seizure control. The mechanism of this interaction is not well-understood. Serum valproic acid concentrations should be monitored frequently after initiating carbapenem therapy. Alternative antibacterial or anticonvulsant therapy should be considered if serum valproic acid concentrations drop significantly or seizure control deteriorates [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.13 )] . Estrogen-Containing Hormonal Contraceptives Estrogen-containing hormonal contraceptives may increase the clearance of valproate, which may result in decreased concentration of valproate and potentially increased seizure frequency. Prescribers should monitor serum valproate concentrations and clinical response when adding or discontinuing estrogen containing products. Felbamate A study involving the coadministration of 1,200 mg/day of felbamate with valproate to patients with epilepsy (n=10) revealed an increase in mean valproate peak concentration by 35% (from 86 to 115 mcg/mL) compared to valproate alone. Increasing the felbamate dose to 2,400 mg/day increased the mean valproate peak concentration to 133 mcg/mL (another 16% increase). A decrease in valproate dosage may be necessary when felbamate therapy is initiated. Rifampin A study involving the administration of a single dose of valproate (7 mg/kg) 36 hours after 5 nights of daily dosing with rifampin (600 mg) revealed a 40% increase in the oral clearance of valproate. Valproate dosage adjustment may be necessary when it is coadministered with rifampin. Drugs for which either no interaction or a likely clinically unimportant interaction has been observed Antacids A study involving the coadministration of valproate 500 mg with commonly administered antacids ( $ Maalox ® , $ Trisogel ® , and $ Titralac ® - 160 mEq doses) did not reveal any effect on the extent of absorption of valproate. Chlorpromazine A study involving the administration of 100 to 300 mg/day of chlorpromazine to schizophrenic patients already receiving valproate (200 mg BID) revealed a 15% increase in trough plasma levels of valproate. Haloperidol A study involving the administration of 6 to 10 mg/day of haloperidol to schizophrenic patients already receiving valproate (200 mg BID) revealed no significant changes in valproate trough plasma levels. Cimetidine and Ranitidine Cimetidine and ranitidine do not affect the clearance of valproate. 7.2 Effects of Valproate on Other Drugs Valproate has been found to be a weak inhibitor of some P450 isozymes, epoxide hydrase, and glucuronosyltransferases. The following list provides information about the potential for an influence of valproate coadministration on the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of several commonly prescribed medications. The list is not exhaustive, since new interactions are continuously being reported. Drugs for which a potentially important valproate interaction has been observed Amitriptyline/Nortriptyline Administration of a single oral 50 mg dose of amitriptyline to 15 normal volunteers (10 males and 5 females) who received valproate (500 mg BID) resulted in a 21% decrease in plasma clearance of amitriptyline and a 34% decrease in the net clearance of nortriptyline. Rare postmarketing reports of concurrent use of valproate and amitriptyline resulting in an increased amitriptyline level have been received. Concurrent use of valproate and amitriptyline has rarely been associated with toxicity. Monitoring of amitriptyline levels should be considered for patients taking valproate concomitantly with amitriptyline. Consideration should be given to lowering the dose of amitriptyline/nortriptyline in the presence of valproate. Carbamazepine/carbamazepine-10,11-Epoxide Serum levels of carbamazepine (CBZ) decreased 17% while that of carbamazepine- 10,11-epoxide (CBZ-E) increased by 45% upon coadministration of valproate and CBZ to epileptic patients. Clonazepam The concomitant use of valproate and clonazepam may induce absence status in patients with a history of absence type seizures. Diazepam Valproate displaces diazepam from its plasma albumin binding sites and inhibits its metabolism. Coadministration of valproate (1,500 mg daily) increased the free fraction of diazepam (10 mg) by 90% in healthy volunteers (n=6). Plasma clearance and volume of distribution for free diazepam were reduced by 25% and 20%, respectively, in the presence of valproate. The elimination half-life of diazepam remained unchanged upon addition of valproate. Ethosuximide Valproate inhibits the metabolism of ethosuximide. Administration of a single ethosuximide dose of 500 mg with valproate (800 to 1,600 mg/day) to healthy volunteers (n=6) was accompanied by a 25% increase in elimination half-life of ethosuximide and a 15% decrease in its total clearance as compared to ethosuximide alone. Patients receiving valproate and ethosuximide, especially along with other anticonvulsants, should be monitored for alterations in serum concentrations of both drugs. Lamotrigine In a steady-state study involving 10 healthy volunteers, the elimination half-life of lamotrigine increased from 26 to 70 hours with valproate coadministration (a 165% increase). The dose of lamotrigine should be reduced when coadministered with valproate. Serious skin reactions (such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis) have been reported with concomitant lamotrigine and valproate administration. See lamotrigine package insert for details on lamotrigine dosing with concomitant valproate administration. Phenobarbital Valproate was found to inhibit the metabolism of phenobarbital. Coadministration of valproate (250 mg BID for 14 days) with phenobarbital to normal subjects (n=6) resulted in a 50% increase in half-life and a 30% decrease in plasma clearance of phenobarbital (60 mg single-dose). The fraction of phenobarbital dose excreted unchanged increased by 50% in presence of valproate. There is evidence for severe CNS depression, with or without significant elevations of barbiturate or valproate serum concentrations. All patients receiving concomitant barbiturate therapy should be closely monitored for neurological toxicity. Serum barbiturate concentrations should be obtained, if possible, and the barbiturate dosage decreased, if appropriate. Primidone, which is metabolized to a barbiturate, may be involved in a similar interaction with valproate. Phenytoin Valproate displaces phenytoin from its plasma albumin binding sites and inhibits its hepatic metabolism. Coadministration of valproate (400 mg TID) with phenytoin (250 mg) in normal volunteers (n=7) was associated with a 60% increase in the free fraction of phenytoin. Total plasma clearance and apparent volume of distribution of phenytoin increased 30% in the presence of valproate. Both the clearance and apparent volume of distribution of free phenytoin were reduced by 25%. In patients with epilepsy, there have been reports of breakthrough seizures occurring with the combination of valproate and phenytoin. The dosage of phenytoin should be adjusted as required by the clinical situation. Propofol The concomitant use of valproate and propofol may lead to increased blood levels of propofol. Reduce the dose of propofol when co-administering with valproate. Monitor patients closely for signs of increased sedation or cardiorespiratory depression. Rufinamide Based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis, rufinamide clearance was decreased by valproate. Rufinamide concentrations were increased by <16% to 70%, dependent on concentration of valproate (with the larger increases being seen in pediatric patients at high doses or concentrations of valproate). Patients stabilized on rufinamide before being prescribed valproate should begin valproate therapy at a low dose, and titrate to a clinically effective dose [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.5 )] . Similarly, patients on valproate should begin at a rufinamide dose lower than 10 mg/kg per day (pediatric patients) or 400 mg per day (adults). Tolbutamide From in vitro experiments, the unbound fraction of tolbutamide was increased from 20% to 50% when added to plasma samples taken from patients treated with valproate. The clinical relevance of this displacement is unknown. Warfarin In an in vitro study, valproate increased the unbound fraction of warfarin by up to 32.6%. The therapeutic relevance of this is unknown; however, coagulation tests should be monitored if valproate therapy is instituted in patients taking anticoagulants. Zidovudine In six patients who were seropositive for HIV, the clearance of zidovudine (100 mg q8h) was decreased by 38% after administration of valproate (250 or 500 mg q8h); the half-life of zidovudine was unaffected. Drugs for which either no interaction or a likely clinically unimportant interaction has been observed Acetaminophen Valproate had no effect on any of the pharmacokinetic parameters of acetaminophen when it was concurrently administered to three epileptic patients. Clozapine In psychotic patients (n=11), no interaction was observed when valproate was coadministered with clozapine. Lithium Coadministration of valproate (500 mg BID) and lithium carbonate (300 mg TID) to normal male volunteers (n=16) had no effect on the steady-state kinetics of lithium. Lorazepam Concomitant administration of valproate (500 mg BID) and lorazepam (1 mg BID) in normal male volunteers (n=9) was accompanied by a 17% decrease in the plasma clearance of lorazepam. Olanzapine No dose adjustment for olanzapine is necessary when olanzapine is administered concomitantly with valproate. Coadministration of valproate (500 mg BID) and olanzapine (5 mg) to healthy adults (n=10) caused 15% reduction in C max and 35% reduction in AUC of olanzapine. Oral Contraceptive Steroids Administration of a single-dose of ethinyloestradiol (50 mcg)/levonorgestrel (250 mcg) to 6 women on valproate (200 mg BID) therapy for 2 months did not reveal any pharmacokinetic interaction. 7.3 Topiramate Concomitant administration of valproate and topiramate has been associated with hyperammonemia with and without encephalopathy [see Contraindications ( 4 ) and Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6 , 5.9 , 5.10 )] . Concomitant administration of topiramate with valproate has also been associated with hypothermia in patients who have tolerated either drug alone. It may be prudent to examine blood ammonia levels in patients in whom the onset of hypothermia has been reported [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.9 , 5.11 )] .

Clinical Pharmacology

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 12.1 Mechanism of Action Divalproex sodium dissociates to the valproate ion in the gastrointestinal tract. The mechanisms by which valproate exerts its therapeutic effects have not been established. It has been suggested that its activity in epilepsy is related to increased brain concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). 12.2 Pharmacodynamics The relationship between plasma concentration and clinical response is not well documented. One contributing factor is the nonlinear, concentration dependent protein binding of valproate which affects the clearance of the drug. Thus, monitoring of total serum valproate cannot provide a reliable index of the bioactive valproate species. For example, because the plasma protein binding of valproate is concentration dependent, the free fraction increases from approximately 10% at 40 mcg/mL to 18.5% at 130 mcg/mL. Higher than expected free fractions occur in the elderly, in hyperlipidemic patients, and in patients with hepatic and renal diseases. Epilepsy The therapeutic range in epilepsy is commonly considered to be 50 to 100 mcg/mL of total valproate, although some patients may be controlled with lower or higher plasma concentrations. Mania In placebo-controlled clinical trials of acute mania, patients were dosed to clinical response with trough plasma concentrations between 50 and 125 mcg/mL [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.1 )] . 12.3 Pharmacokinetics Absorption/Bioavailability Equivalent oral doses of divalproex sodium products and valproic acid capsules deliver equivalent quantities of valproate ion systemically. Although the rate of valproate ion absorption may vary with the formulation administered (liquid, solid, or sprinkle), conditions of use (e.g., fasting or postprandial) and the method of administration (e.g., whether the contents of the capsule are sprinkled on food or the capsule is taken intact), these differences should be of minor clinical importance under the steady state conditions achieved in chronic use in the treatment of epilepsy. However, it is possible that differences among the various valproate products in T max and C max could be important upon initiation of treatment. For example, in single dose studies, the effect of feeding had a greater influence on the rate of absorption of the tablet (increase in T max from 4 to 8 hours) than on the absorption of the sprinkle capsules (increase in T max from 3.3 to 4.8 hours). While the absorption rate from the G.I. tract and fluctuation in valproate plasma concentrations vary with dosing regimen and formulation, the efficacy of valproate as an anticonvulsant in chronic use is unlikely to be affected. Experience employing dosing regimens from once-a-day to four-times-a-day, as well as studies in primate epilepsy models involving constant rate infusion, indicate that total daily systemic bioavailability (extent of absorption) is the primary determinant of seizure control and that differences in the ratios of plasma peak to trough concentrations between valproate formulations are inconsequential from a practical clinical standpoint. Whether or not rate of absorption influences the efficacy of valproate as an antimanic or antimigraine agent is unknown. Coadministration of oral valproate products with food and substitution among the various divalproex sodium and valporic acid formulations should cause no clinical problems in the management of patients with epilepsy [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.2 )] . Nonetheless, any changes in dosage administration, or the addition or discontinuance of concomitant drugs should ordinarily be accompanied by close monitoring of clinical status and valproate plasma concentrations. Distribution Protein Binding The plasma protein binding of valproate is concentration dependent and the free fraction increases from approximately 10% at 40 mcg/mL to 18.5% at 130 mcg/mL. Protein binding of valproate is reduced in the elderly, in patients with chronic hepatic diseases, in patients with renal impairment, and in the presence of other drugs (e.g., aspirin). Conversely, valproate may displace certain protein-bound drugs (e.g., phenytoin, carbamazepine, warfarin, and tolbutamide) [see Drug Interactions ( 7.2 ) for more detailed information on the pharmacokinetic interactions of valproate with other drugs ] . CNS Distribution Valproate concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) approximate unbound concentrations in plasma (about 10% of total concentration). Metabolism Valproate is metabolized almost entirely by the liver. In adult patients on monotherapy, 30 to 50% of an administered dose appears in urine as a glucuronide conjugate. Mitochondrial β-oxidation is the other major metabolic pathway, typically accounting for over 40% of the dose. Usually, less than 15 to 20% of the dose is eliminated by other oxidative mechanisms. Less than 3% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged in urine. The relationship between dose and total valproate concentration is nonlinear; concentration does not increase proportionally with the dose, but rather, increases to a lesser extent due to saturable plasma protein binding. The kinetics of unbound drug are linear. Elimination Mean plasma clearance and volume of distribution for total valproate are 0.56 L/hr/1.73 m 2 and 11 L/1.73 m 2 , respectively. Mean plasma clearance and volume of distribution for free valproate are 4.6 L/hr/1.73 m 2 and 92 L/1.73 m 2 . Mean terminal half-life for valproate monotherapy ranged from 9 to 16 hours following oral dosing regimens of 250 to 1,000 mg. The estimates cited apply primarily to patients who are not taking drugs that affect hepatic metabolizing enzyme systems. For example, patients taking enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital) will clear valproate more rapidly. Because of these changes in valproate clearance, monitoring of antiepileptic concentrations should be intensified whenever concomitant antiepileptics are introduced or withdrawn. Special Populations Effect of Age Neonates Children within the first two months of life have a markedly decreased ability to eliminate valproate compared to older children and adults. This is a result of reduced clearance (perhaps due to delay in development of glucuronosyltransferase and other enzyme systems involved in valproate elimination) as well as increased volume of distribution (in part due to decreased plasma protein binding). For example, in one study, the half-life in children under 10 days ranged from 10 to 67 hours compared to a range of 7 to 13 hours in children greater than 2 months. Children Pediatric patients (i.e., between 3 months and 10 years) have 50% higher clearances expressed on weight (i.e., mL/min/kg) than do adults. Over the age of 10 years, children have pharmacokinetic parameters that approximate those of adults. Elderly The capacity of elderly patients (age range: 68 to 89 years) to eliminate valproate has been shown to be reduced compared to younger adults (age range: 22 to 26 years). Intrinsic clearance is reduced by 39%; the free fraction is increased by 44%. Accordingly, the initial dosage should be reduced in the elderly [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.4 )] . Effect of Sex There are no differences in the body surface area adjusted unbound clearance between males and females (4.8±0.17 and 4.7±0.07 L/hr per 1.73 m 2 , respectively). Effect of Race The effects of race on the kinetics of valproate have not been studied. Effect of Disease Liver Disease Liver disease impairs the capacity to eliminate valproate. In one study, the clearance of free valproate was decreased by 50% in 7 patients with cirrhosis and by 16% in 4 patients with acute hepatitis, compared with 6 healthy subjects. In that study, the half-life of valproate was increased from 12 to 18 hours. Liver disease is also associated with decreased albumin concentrations and larger unbound fractions (2-to 2.6-fold increase) of valproate. Accordingly, monitoring of total concentrations may be misleading since free concentrations may be substantially elevated in patients with hepatic disease whereas total concentrations may appear to be normal [see Boxed Warning, Contraindications ( 4 ), and Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] . Renal Disease A slight reduction (27%) in the unbound clearance of valproate has been reported in patients with renal failure (creatinine clearance < 10 mL/minute); however, hemodialysis typically reduces valproate concentrations by about 20%. Therefore, no dosage adjustment appears to be necessary in patients with renal failure. Protein binding in these patients is substantially reduced; thus, monitoring total concentrations may be misleading.

Mechanism Of Action

12.1 Mechanism of Action Divalproex sodium dissociates to the valproate ion in the gastrointestinal tract. The mechanisms by which valproate exerts its therapeutic effects have not been established. It has been suggested that its activity in epilepsy is related to increased brain concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

Pharmacodynamics

12.2 Pharmacodynamics The relationship between plasma concentration and clinical response is not well documented. One contributing factor is the nonlinear, concentration dependent protein binding of valproate which affects the clearance of the drug. Thus, monitoring of total serum valproate cannot provide a reliable index of the bioactive valproate species. For example, because the plasma protein binding of valproate is concentration dependent, the free fraction increases from approximately 10% at 40 mcg/mL to 18.5% at 130 mcg/mL. Higher than expected free fractions occur in the elderly, in hyperlipidemic patients, and in patients with hepatic and renal diseases. Epilepsy The therapeutic range in epilepsy is commonly considered to be 50 to 100 mcg/mL of total valproate, although some patients may be controlled with lower or higher plasma concentrations. Mania In placebo-controlled clinical trials of acute mania, patients were dosed to clinical response with trough plasma concentrations between 50 and 125 mcg/mL [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.1 )] .

Pharmacokinetics

12.3 Pharmacokinetics Absorption/Bioavailability Equivalent oral doses of divalproex sodium products and valproic acid capsules deliver equivalent quantities of valproate ion systemically. Although the rate of valproate ion absorption may vary with the formulation administered (liquid, solid, or sprinkle), conditions of use (e.g., fasting or postprandial) and the method of administration (e.g., whether the contents of the capsule are sprinkled on food or the capsule is taken intact), these differences should be of minor clinical importance under the steady state conditions achieved in chronic use in the treatment of epilepsy. However, it is possible that differences among the various valproate products in T max and C max could be important upon initiation of treatment. For example, in single dose studies, the effect of feeding had a greater influence on the rate of absorption of the tablet (increase in T max from 4 to 8 hours) than on the absorption of the sprinkle capsules (increase in T max from 3.3 to 4.8 hours). While the absorption rate from the G.I. tract and fluctuation in valproate plasma concentrations vary with dosing regimen and formulation, the efficacy of valproate as an anticonvulsant in chronic use is unlikely to be affected. Experience employing dosing regimens from once-a-day to four-times-a-day, as well as studies in primate epilepsy models involving constant rate infusion, indicate that total daily systemic bioavailability (extent of absorption) is the primary determinant of seizure control and that differences in the ratios of plasma peak to trough concentrations between valproate formulations are inconsequential from a practical clinical standpoint. Whether or not rate of absorption influences the efficacy of valproate as an antimanic or antimigraine agent is unknown. Coadministration of oral valproate products with food and substitution among the various divalproex sodium and valporic acid formulations should cause no clinical problems in the management of patients with epilepsy [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.2 )] . Nonetheless, any changes in dosage administration, or the addition or discontinuance of concomitant drugs should ordinarily be accompanied by close monitoring of clinical status and valproate plasma concentrations. Distribution Protein Binding The plasma protein binding of valproate is concentration dependent and the free fraction increases from approximately 10% at 40 mcg/mL to 18.5% at 130 mcg/mL. Protein binding of valproate is reduced in the elderly, in patients with chronic hepatic diseases, in patients with renal impairment, and in the presence of other drugs (e.g., aspirin). Conversely, valproate may displace certain protein-bound drugs (e.g., phenytoin, carbamazepine, warfarin, and tolbutamide) [see Drug Interactions ( 7.2 ) for more detailed information on the pharmacokinetic interactions of valproate with other drugs ] . CNS Distribution Valproate concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) approximate unbound concentrations in plasma (about 10% of total concentration). Metabolism Valproate is metabolized almost entirely by the liver. In adult patients on monotherapy, 30 to 50% of an administered dose appears in urine as a glucuronide conjugate. Mitochondrial β-oxidation is the other major metabolic pathway, typically accounting for over 40% of the dose. Usually, less than 15 to 20% of the dose is eliminated by other oxidative mechanisms. Less than 3% of an administered dose is excreted unchanged in urine. The relationship between dose and total valproate concentration is nonlinear; concentration does not increase proportionally with the dose, but rather, increases to a lesser extent due to saturable plasma protein binding. The kinetics of unbound drug are linear. Elimination Mean plasma clearance and volume of distribution for total valproate are 0.56 L/hr/1.73 m 2 and 11 L/1.73 m 2 , respectively. Mean plasma clearance and volume of distribution for free valproate are 4.6 L/hr/1.73 m 2 and 92 L/1.73 m 2 . Mean terminal half-life for valproate monotherapy ranged from 9 to 16 hours following oral dosing regimens of 250 to 1,000 mg. The estimates cited apply primarily to patients who are not taking drugs that affect hepatic metabolizing enzyme systems. For example, patients taking enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs (carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital) will clear valproate more rapidly. Because of these changes in valproate clearance, monitoring of antiepileptic concentrations should be intensified whenever concomitant antiepileptics are introduced or withdrawn. Special Populations Effect of Age Neonates Children within the first two months of life have a markedly decreased ability to eliminate valproate compared to older children and adults. This is a result of reduced clearance (perhaps due to delay in development of glucuronosyltransferase and other enzyme systems involved in valproate elimination) as well as increased volume of distribution (in part due to decreased plasma protein binding). For example, in one study, the half-life in children under 10 days ranged from 10 to 67 hours compared to a range of 7 to 13 hours in children greater than 2 months. Children Pediatric patients (i.e., between 3 months and 10 years) have 50% higher clearances expressed on weight (i.e., mL/min/kg) than do adults. Over the age of 10 years, children have pharmacokinetic parameters that approximate those of adults. Elderly The capacity of elderly patients (age range: 68 to 89 years) to eliminate valproate has been shown to be reduced compared to younger adults (age range: 22 to 26 years). Intrinsic clearance is reduced by 39%; the free fraction is increased by 44%. Accordingly, the initial dosage should be reduced in the elderly [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.4 )] . Effect of Sex There are no differences in the body surface area adjusted unbound clearance between males and females (4.8±0.17 and 4.7±0.07 L/hr per 1.73 m 2 , respectively). Effect of Race The effects of race on the kinetics of valproate have not been studied. Effect of Disease Liver Disease Liver disease impairs the capacity to eliminate valproate. In one study, the clearance of free valproate was decreased by 50% in 7 patients with cirrhosis and by 16% in 4 patients with acute hepatitis, compared with 6 healthy subjects. In that study, the half-life of valproate was increased from 12 to 18 hours. Liver disease is also associated with decreased albumin concentrations and larger unbound fractions (2-to 2.6-fold increase) of valproate. Accordingly, monitoring of total concentrations may be misleading since free concentrations may be substantially elevated in patients with hepatic disease whereas total concentrations may appear to be normal [see Boxed Warning, Contraindications ( 4 ), and Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] . Renal Disease A slight reduction (27%) in the unbound clearance of valproate has been reported in patients with renal failure (creatinine clearance < 10 mL/minute); however, hemodialysis typically reduces valproate concentrations by about 20%. Therefore, no dosage adjustment appears to be necessary in patients with renal failure. Protein binding in these patients is substantially reduced; thus, monitoring total concentrations may be misleading.

Effective Time

20200609

Version

23

Dosage Forms And Strengths

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Tablets: 125 mg, 250mg and 500mg ( 3 ) 125 mg are white to off-white having mottled spots, oval shaped, enteric-coated tablets with the logo of "ZA08" on one side and plain on other side. 250 mg are white to off-white having mottled spots, oval shape, convex, enteric-coated tablets imprinted with the logo of "ZA07" on one side and plain on other side. 500 mg are white to off-white having mottled spots, oval shape, beveled edge, convex enteric-coated tablets imprinted with the logo of "ZA06" on one side and plain on other side.

Spl Product Data Elements

Divalproex Sodium Divalproex Sodium DIVALPROEX SODIUM VALPROIC ACID AMMONIA BUTYL ALCOHOL CELLULOSE, MICROCRYSTALLINE FERROSOFERRIC OXIDE HYPROMELLOSES ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL MAGNESIUM STEARATE METHACRYLIC ACID POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL, UNSPECIFIED POVIDONE PROPYLENE GLYCOL SHELLAC SILICON DIOXIDE SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO STARCH, CORN TALC TRIETHYL CITRATE WHITE TO OFF WHITE OVAL ZA08 Divalproex Sodium Divalproex Sodium DIVALPROEX SODIUM VALPROIC ACID AMMONIA BUTYL ALCOHOL CELLULOSE, MICROCRYSTALLINE FERROSOFERRIC OXIDE HYPROMELLOSES ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL MAGNESIUM STEARATE METHACRYLIC ACID POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL, UNSPECIFIED POVIDONE PROPYLENE GLYCOL SHELLAC SILICON DIOXIDE SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO STARCH, CORN TALC TRIETHYL CITRATE WHITE TO OFF-WHITE OVAL ZA07 Divalproex Sodium Divalproex Sodium DIVALPROEX SODIUM VALPROIC ACID AMMONIA BUTYL ALCOHOL CELLULOSE, MICROCRYSTALLINE FERROSOFERRIC OXIDE HYPROMELLOSES ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL MAGNESIUM STEARATE METHACRYLIC ACID POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL, UNSPECIFIED POVIDONE PROPYLENE GLYCOL SHELLAC SILICON DIOXIDE SODIUM STARCH GLYCOLATE TYPE A POTATO STARCH, CORN TALC TRIETHYL CITRATE WHITE TO OFF WHITE OVAL ZA06

Carcinogenesis And Mutagenesis And Impairment Of Fertility

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenesis Valproate was administered orally to rats and mice at doses of 80 and 170 mg/kg/day (less than the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m 2 basis) for two years. The primary findings were an increase in the incidence of subcutaneous fibrosarcomas in high-dose male rats receiving valproate and a dose-related trend for benign pulmonary adenomas in male mice receiving valproate. Mutagenesis Valproate was not mutagenic in an in vitro bacterial assay (Ames test), did not produce dominant lethal effects in mice, and did not increase chromosome aberration frequency in an in vivo cytogenetic study in rats. Increased frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) have been reported in a study of epileptic children taking valproate; this association was not observed in another study conducted in adults. Impairment of Fertility In chronic toxicity studies in juvenile and adult rats and dogs, administration of valproate resulted in testicular atrophy and reduced spermatogenesis at oral doses of 400 mg/kg/day or greater in rats (approximately equal to or greater than the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a mg/m 2 basis) and 150 mg/kg/day or greater in dogs (approximately equal to or greater than the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis). Fertility studies in rats have shown no effect on fertility at oral doses of valproate up to 350 mg/kg/day (approximately equal to the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis) for 60 days.

Nonclinical Toxicology

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY 13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenesis Valproate was administered orally to rats and mice at doses of 80 and 170 mg/kg/day (less than the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m 2 basis) for two years. The primary findings were an increase in the incidence of subcutaneous fibrosarcomas in high-dose male rats receiving valproate and a dose-related trend for benign pulmonary adenomas in male mice receiving valproate. Mutagenesis Valproate was not mutagenic in an in vitro bacterial assay (Ames test), did not produce dominant lethal effects in mice, and did not increase chromosome aberration frequency in an in vivo cytogenetic study in rats. Increased frequencies of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) have been reported in a study of epileptic children taking valproate; this association was not observed in another study conducted in adults. Impairment of Fertility In chronic toxicity studies in juvenile and adult rats and dogs, administration of valproate resulted in testicular atrophy and reduced spermatogenesis at oral doses of 400 mg/kg/day or greater in rats (approximately equal to or greater than the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a mg/m 2 basis) and 150 mg/kg/day or greater in dogs (approximately equal to or greater than the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis). Fertility studies in rats have shown no effect on fertility at oral doses of valproate up to 350 mg/kg/day (approximately equal to the MRHD on a mg/m 2 basis) for 60 days.

Application Number

ANDA077100

Brand Name

Divalproex Sodium

Generic Name

Divalproex Sodium

Product Ndc

68382-033

Product Type

HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG

Route

ORAL

Package Label Principal Display Panel

PACKAGE LABEL.PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL NDC 68382-031-01 in bottle of 100 tablets Divalproex Sodium Delayed-release Tablets USP, 125 mg Rx only 100 tablets ZYDUS NDC 68382-032-01 in bottle of 100 tablets Divalproex Sodium Delayed-release Tablets USP, 250 mg Rx only 100 tablets ZYDUS NDC 68382-033-01 in bottle of 100 tablets Divalproex Sodium Delayed-release Tablets USP, 500 mg Rx only 100 tablets ZYDUS Divlaproex Sodium DR Tablets USP, 125 mg Divlaproex Sodium DR Tablets USP, 250 mg Divlaproex Sodium DR Tablets USP, 500 mg

Spl Unclassified Section

Manufactured by: Cadila Healthcare Ltd. Ahmedabad, India Distributed by: Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc. Pennington, NJ 08534 Rev.: 06/20

Information For Patients

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide). Hepatotoxicity Warn patients and guardians that nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, anorexia, diarrhea, asthenia, and/or jaundice can be symptoms of hepatotoxicity and, therefore, require further medical evaluation promptly [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] . Pancreatitis Warn patients and guardians that abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and/or anorexia can be symptoms of pancreatitis and, therefore, require further medical evaluation promptly [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5 )] . Birth Defects and Decreased IQ Inform pregnant women and women of childbearing potential (including girls beginning the onset of puberty) that use of valproate during pregnancy increases the risk of birth defects, decreased IQ, and neurodevelopmental disorders in children who were exposed in utero . Advise women to use effective contraception while taking valproate. When appropriate, counsel these patients about alternative therapeutic options. This is particularly important when valproate use is considered for a condition not usually associated with permanent injury or death such as prophylaxis of migraine headache [see Contraindications ( 4 )] . Advise patients to read the Medication Guide, which appears as the last section of the labeling [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 , 5.3 , 5.4 ) and Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1 )] . Pregnancy Registry Advise women of childbearing potential to discuss pregnancy planning with their doctor and to contact their doctor immediately if they think they are pregnant. Encourage women who are taking divalproex sodium to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry if they become pregnant. This registry is collecting information about the safety of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy. To enroll, patients can call the toll free number 1-888-233-2334 or visit the website, http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/ [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1 )] . Suicidal Thinking and Behavior Counsel patients, their caregivers, and families that AEDs, including divalproex sodium, may increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and to be alert for the emergence or worsening of symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behavior, or the emergence of suicidal thoughts, behavior, or thoughts about self-harm. Instruct patients, caregivers, and families to report behaviors of concern immediately to the healthcare providers [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.7 )] . Hyperammonemia Inform patients of the signs and symptoms associated with hyperammonemic encephalopathy and to notify the prescriber if any of these symptoms occur [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.9 , 5.10 )] . CNS Depression Since valproate products may produce CNS depression, especially when combined with another CNS depressant (e.g., alcohol), advise patients not to engage in hazardous activities, such as driving an automobile or operating dangerous machinery, until it is known that they do not become drowsy from the drug. Multiorgan Hypersensitivity Reactions Instruct patients that a fever associated with other organ system involvement (rash, lymphadenopathy, etc.) may be drug-related and should be reported to the physician immediately [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.12 )] . Medication Residue in the Stool Instruct patients to notify their healthcare provider if they notice a medication residue in the stool [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.18 )] . $ Maalox ® is the registered trademark of Novartis Consumer Health. $ Trisogel ® is the registered trademark of Eli Lilly Corporation. $ Titralac ® is the registered trademark of 3M Pharmaceuticals.

Spl Medguide

MEDICATION GUIDE Divalproex Sodium ( dye val ' proe ex soe' dee um) Delayed-Release Tablets, USP Read this Medication Guide before you start taking divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This information does not take the place of talking to your healthcare provider about your medical condition or treatment. What is the most important information I should know about divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets? Do not stop taking divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets without first talking to your healthcare provider. Stopping divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets suddenly can cause serious problems. Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets can cause serious side effects, including: 1. Serious liver damage that can cause death, especially in children younger than 2 years old. The risk of getting this serious liver damage is more likely to happen within the first 6 months of treatment. Call your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following symptoms: nausea or vomiting that does not go away loss of appetite pain on the right side of your stomach (abdomen) dark urine swelling of your face yellowing of your skin or the whites of your eyes In some cases, liver damage may continue despite stopping the drug. 2. Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets may harm your unborn baby. If you take divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets during pregnancy for any medical condition, your baby is at risk for serious birth defects that affect the brain and spinal cord and are called spina bifida or neural tube defects. These defects occur in 1 to 2 out of every 100 babies born to mothers who use this medicine during pregnancy. These defects can begin in the first month, even before you know you are pregnant. Other birth defects that affect the structures of the heart, head, arms, legs, and the opening where the urine comes out (urethra) on the bottom of the penis can also happen. Decreased hearing or hearing loss can also happen. Birth defects may occur even in children born to women who are not taking any medicines and do not have other risk factors. Taking folic acid supplements before getting pregnant and during early pregnancy can lower the chance of having a baby with a neural tube defect. If you take divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets during pregnancy for any medical condition, your child is at risk for having lower IQ and may be at risk for developing autism or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. There may be other medicines to treat your condition that have a lower chance of causing birth defects, decreased IQ, or other disorders in your child. Women who are pregnant must not take divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets to prevent migraine headaches. All women of child bearing age (including girls from the start of puberty) should talk to their healthcare provider about using other possible treatments instead of divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets. If the decision is made to use divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets, you should use effective birth control (contraception). Tell your healthcare provider right away if you become pregnant while taking divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets. You and your healthcare provider should decide if you will continue to take divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets while you are pregnant. Pregnancy Registry : If you become pregnant while taking divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets, talk to your healthcare provider about registering with the North American Antiepileptic Drug Pregnancy Registry. You can enroll in this registry by calling toll-free 1-888-233-2334 or by visiting the website, http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/. The purpose of this registry is to collect information about the safety of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy. 3. Inflammation of your pancreas that can cause death. Call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of these symptoms: severe stomach pain that you may also feel in your back nausea or vomiting that does not go away 4 Like other antiepileptic drugs, divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets may cause suicidal thoughts or actions in a very small number of people, about 1 in 500. Call a healthcare provider right away if you have any of these symptoms, especially if they are new, worse, or worry you: thoughts about suicide or dying attempts to commit suicide new or worse depression new or worse anxiety feeling agitated or restless panic attacks trouble sleeping (insomnia) new or worse irritability acting aggressive, being angry, or violent acting on dangerous impulses an extreme increase in activity and talking (mania) other unusual changes in behavior or mood How can I watch for early symptoms of suicidal thoughts and actions? Pay attention to any changes, especially sudden changes in mood, behaviors, thoughts, or feelings. Keep all follow-up visits with your healthcare provider as scheduled. Call your healthcare provider between visits as needed, especially if you are worried about symptoms. Do not stop divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets without first talking to a healthcare provider. Stopping divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets suddenly can cause serious problems. Stopping a seizure medicine suddenly in a patient who has epilepsy can cause seizures that will not stop (status epilepticus). Suicidal thoughts or actions can be caused by things other than medicines. If you have suicidal thoughts or actions, your healthcare provider may check for other causes. What are divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets? Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets are prescription medicines used: to treat manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder alone or with other medicines to treat: complex partial seizures in adults and children 10 years of age and older simple and complex absence seizures, with or without other seizure types to prevent migraine headaches Who should not take divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets? Do not take divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets if you: have liver problems have or think you have a genetic liver problem caused by a mitochondrial disorder (e.g., Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome) are allergic to divalproex sodium, valproic acid, sodium valproate, or any of the ingredients in divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets. See the end of this leaflet for a complete list of ingredients in divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets. have a genetic problem called urea cycle disorder are taking it to prevent migraine headaches and are either pregnant or may become pregnant because you are not using effective birth control (contraception) What should I tell my healthcare provider before taking divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets? Before you take divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets, tell your healthcare provider if you: have a genetic liver problem caused by a mitochondrial disorder (e.g. Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome) drink alcohol are pregnant or breastfeeding. Divalproex sodium can pass into breast milk. Talk to your healthcare provider about the best way to feed your baby if you take divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets. have or have had depression, mood problems, or suicidal thoughts or behavior have any other medical conditions Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins, herbal supplements and medicines that you take for a short period of time. Taking divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets with certain other medicines can cause side effects or affect how well they work. Do not start or stop other medicines without talking to your healthcare provider. Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them and show it to your healthcare provider and pharmacist each time you get a new medicine. How should I take divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets? Take divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets exactly as your healthcare provider tells you. Your healthcare provider will tell you how much divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets to take and when to take it. Your healthcare provider may change your dose. Do not change your dose of divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets without talking to your healthcare provider. Do not stop taking divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets without first talking to your healthcare provider . Stopping divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets suddenly can cause serious problems. Swallow divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets whole. Do not crush or chew divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets. Tell your healthcare provider if you cannot swallow divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets whole. You may need a different medicine. If you take too much divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets, call your healthcare provider or local Poison Control Center right away. What should I avoid while taking divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets? Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets can cause drowsiness and dizziness. Do not drink alcohol or take other medicines that make you sleepy or dizzy while taking divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets, until you talk with your doctor. Taking divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets with alcohol or drugs that cause sleepiness or dizziness may make your sleepiness or dizziness worse. Do not drive a car or operate dangerous machinery until you know how divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets affects you. Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets can slow your thinking and motor skills. What are the possible side effects of divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets? See " What is the most important information I should know about divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets? " Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets can cause serious side effects including: Bleeding problems: red or purple spots on your skin, bruising, pain and swelling into your joints due to bleeding or bleeding from your mouth or nose. High ammonia levels in your blood: feeling tired, vomiting, changes in mental status. Low body temperature (hypothermia): drop in your body temperature to less than 95°F, feeling tired, confusion, coma. Allergic (hypersensitivity) reactions: fever, skin rash, hives, sores in your mouth, blistering and peeling of your skin, swelling of your lymph nodes, swelling of your face, eyes, lips, tongue, or throat, trouble swallowing or breathing. Drowsiness or sleepiness in the elderly. This extreme drowsiness may cause you to eat or drink less than you normally would. Tell your doctor if you are not able to eat or drink as you normally do. Your doctor may start you at a lower dose of divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets. Call your healthcare provider right away, if you have any of the symptoms listed above. The common side effects of divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets include: nausea headache sleepiness vomiting weakness tremor dizziness stomach pain blurry vision double vision diarrhea increased appetite weight gain hair loss loss of appetite problems with walking or coordination These are not all of the possible side effects of divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets . For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist. Tell your healthcare provider if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. How should I store divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets? Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Dispense in light-resistant container. Keep divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets and all medicines out of the reach of children. General information about the safe and effective use of divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them. This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets. If you would like more information, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets that is written for health professionals. Please address medical inquiries to, MedicalAffairs@zydususa.com or Tel.: 1-877-993-8779. What are the ingredients in divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets? Active ingredient: divalproex sodium, USP Inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, methacrylic acid copolymer dispersion, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, povidone, sodium starch glycolate, starch (botanical source: maize), talc and triethyl citrate. Each tablet is imprinted with black pharmaceutical ink which contains following inactive ingredients: ammonium hydroxide, ferrosoferric oxide, isopropyl alcohol, n-butyl alcohol, propylene glycol and shellac. This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Clinical Studies

14 CLINICAL STUDIES 14.1 Mania The effectiveness of divalproex sodium for the treatment of acute mania was demonstrated in two 3 week, placebo controlled, parallel group studies. (1) Study 1: The first study enrolled adult patients who met DSM-III-R criteria for bipolar disorder and who were hospitalized for acute mania. In addition, they had a history of failing to respond to or not tolerating previous lithium carbonate treatment. Divalproex sodium was initiated at a dose of 250 mg tid and adjusted to achieve serum valproate concentrations in a range of 50 to 100 mcg/mL by day 7. Mean divalproex sodium doses for completers in this study were 1,118, 1,525, and 2,402 mg/day at Days 7, 14, and 21, respectively. Patients were assessed on the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS; score ranges from 0 to 60), an augmented Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-A), and the Global Assessment Scale (GAS). Baseline scores and change from baseline in the Week 3 endpoint (last-observation-carry-forward) analysis were as follows: Table 6 Study 1 1. Mean score at baseline 2. Change from baseline to Week 3 (LOCF) 3. Difference in change from baseline to Week 3 endpoint (LOCF) between divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets and placebo YMRS Total Score Group Baseline 1 BL to Wk 3 2 Difference 3 Placebo 28.8 + 0.2 Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets 28.5 -9.5 9.7 BPRS-A Total Score Group Baseline 1 BL to Wk 3 2 Difference 3 Placebo 76.2 + 1.8 Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets 76.4 -17 18.8 GAS Score Group Baseline 1 BL to Wk 3 2 Difference 3 Placebo 31.8 0 Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets 30.3 + 18.1 18.1 Divalproex sodium was statistically significantly superior to placebo on all three measures of outcome. (2) Study 2: The second study enrolled adult patients who met Research Diagnostic Criteria for manic disorder and who were hospitalized for acute mania. Divalproex sodium was initiated at a dose of 250 mg tid and adjusted within a dose range of 750 to 2,500 mg/day to achieve serum valproate concentrations in a range of 40 to 150 mcg/mL Mean divalproex sodium doses for completers in this study were 1,116, 1,683, and 2,006 mg/day at Days 7, 14, and 21, respectively. Study 2 also included a lithium group for which lithium doses for completers were 1,312, 1,869, and 1,984 mg/day at Days 7, 14, and 21, respectively. Patients were assessed on the Manic Rating Scale (MRS; score ranges from 11 to 63), and the primary outcome measures were the total MRS score, and scores for two subscales of the MRS, i.e., the Manic Syndrome Scale (MSS) and the Behavior and Ideation Scale (BIS). Baseline scores and change from baseline in the Week 3 endpoint (last- observation-carry-forward) analysis were as follows: Table 7 Study 2 1. Mean score at baseline 2. Change from baseline to Day 21 (LOCF) 3. Difference in change from baseline to Day 21 endpoint (LOCF) between divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets and placebo and lithium and placebo MRS Total Score Group Baseline 1 BL to Day 21 2 Difference 3 Placebo 38.9 - 4.4 Lithium 37.9 -10.5 6.1 Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets 38.1 - 9.5 5.1 MSS Total Score Group Baseline 1 BL to Day 21 2 Difference 3 Placebo 18.9 - 2.5 Lithium 18.5 - 6.2 3.7 Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets 18.9 - 6 3.5 BIS Total Score Group Baseline 1 BL to Day 21 2 Difference 3 Placebo 16.4 - 1.4 Lithium 16 - 3.8 2.4 Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets 15.7 - 3.2 1.8 Divalproex sodium was statistically significantly superior to placebo on all three measures of outcome. An exploratory analysis for age and gender effects on outcome did not suggest any differential responsiveness on the basis of age or gender. A comparison of the percentage of patients showing ≥ 30% reduction in the symptom score from baseline in each treatment group, separated by study, is shown in Figure 1. *p < 0.05 PBO = placebo, DVDRT = Divalproex Sodium Delayed-release Tablets, USP 14.2 Epilepsy The efficacy of valproate in reducing the incidence of complex partial seizures (CPS) that occur in isolation or in association with other seizure types was established in two controlled trials. In one, multi-clinic, placebo-controlled study employing an add-on design (adjunctive therapy), 144 patients who continued to suffer eight or more CPS per 8 weeks during an 8 week period of monotherapy with doses of either carbamazepine or phenytoin sufficient to assure plasma concentrations within the "therapeutic range" were randomized to receive, in addition to their original antiepilepsy drug (AED), either divalproex sodium or placebo. Randomized patients were to be followed for a total of 16 weeks. The following Table presents the findings. Table 8 Adjunctive Therapy Study Median Incidence of CPS per 8 Weeks * Reduction from baseline statistically significantly greater for valproate than placebo at p ≤ 0.05 level. Add-on Treatment Number of Patients Baseline Incidence Experimental Incidence Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets 75 16 8.9 * Placebo 69 14.5 11.5 Figure 2 presents the proportion of patients (X axis) whose percentage reduction from baseline in complex partial seizure rates was at least as great as that indicated on the Y axis in the adjunctive therapy study. A positive percent reduction indicates an improvement (i.e., a decrease in seizure frequency), while a negative percent reduction indicates worsening. Thus, in a display of this type, the curve for an effective treatment is shifted to the left of the curve for placebo. This Figure shows that the proportion of patients achieving any particular level of improvement was consistently higher for valproate than for placebo. For example, 45% of patients treated with valproate had a ≥ 50% reduction in complex partial seizure rate compared to 23% of patients treated with placebo. Figure 2 The second study assessed the capacity of valproate to reduce the incidence of CPS when administered as the sole AED. The study compared the incidence of CPS among patients randomized to either a high or low dose treatment arm. Patients qualified for entry into the randomized comparison phase of this study only if 1) they continued to experience 2 or more CPS per 4 weeks during an 8 to 12 week long period of monotherapy with adequate doses of an AED (i.e., phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, or primidone) and 2) they made a successful transition over a two week interval to valproate. Patients entering the randomized phase were then brought to their assigned target dose, gradually tapered off their concomitant AED and followed for an interval as long as 22 weeks. Less than 50% of the patients randomized, however, completed the study. In patients converted to divalproex sodium monotherapy, the mean total valproate concentrations during monotherapy were 71 and 123 mcg/mL in the low dose and high dose groups, respectively. The following Table presents the findings for all patients randomized who had at least one post-randomization assessment. Table 9 Monotherapy Study Median Incidence of CPS per 8 Weeks * Reduction from baseline statistically significantly greater for high dose than low dose at p ≤ 0.05 level. Treatment Number of Patients Baseline Incidence Randomized Phase Incidence High dose divalproex sodium 131 13.2 10.7 * Low dose divalproex sodium 134 14.2 13.8 Figure 3 presents the proportion of patients (X axis) whose percentage reduction from baseline in complex partial seizure rates was at least as great as that indicated on the Y axis in the monotherapy study. A positive percent reduction indicates an improvement (i.e., a decrease in seizure frequency), while a negative percent reduction indicates worsening. Thus, in a display of this type, the curve for a more effective treatment is shifted to the left of the curve for a less effective treatment. This Figure shows that the proportion of patients achieving any particular level of reduction was consistently higher for high dose valproate than for low dose valproate. For example, when switching from carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital or primidone monotherapy to high dose valproate monotherapy, 63% of patients experienced no change or a reduction in complex partial seizure rates compared to 54% of patients receiving low dose valproate. Figure 3 Information on pediatric studies is presented in section 8. 14.3 Migraine The results of two multicenter, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials established the effectiveness of divalproex sodium in the prophylactic treatment of migraine headache. Both studies employed essentially identical designs and recruited patients with a history of migraine with or without aura (of at least 6 months in duration) who were experiencing at least 2 migraine headaches a month during the 3 months prior to enrollment. Patients with cluster headaches were excluded. Women of childbearing potential were excluded entirely from one study, but were permitted in the other if they were deemed to be practicing an effective method of contraception. In each study following a 4 week single blind placebo baseline period, patients were randomized, under double blind conditions, to divalproex sodium or placebo for a 12 week treatment phase, comprised of a 4 week dose titration period followed by an 8 week maintenance period. Treatment outcome was assessed on the basis of 4 week migraine headache rates during the treatment phase. In the first study, a total of 107 patients (24 M, 83 F), ranging in age from 26 to 73 were randomized 2:1, divalproex sodium to placebo. Ninety patients completed the 8 week maintenance period. Drug dose titration, using 250 mg tablets, was individualized at the investigator's discretion. Adjustments were guided by actual/sham trough total serum valproate levels in order to maintain the study blind. In patients on divalproex sodium doses ranged from 500 to 2,500 mg a day. Doses over 500 mg were given in three divided doses (TID). The mean dose during the treatment phase was 1,087 mg/day resulting in a mean trough total valproate level of 72.5 mcg/mL, with a range of 31 to 133 mcg/mL. The mean 4 week migraine headache rate during the treatment phase was 5.7 in the placebo group compared to 3.5 in the divalproex sodium group (see Figure 4). These rates were significantly different. In the second study, a total of 176 patients (19 males and 157 females), ranging in age from 17 to 76 years, were randomized equally to one of three divalproex sodium dose groups (500, 1,000, or 1,500 mg/day) or placebo. The treatments were given in two divided doses (BID). One hundred thirty seven patients completed the 8 week maintenance period. Efficacy was to be determined by a comparison of the 4 week migraine headache rate in the combined 1,000/1,500 mg/day group and placebo group. The initial dose was 250 mg daily. The regimen was advanced by 250 mg every 4 days (8 days for 500 mg/day group), until the randomized dose was achieved. The mean trough total valproate levels during the treatment phase were 39.6, 62.5, and 72.5 mcg/mL in the divalproex sodium 500, 1,000, and 1,500 mg/day groups, respectively. The mean 4 week migraine headache rates during the treatment phase, adjusted for differences in baseline rates, were 4.5 in the placebo group, compared to 3.3, 3, and 3.3 in the divalproex sodium 500, 1,000, and 1,500 mg/day groups, respectively, based on intent-to-treat results (see Figure 4). Migraine headache rates in the combined divalproex sodium 1,000/1,500 mg group were significantly lower than in the placebo group. Figure 4 Mean 4 week Migraine Rates Figure 4. Mean 4 week Migraine Rates DVDRT = Divalproex Sodium Delayed-release Tablets, USP 1 Mean dose of divalproex sodium was 1,087 mg/day. 2 Dose of divalproex sodium was 500 or 1,000 mg/day. Divalproex Sodium DR Tablets Divalproex Sodium DR Tablets Divalproex Sodium DR Tablets Divalproex Sodium DR Tablets

Clinical Studies Table

Table 6 Study 1

1. Mean score at baseline

2. Change from baseline to Week 3 (LOCF)

3. Difference in change from baseline to Week 3 endpoint (LOCF) between divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets and placebo

YMRS Total Score
Group Baseline1 BL to Wk 32 Difference3
Placebo 28.8 + 0.2
Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets 28.5 -9.5 9.7
BPRS-A Total Score
Group Baseline1 BL to Wk 32 Difference3
Placebo 76.2 + 1.8
Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets 76.4 -17 18.8
GAS Score
Group Baseline1 BL to Wk 32 Difference3
Placebo 31.8 0
Divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets 30.3 + 18.1 18.1

References

15 REFERENCES 1. Meador KJ, Baker GA, Browning N, et al. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure and cognitive outcomes at age 6 years (NEAD study): a prospective observational study. Lancet Neurology 2013; 12 (3):244-252.

Geriatric Use

8.5 Geriatric Use No patients above the age of 65 years were enrolled in double-blind prospective clinical trials of mania associated with bipolar illness. In a case review study of 583 patients, 72 patients (12%) were greater than 65 years of age. A higher percentage of patients above 65 years of age reported accidental injury, infection, pain, somnolence, and tremor. Discontinuation of valproate was occasionally associated with the latter two events. It is not clear whether these events indicate additional risk or whether they result from preexisting medical illness and concomitant medication use among these patients. A study of elderly patients with dementia revealed drug related somnolence and discontinuation for somnolence [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.14 )] . The starting dose should be reduced in these patients, and dosage reductions or discontinuation should be considered in patients with excessive somnolence [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.4 )] . There is insufficient information available to discern the safety and effectiveness of valproate for the prophylaxis of migraines in patients over 65.

Nursing Mothers

8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential Contraception Women of childbearing potential should use effective contraception while taking valproate [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 ), Drug Interactions ( 7 ), and Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1 )] . This is especially important when valproate use is considered for a condition not usually associated with permanent injury or death such as prophylaxis of migraine headaches [see Contraindications ( 4 )] . Infertility There have been reports of male infertility coincident with valproate therapy [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.4 )] . In animal studies, oral administration of valproate at clinically relevant doses resulted in adverse reproductive effects in males [see Nonclinical Toxicology ( 13.1 )] .

Pediatric Use

8.4 Pediatric Use Experience has indicated that pediatric patients under the age of two years are at a considerably increased risk of developing fatal hepatotoxicity, especially those with the aforementioned conditions [see Boxed Warning and Warning and Precautions ( 5.1 )] . When divalproex sodium is used in this patient group, it should be used with extreme caution and as a sole agent. The benefits of therapy should be weighed against the risks. Above the age of 2 years, experience in epilepsy has indicated that the incidence of fatal hepatotoxicity decreases considerably in progressively older patient groups. Younger children, especially those receiving enzyme-inducing drugs, will require larger maintenance doses to attain targeted total and unbound valproate concentrations. Pediatric patients (i.e., between 3 months and 10 years) have 50% higher clearances expressed on weight (i.e., mL/min/kg) than do adults. Over the age of 10 years, children have pharmacokinetic parameters that approximate those of adults. The variability in free fraction limits the clinical usefulness of monitoring total serum valproic acid concentrations. Interpretation of valproic acid concentrations in children should include consideration of factors that affect hepatic metabolism and protein binding. Pediatric Clinical Trials Divalproex sodium was studied in seven pediatric clinical trials. Two of the pediatric studies were double-blinded placebo-controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of divalproex sodium extended-release for the indications of mania (150 patients aged 10 to 17 years, 76 of whom were on divalproex sodium extended-release) and migraine (304 patients aged 12 to 17 years, 231 of whom were on divalproex sodium extended-release). Efficacy was not established for either the treatment of migraine or the treatment of mania. The most common drug-related adverse reactions (reported > 5% and twice the rate of placebo) reported in the controlled pediatric mania study were nausea, upper abdominal pain, somnolence, increased ammonia, gastritis and rash. The remaining five trials were long term safety studies. Two six month pediatric studies were conducted to evaluate the long-term safety of divalproex sodium extended-release for the indication of mania (292 patients aged 10 to 17 years). Two twelve-month pediatric studies were conducted to evaluate the long-term safety of divalproex sodium extended-release for the indication of migraine (353 patients aged 12 to 17 years). One twelve-month study was conducted to evaluate the safety of divalproex sodium delayed-release capsules in the indication of partial seizures (169 patients aged 3 to 10 years). In these seven clinical trials, the safety and tolerability of divalproex sodium in pediatric patients were shown to be comparable to those in adults [see Adverse Reactions ( 6 )] . Juvenile Animal Toxicology In studies of valproate in immature animals, toxic effects not observed in adult animals included retinal dysplasia in rats treated during the neonatal period (from postnatal day 4) and nephrotoxicity in rats treated during the neonatal and juvenile (from postnatal day 14) periods. The no-effect dose for these findings was less than the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m 2 basis.

Pregnancy

8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Exposure Registry There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including Divalproex sodium, during pregnancy. Encourage women who are taking Divalproex Sodium during pregnancy to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry by calling toll-free 1-888-233-2334 or visiting the website, http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/. This must be done by the patient herself. Risk Summary For use in prophylaxis of migraine headaches, valproate is contraindicated in women who are pregnant and in women of childbearing potential who are not using effective contraception [see Contraindications ( 4 )] . For use in epilepsy or bipolar disorder, valproate should not be used to treat women who are pregnant or who plan to become pregnant unless other medications have failed to provide adequate symptom control or are otherwise unacceptable [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 , 5.3 )] . Women with epilepsy who become pregnant while taking valproate should not discontinue valproate abruptly, as this can precipitate status epilepticus with resulting maternal and fetal hypoxia and threat to life. Maternal valproate use during pregnancy for any indication increases the risk of congenital malformations, particularly neural tube defects including spina bifida, but also malformations involving other body systems (e.g., craniofacial defects including oral clefts, cardiovascular malformations, hypospadias, limb malformations). This risk is dose-dependent; however, a threshold dose below which no risk exists cannot be established. In utero exposure to valproate may also result in hearing impairment or hearing loss. Valproate polytherapy with other AEDs has been associated with an increased frequency of congenital malformations compared with AED monotherapy. The risk of major structural abnormalities is greatest during the first trimester; however, other serious developmental effects can occur with valproate use throughout pregnancy. The rate of congenital malformations among babies born to epileptic mothers who used valproate during pregnancy has been shown to be about four times higher than the rate among babies born to epileptic mothers who used other anti-seizure monotherapies [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 ) and Data (Human)] . Epidemiological studies have indicated that children exposed to valproate in utero have lower IQ scores and a higher risk of neurodevelopmental disorders compared to children exposed to either another AED in utero or to no AEDs in utero [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 ) and Data (Human)] . An observational study has suggested that exposure to valproate products during pregnancy increases the risk of autism spectrum disorders [see Data (Human)] . In animal studies, valproate administration during pregnancy resulted in fetal structural malformations similar to those seen in humans and neurobehavioral deficits in the offspring at clinically relevant doses [see Data (Animal)] . There have been reports of hypoglycemia in neonates and fatal cases of hepatic failure in infants following maternal use of valproate during pregnancy. Pregnant women taking valproate may develop hepatic failure or clotting abnormalities including thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, and/or decrease in other coagulation factors, which may result in hemorrhagic complications in the neonate including death [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 , 5.8 )] . Available prenatal diagnostic testing to detect neural tube and other defects should be offered to pregnant women using valproate. Evidence suggests that folic acid supplementation prior to conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy decreases the risk for congenital neural tube defects in the general population. It is not known whether the risk of neural tube defects or decreased IQ in the offspring of women receiving valproate is reduced by folic acid supplementation. Dietary folic acid supplementation both prior to conception and during pregnancy should be routinely recommended for patients using valproate [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 , 5.4 )]. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk To prevent major seizures, women with epilepsy should not discontinue valproate abruptly, as this can precipitate status epilepticus with resulting maternal and fetal hypoxia and threat to life. Even minor seizures may pose some hazard to the developing embryo or fetus [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )] . However, discontinuation of the drug may be considered prior to and during pregnancy in individual cases if the seizure disorder severity and frequency do not pose a serious threat to the patient. Maternal adverse reactions Pregnant women taking valproate may develop clotting abnormalities including thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, and/or decrease in other coagulation factors, which may result in hemorrhagic complications in the neonate including death [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8 )] . If valproate is used in pregnancy, the clotting parameters should be monitored carefully in the mother. If abnormal in the mother, then these parameters should also be monitored in the neonate. Patients taking valproate may develop hepatic failure [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] . Fatal cases of hepatic failure in infants exposed to valproate in utero have also been reported following maternal use of valproate during pregnancy. Hypoglycemia has been reported in neonates whose mothers have taken valproate during pregnancy. Data Human Neural tube defects and other structural abnormalities There is an extensive body of evidence demonstrating that exposure to valproate in utero increases the risk of neural tube defects and other structural abnormalities. Based on published data from the CDC's National Birth Defects Prevention Network, the risk of spina bifida in the general population is about 0.06 to 0.07% (6 to 7 in 10,000 births) compared to the risk following in utero valproate exposure estimated to be approximately 1 to 2% (100 to 200 in 10,000 births). The NAAED Pregnancy Registry has reported a major malformation rate of 9 to 11% in the offspring of women exposed to an average of 1,000 mg/day of valproate monotherapy during pregnancy. These data show an up to a five-fold increased risk for any major malformation following valproate exposure in utero compared to the risk following exposure in utero to other AEDs taken as monotherapy. The major congenital malformations included cases of neural tube defects, cardiovascular malformations, craniofacial defects (e.g., oral clefts, craniosynostosis), hypospadias, limb malformations (e.g., clubfoot, polydactyly), and other malformations of varying severity involving other body systems [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] . Effect on IQ and neurodevelopmental effects Published epidemiological studies have indicated that children exposed to valproate in utero have lower IQ scores than children exposed to either another AED in utero or to no AEDs in utero . The largest of these studies 1 is a prospective cohort study conducted in the United States and United Kingdom that found that children with prenatal exposure to valproate (n=62) had lower IQ scores at age 6 (97 [95% C.I. 94 to 101]) than children with prenatal exposure to the other anti-epileptic drug monotherapy treatments evaluated: lamotrigine (108 [95% C.I. 105 to 110]), carbamazepine (105 [95% C.I. 102 to 108]) and phenytoin (108 [95% C.I. 104 to 112]). It is not known when during pregnancy cognitive effects in valproate-exposed children occur. Because the women in this study were exposed to AEDs throughout pregnancy, whether the risk for decreased IQ was related to a particular time period during pregnancy could not be assessed [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 )] . Although the available studies have methodological limitations, the weight of the evidence supports a causal association between valproate exposure in utero and subsequent adverse effects on neurodevelopment, including increases in autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). An observational study has suggested that exposure to valproate products during pregnancy increases the risk of autism spectrum disorders. In this study, children born to mothers who had used valproate products during pregnancy had 2.9 times the risk (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7 to 4.9) of developing autism spectrum disorders compared to children born to mothers not exposed to valproate products during pregnancy. The absolute risks for autism spectrum disorders were 4.4% (95% CI: 2.6% to 7.5%) in valproate-exposed children and 1.5% (95% CI: 1.5% to 1.6%) in children not exposed to valproate products. Another observational study found that children who were exposed to valproate in utero had an increased risk of ADHD (adjusted HR 1.48; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2) compared with the unexposed children. Because these studies were observational in nature, conclusions regarding a causal association between in utero valproate exposure and an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder and ADHD cannot be considered definitive. Other There are published case reports of fatal hepatic failure in offspring of women who used valproate during pregnancy. Animal In developmental toxicity studies conducted in mice, rats, rabbits, and monkeys, increased rates of fetal structural abnormalities, intrauterine growth retardation, and embryo-fetal death occurred following administration of valproate to pregnant animals during organogenesis at clinically relevant doses (calculated on a body surface area [mg/m 2 ] basis). Valproate induced malformations of multiple organ systems, including skeletal, cardiac, and urogenital defects. In mice, in addition to other malformations, fetal neural tube defects have been reported following valproate administration during critical periods of organogenesis, and the teratogenic response correlated with peak maternal drug levels. Behavioral abnormalities (including cognitive, locomotor, and social interaction deficits) and brain histopathological changes have also been reported in mice and rat offspring exposed prenatally to clinically relevant doses of valproate.

Use In Specific Populations

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: Divalproex sodium can cause congenital malformations including neural tube defects, decreased IQ, and neurodevelopmental disorders ( 5.2 , 5.3 , 8.1 ) Pediatric: Children under the age of two years are at considerably higher risk of fatal hepatotoxicity ( 5.1 , 8.4 ) Geriatric: Reduce starting dose; increase dosage more slowly; monitor fluid and nutritional intake, and somnolence ( 5.14 , 8.5 ) 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Exposure Registry There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including Divalproex sodium, during pregnancy. Encourage women who are taking Divalproex Sodium during pregnancy to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry by calling toll-free 1-888-233-2334 or visiting the website, http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/. This must be done by the patient herself. Risk Summary For use in prophylaxis of migraine headaches, valproate is contraindicated in women who are pregnant and in women of childbearing potential who are not using effective contraception [see Contraindications ( 4 )] . For use in epilepsy or bipolar disorder, valproate should not be used to treat women who are pregnant or who plan to become pregnant unless other medications have failed to provide adequate symptom control or are otherwise unacceptable [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 , 5.3 )] . Women with epilepsy who become pregnant while taking valproate should not discontinue valproate abruptly, as this can precipitate status epilepticus with resulting maternal and fetal hypoxia and threat to life. Maternal valproate use during pregnancy for any indication increases the risk of congenital malformations, particularly neural tube defects including spina bifida, but also malformations involving other body systems (e.g., craniofacial defects including oral clefts, cardiovascular malformations, hypospadias, limb malformations). This risk is dose-dependent; however, a threshold dose below which no risk exists cannot be established. In utero exposure to valproate may also result in hearing impairment or hearing loss. Valproate polytherapy with other AEDs has been associated with an increased frequency of congenital malformations compared with AED monotherapy. The risk of major structural abnormalities is greatest during the first trimester; however, other serious developmental effects can occur with valproate use throughout pregnancy. The rate of congenital malformations among babies born to epileptic mothers who used valproate during pregnancy has been shown to be about four times higher than the rate among babies born to epileptic mothers who used other anti-seizure monotherapies [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 ) and Data (Human)] . Epidemiological studies have indicated that children exposed to valproate in utero have lower IQ scores and a higher risk of neurodevelopmental disorders compared to children exposed to either another AED in utero or to no AEDs in utero [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 ) and Data (Human)] . An observational study has suggested that exposure to valproate products during pregnancy increases the risk of autism spectrum disorders [see Data (Human)] . In animal studies, valproate administration during pregnancy resulted in fetal structural malformations similar to those seen in humans and neurobehavioral deficits in the offspring at clinically relevant doses [see Data (Animal)] . There have been reports of hypoglycemia in neonates and fatal cases of hepatic failure in infants following maternal use of valproate during pregnancy. Pregnant women taking valproate may develop hepatic failure or clotting abnormalities including thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, and/or decrease in other coagulation factors, which may result in hemorrhagic complications in the neonate including death [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 , 5.8 )] . Available prenatal diagnostic testing to detect neural tube and other defects should be offered to pregnant women using valproate. Evidence suggests that folic acid supplementation prior to conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy decreases the risk for congenital neural tube defects in the general population. It is not known whether the risk of neural tube defects or decreased IQ in the offspring of women receiving valproate is reduced by folic acid supplementation. Dietary folic acid supplementation both prior to conception and during pregnancy should be routinely recommended for patients using valproate [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 , 5.4 )]. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk To prevent major seizures, women with epilepsy should not discontinue valproate abruptly, as this can precipitate status epilepticus with resulting maternal and fetal hypoxia and threat to life. Even minor seizures may pose some hazard to the developing embryo or fetus [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )] . However, discontinuation of the drug may be considered prior to and during pregnancy in individual cases if the seizure disorder severity and frequency do not pose a serious threat to the patient. Maternal adverse reactions Pregnant women taking valproate may develop clotting abnormalities including thrombocytopenia, hypofibrinogenemia, and/or decrease in other coagulation factors, which may result in hemorrhagic complications in the neonate including death [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8 )] . If valproate is used in pregnancy, the clotting parameters should be monitored carefully in the mother. If abnormal in the mother, then these parameters should also be monitored in the neonate. Patients taking valproate may develop hepatic failure [see Boxed Warning and Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] . Fatal cases of hepatic failure in infants exposed to valproate in utero have also been reported following maternal use of valproate during pregnancy. Hypoglycemia has been reported in neonates whose mothers have taken valproate during pregnancy. Data Human Neural tube defects and other structural abnormalities There is an extensive body of evidence demonstrating that exposure to valproate in utero increases the risk of neural tube defects and other structural abnormalities. Based on published data from the CDC's National Birth Defects Prevention Network, the risk of spina bifida in the general population is about 0.06 to 0.07% (6 to 7 in 10,000 births) compared to the risk following in utero valproate exposure estimated to be approximately 1 to 2% (100 to 200 in 10,000 births). The NAAED Pregnancy Registry has reported a major malformation rate of 9 to 11% in the offspring of women exposed to an average of 1,000 mg/day of valproate monotherapy during pregnancy. These data show an up to a five-fold increased risk for any major malformation following valproate exposure in utero compared to the risk following exposure in utero to other AEDs taken as monotherapy. The major congenital malformations included cases of neural tube defects, cardiovascular malformations, craniofacial defects (e.g., oral clefts, craniosynostosis), hypospadias, limb malformations (e.g., clubfoot, polydactyly), and other malformations of varying severity involving other body systems [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] . Effect on IQ and neurodevelopmental effects Published epidemiological studies have indicated that children exposed to valproate in utero have lower IQ scores than children exposed to either another AED in utero or to no AEDs in utero . The largest of these studies 1 is a prospective cohort study conducted in the United States and United Kingdom that found that children with prenatal exposure to valproate (n=62) had lower IQ scores at age 6 (97 [95% C.I. 94 to 101]) than children with prenatal exposure to the other anti-epileptic drug monotherapy treatments evaluated: lamotrigine (108 [95% C.I. 105 to 110]), carbamazepine (105 [95% C.I. 102 to 108]) and phenytoin (108 [95% C.I. 104 to 112]). It is not known when during pregnancy cognitive effects in valproate-exposed children occur. Because the women in this study were exposed to AEDs throughout pregnancy, whether the risk for decreased IQ was related to a particular time period during pregnancy could not be assessed [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 )] . Although the available studies have methodological limitations, the weight of the evidence supports a causal association between valproate exposure in utero and subsequent adverse effects on neurodevelopment, including increases in autism spectrum disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). An observational study has suggested that exposure to valproate products during pregnancy increases the risk of autism spectrum disorders. In this study, children born to mothers who had used valproate products during pregnancy had 2.9 times the risk (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7 to 4.9) of developing autism spectrum disorders compared to children born to mothers not exposed to valproate products during pregnancy. The absolute risks for autism spectrum disorders were 4.4% (95% CI: 2.6% to 7.5%) in valproate-exposed children and 1.5% (95% CI: 1.5% to 1.6%) in children not exposed to valproate products. Another observational study found that children who were exposed to valproate in utero had an increased risk of ADHD (adjusted HR 1.48; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2) compared with the unexposed children. Because these studies were observational in nature, conclusions regarding a causal association between in utero valproate exposure and an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder and ADHD cannot be considered definitive. Other There are published case reports of fatal hepatic failure in offspring of women who used valproate during pregnancy. Animal In developmental toxicity studies conducted in mice, rats, rabbits, and monkeys, increased rates of fetal structural abnormalities, intrauterine growth retardation, and embryo-fetal death occurred following administration of valproate to pregnant animals during organogenesis at clinically relevant doses (calculated on a body surface area [mg/m 2 ] basis). Valproate induced malformations of multiple organ systems, including skeletal, cardiac, and urogenital defects. In mice, in addition to other malformations, fetal neural tube defects have been reported following valproate administration during critical periods of organogenesis, and the teratogenic response correlated with peak maternal drug levels. Behavioral abnormalities (including cognitive, locomotor, and social interaction deficits) and brain histopathological changes have also been reported in mice and rat offspring exposed prenatally to clinically relevant doses of valproate. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary Valproate is excreted in human milk. Data in the published literature describe the presence of valproate in human milk (range: 0.4 mcg/mL to 3.9 mcg/mL), corresponding to 1% to 10% of maternal serum levels. Valproate serum concentrations collected from breastfed infants aged 3 days postnatal to 12 weeks following delivery ranged from 0.7 mcg/mL to 4 mcg/mL, which were 1% to 6% of maternal serum valproate levels. A published study in children up to six years of age did not report adverse developmental or cognitive effects following exposure to valproate via breast milk [see Data (Human)] . There are no data to assess the effects of divalproex sodium on milk production or excretion. Clinical Considerations The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for divalproex sodium and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from divalproex sodium or from the underlying maternal condition. Monitor the breastfed infant for signs of liver damage including jaundice and unusual bruising or bleeding. There have been reports of hepatic failure and clotting abnormalities in offspring of women who used valproate during pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1 )] . Data Human In a published study, breast milk and maternal blood samples were obtained from 11 epilepsy patients taking valproate at doses ranging from 300 mg/day to 2,400 mg/day on postnatal days 3 to 6. In 4 patients who were taking valproate only, breast milk contained an average valproate concentration of 1.8 mcg/mL (range: 1.1 mcg/mL to 2.2 mcg/mL), which corresponded to 4.8% of the maternal plasma concentration (range: 2.7% to 7.4%). Across all patients (7 of whom were taking other AEDs concomitantly), similar results were obtained for breast milk concentration (1.8 mcg/mL, range: 0.4 mcg/mL to 3.9 mcg/mL) and maternal plasma ratio (5.1%, range: 1.3% to 9.6%). A published study of 6 breastfeeding mother-infant pairs measured serum valproate levels during maternal treatment for bipolar disorder (750 mg/day or 1,000 mg/day). None of the mothers received valproate during pregnancy, and infants were aged from 4 weeks to 19 weeks at the time of evaluation. Infant serum levels ranged from 0.7 mcg/mL to 1.5 mcg/mL. With maternal serum valproate levels near or within the therapeutic range, infant exposure was 0.9% to 2.3% of maternal levels. Similarly, in 2 published case reports with maternal doses of 500 mg/day or 750 mg/day during breastfeeding of infants aged 3 months and 1 month, infant exposure was 1.5% and 6% that of the mother, respectively. A prospective observational multicenter study evaluated the long-term neurodevelopmental effects of AED use on children. Pregnant women receiving monotherapy for epilepsy were enrolled with assessments of their children at ages 3 years and 6 years. Mothers continued AED therapy during the breastfeeding period. Adjusted IQs measured at 3 years for breastfed and non-breastfed children were 93 (n=11) and 90 (n=24), respectively. At 6 years, the scores for breastfed and non-breastfed children were 106 (n=11) and 94 (n=25), respectively (p=0.04). For other cognitive domains evaluated at 6 years, no adverse cognitive effects of continued exposure to an AED (including valproate) via breast milk were observed. 8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential Contraception Women of childbearing potential should use effective contraception while taking valproate [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 ), Drug Interactions ( 7 ), and Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1 )] . This is especially important when valproate use is considered for a condition not usually associated with permanent injury or death such as prophylaxis of migraine headaches [see Contraindications ( 4 )] . Infertility There have been reports of male infertility coincident with valproate therapy [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.4 )] . In animal studies, oral administration of valproate at clinically relevant doses resulted in adverse reproductive effects in males [see Nonclinical Toxicology ( 13.1 )] . 8.4 Pediatric Use Experience has indicated that pediatric patients under the age of two years are at a considerably increased risk of developing fatal hepatotoxicity, especially those with the aforementioned conditions [see Boxed Warning and Warning and Precautions ( 5.1 )] . When divalproex sodium is used in this patient group, it should be used with extreme caution and as a sole agent. The benefits of therapy should be weighed against the risks. Above the age of 2 years, experience in epilepsy has indicated that the incidence of fatal hepatotoxicity decreases considerably in progressively older patient groups. Younger children, especially those receiving enzyme-inducing drugs, will require larger maintenance doses to attain targeted total and unbound valproate concentrations. Pediatric patients (i.e., between 3 months and 10 years) have 50% higher clearances expressed on weight (i.e., mL/min/kg) than do adults. Over the age of 10 years, children have pharmacokinetic parameters that approximate those of adults. The variability in free fraction limits the clinical usefulness of monitoring total serum valproic acid concentrations. Interpretation of valproic acid concentrations in children should include consideration of factors that affect hepatic metabolism and protein binding. Pediatric Clinical Trials Divalproex sodium was studied in seven pediatric clinical trials. Two of the pediatric studies were double-blinded placebo-controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of divalproex sodium extended-release for the indications of mania (150 patients aged 10 to 17 years, 76 of whom were on divalproex sodium extended-release) and migraine (304 patients aged 12 to 17 years, 231 of whom were on divalproex sodium extended-release). Efficacy was not established for either the treatment of migraine or the treatment of mania. The most common drug-related adverse reactions (reported > 5% and twice the rate of placebo) reported in the controlled pediatric mania study were nausea, upper abdominal pain, somnolence, increased ammonia, gastritis and rash. The remaining five trials were long term safety studies. Two six month pediatric studies were conducted to evaluate the long-term safety of divalproex sodium extended-release for the indication of mania (292 patients aged 10 to 17 years). Two twelve-month pediatric studies were conducted to evaluate the long-term safety of divalproex sodium extended-release for the indication of migraine (353 patients aged 12 to 17 years). One twelve-month study was conducted to evaluate the safety of divalproex sodium delayed-release capsules in the indication of partial seizures (169 patients aged 3 to 10 years). In these seven clinical trials, the safety and tolerability of divalproex sodium in pediatric patients were shown to be comparable to those in adults [see Adverse Reactions ( 6 )] . Juvenile Animal Toxicology In studies of valproate in immature animals, toxic effects not observed in adult animals included retinal dysplasia in rats treated during the neonatal period (from postnatal day 4) and nephrotoxicity in rats treated during the neonatal and juvenile (from postnatal day 14) periods. The no-effect dose for these findings was less than the maximum recommended human dose on a mg/m 2 basis. 8.5 Geriatric Use No patients above the age of 65 years were enrolled in double-blind prospective clinical trials of mania associated with bipolar illness. In a case review study of 583 patients, 72 patients (12%) were greater than 65 years of age. A higher percentage of patients above 65 years of age reported accidental injury, infection, pain, somnolence, and tremor. Discontinuation of valproate was occasionally associated with the latter two events. It is not clear whether these events indicate additional risk or whether they result from preexisting medical illness and concomitant medication use among these patients. A study of elderly patients with dementia revealed drug related somnolence and discontinuation for somnolence [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.14 )] . The starting dose should be reduced in these patients, and dosage reductions or discontinuation should be considered in patients with excessive somnolence [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.4 )] . There is insufficient information available to discern the safety and effectiveness of valproate for the prophylaxis of migraines in patients over 65.

How Supplied

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets, USP equivalent to 125 mg of valproic acid, are white to off-white having mottled spots, oval shaped, enteric-coated tablets with the logo of "ZA08" on one side and plain on other side.and are supplied as follows: NDC 68382-031-01 in bottles of 100 tablets NDC 68382-031-05 in bottles of 500 tablets Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets, USP equivalent to 250 mg of valproic acid, are white to off-white having mottled spots, oval shape, convex, enteric-coated tablets imprinted with the logo of "ZA07" on one side and plain on other side and are supplied as follows: NDC 68382-032-01 in bottles of 100 tablets NDC 68382-032-05 in bottles of 500 tablets Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets, USP equivalent to 500 mg of valproic acid, are white to off-white having mottled spots, oval shape, beveled edge, convex enteric-coated tablets imprinted with the logo of "ZA06" on one side and plain on other side and are supplied as follows: NDC 68382-033-01 in bottles of 100 tablets NDC 68382-033-05 in bottles of 500 tablets Storage: Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Dispense in light-resistant container.

Boxed Warning

WARNINGS: LIFE THREATENING ADVERSE REACTIONS WARNING: LIFE THREATENING ADVERSE REACTIONS See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. Hepatotoxicity, including fatalities, usually during the first 6 months of treatment. Children under the age of two years and patients with mitochondrial disorders are at higher risk. Monitor patients closely, and perform serum liver testing prior to therapy and at frequent intervals thereafter ( 5.1 ) Fetal Risk, particularly neural tube defects, other major malformations, and decreased IQ ( 5.2 , 5.3 , 5.4 ) Pancreatitis, including fatal hemorrhagic cases ( 5.5 ) Hepatotoxicity General Population: Hepatic failure resulting in fatalities has occurred in patients receiving valproate and its derivatives. These incidents usually have occurred during the first six months of treatment. Serious or fatal hepatotoxicity may be preceded by non-specific symptoms such as malaise, weakness, lethargy, facial edema, anorexia, and vomiting. In patients with epilepsy, a loss of seizure control may also occur. Patients should be monitored closely for appearance of these symptoms. Serum liver tests should be performed prior to therapy and at frequent intervals thereafter, especially during the first six months [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )]. Children under the age of two years are at a considerably increased risk of developing fatal hepatotoxicity, especially those on multiple anticonvulsants, those with congenital metabolic disorders, those with severe seizure disorders accompanied by mental retardation, and those with organic brain disease. When divalproex sodium is used in this patient group, it should be used with extreme caution and as a sole agent. The benefits of therapy should be weighed against the risks. The incidence of fatal hepatotoxicity decreases considerably in progressively older patient groups. Patients with Mitochondrial Disease: There is an increased risk of valproate-induced acute liver failure and resultant deaths in patients with hereditary neurometabolic syndromes caused by DNA mutations of the mitochondrial DNA Polymerase γ (POLG) gene (e.g. Alpers Huttenlocher Syndrome). Divalproex sodium is contraindicated in patients known to have mitochondrial disorders caused by POLG mutations and children under two years of age who are clinically suspected of having a mitochondrial disorder [see Contraindications ( 4 )]. In patients over two years of age who are clinically suspected of having a hereditary mitochondrial disease, divalproex sodium should only be used after other anticonvulsants have failed. This older group of patients should be closely monitored during treatment with divalproex sodium for the development of acute liver injury with regular clinical assessments and serum liver testing. POLG mutation screening should be performed in accordance with current clinical practice [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )]. Fetal Risk Valproate can cause major congenital malformations, particularly neural tube defects (e.g., spina bifida). In addition, valproate can cause decreased IQ scores and neurodevelopmental disorders following in utero exposure. Valproate is therefore contraindicated for prophylaxis of migraine headaches in pregnant women and in women of childbearing potential who are not using effective contraception [see Contraindications ( 4 )]. Valproate should not be used to treat women with epilepsy or bipolar disorder who are pregnant or who plan to become pregnant unless other medications have failed to provide adequate symptom control or are otherwise unacceptable. Valproate should not be administered to a woman of childbearing potential unless other medications have failed to provide adequate symptom control or are otherwise unacceptable. In such situations, effective contraception should be used [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 , 5.3 , 5.4 )] . A Medication Guide describing the risks of valproate is available for patients [see Patient Counseling Information ( 17 )] . Pancreatitis Cases of life-threatening pancreatitis have been reported in both children and adults receiving valproate. Some of the cases have been described as hemorrhagic with a rapid progression from initial symptoms to death. Cases have been reported shortly after initial use as well as after several years of use. Patients and guardians should be warned that abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and/or anorexia can be symptoms of pancreatitis that require prompt medical evaluation. If pancreatitis is diagnosed, valproate should ordinarily be discontinued. Alternative treatment for the underlying medical condition should be initiated as clinically indicated [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5 ) ].

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