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FDA Drug information

Calcium gluconate

Read time: 3 mins
Marketing start date: 21 May 2024

Summary of product characteristics


Adverse Reactions

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following serious adverse reactions are also described elsewhere in the labeling: • Arrhythmias with Concomitant Cardiac Glycoside Use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] • End-Organ Damage due to Intravascular Ceftriaxone-Calcium Precipitates [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] • Tissue Necrosis and Calcinosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ] • Hypotension, Bradycardia, and Cardiac Arrhythmias [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ] • Aluminum toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ] The following adverse reactions associated with the use of calcium gluconate were identified in the literature. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency reliably or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Cardiovascular : Vasodilation, decreased blood pressure, bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmia, syncope, cardiac arrest Administration site reactions: Local soft tissue inflammation, local necrosis, calcinosis cutis and calcification due to extravasation The most common adverse events with Calcium Gluconate Injection are local soft tissue inflammation and necrosis, calcinosis cutis and calcification that are related to extravasation. Other adverse events include vasodilation, decreased blood pressure, bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmia, syncope, and cardiac arrest. ( 6 ) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Hikma Pharmaceuticals USA Inc. at 1-877-845-0689 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.

Contraindications

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Calcium Gluconate Injection is contraindicated in: • Hypercalcemia • Neonates (28 days of age or younger) receiving ceftriaxone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] • Hypercalcemia ( 4 ) • Neonates (28 days of age or younger) receiving ceftriaxone ( 4 )

Description

11 DESCRIPTION Calcium Gluconate Injection, USP is a clear, colorless to slightly yellow, sterile, preservative-free, nonpyrogenic, supersaturated solution of calcium gluconate, a form of calcium, for intravenous use. Calcium Gluconate is calcium D-gluconate (1:2) monohydrate. The structural formula is: Molecular formula: C 12 H 22 CaO 14 • H 2 O Molecular weight: 448.39 Solubility in water: 3.5 g/100 mL at 25°C Calcium Gluconate Injection, USP is available as 5,000 mg per 50 mL (100 mg per mL) in a single-dose vial. Each mL of Calcium Gluconate Injection, USP contains 100 mg of calcium gluconate (equivalent to 94 mg of calcium gluconate and 4.5 mg of calcium saccharate tetrahydrate), hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment (6.0 to 8.2) and water for injection, q.s. It contains no antimicrobial agent. Each mL of Calcium Gluconate Injection, USP contains 9.3 mg (0.465 mEq) of elemental calcium. structure.jpg

Dosage And Administration

2 DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION • Contains 100 mg of calcium gluconate per mL which contains 9.3 mg (0.465 mEq) of elemental calcium ( 2.1 ) • Administer intravenously (bolus or continuous infusion) via a secure intravenous line ( 2.1 ) • See Full Prescribing Information (FPI) for dilution instructions, administration rates, and appropriate monitoring ( 2.1 ) • Individualize the dose within the recommended range in adults and pediatric patients depending on the severity of symptoms of hypocalcemia, the serum calcium level, and the acuity of onset of hypocalcemia. See Table 1 in the FPI for dosing recommendations in mg of calcium gluconate for neonates, pediatric and adult patients. ( 2.2 ) • Measure serum calcium during intermittent infusions every 4 to 6 hours and during continuous infusion every 1 to 4 hours. ( 2.3 ) • Calcium Gluconate Injection is not physically compatible with fluids containing phosphate or bicarbonate. Precipitation may result if mixed. See FPI for all drug incompatibilities. ( 2.5 ) • Supplied in a single-dose vial. 2.1 Important Administration Instructions • Calcium Gluconate Injection contains 100 mg of calcium gluconate per mL which contains 9.3 mg (i.e., 0.465 mEq) of elemental calcium. • Dilute Calcium Gluconate Injection prior to use in 5% dextrose or normal saline and assess for potential drug or IV fluid incompatibilities [see Dosage and Administration (2.5) ] . • Inspect Calcium Gluconate Injection visually prior to administration. The solution should appear clear and colorless to slightly yellow. Do not administer if there is particulate matter or discoloration. • Use the diluted solution immediately after preparation. • Administer Calcium Gluconate Injection intravenously via a secure intravenous line to avoid calcinosis cutis and tissue necrosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ] . • Administer Calcium Gluconate Injection by bolus administration or continuous infusion: For bolus intravenous administration: • Dilute the dose [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) ] of Calcium Gluconate Injection in 5% dextrose or normal saline to a concentration of 10-50 mg/mL prior to administration. Administer the dose slowly and DO NOT exceed an infusion rate of 200 mg/minute in adults or 100 mg/minute in pediatric patients, including neonates. Monitor patients, vitals and electrocardiograph (ECG) during administration [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ] . For continuous intravenous infusion: • Dilute Calcium Gluconate Injection in 5% dextrose or normal saline to a concentration of 5.8-10 mg/mL prior to administration. Administer at the rate recommended in Table 1 [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) ] and monitor patients, vitals, calcium and ECG during the infusion [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ] . • Calcium Gluconate Injection is supplied in single-dose vials. 2.2 Recommended Dosage Individualize the dose of Calcium Gluconate Injection within the recommended range depending on the severity of symptoms of hypocalcemia, the serum calcium level, and the acuity of onset of hypocalcemia. Table 1 provides dosing recommendations for Calcium Gluconate Injection in mg of calcium gluconate for neonates, pediatric and adult patients. Ta ble 1. Dosing Recommendations in mg of Calcium Gluconate for Neonate, Pediatric, and Adult Patients Patient Population Initial Dose Subsequent Doses (if needed) Bolus Continuous Infusion Neonate (≤ 1 month) 100 – 200 mg/kg 100 - 200 mg/kg every 6 hours Initiate at 17-33 mg/kg/hour Pediatric (> 1 month to < 17 years) 29 - 60 mg/kg 29 - 60 mg/kg every 6 hours Initiate at 8-13 mg/kg/hour Adult 1000 - 2000 mg 1000 - 2000 mg every 6 hours Initiate at 5.4 - 21.5 mg/kg/hour For bolus administration, DO NOT exceed an infusion rate of: • 200 mg/minute in adult patients • 100 mg/minute in pediatric patients For continuous infusions, adjust rate as needed based on serum calcium levels 2.3 Serum Calcium Monitoring Measure serum calcium every 4 to 6 hours during intermittent infusions with Calcium Gluconate Injection and measure serum calcium every 1 to 4 hours during continuous infusion. 2.4 Dosage in Renal Impairment For patients with renal impairment, initiate Calcium Gluconate Injection at the lowest dose of the recommended dose ranges for all age groups and monitor serum calcium levels every 4 hours. 2.5 Drug Incompatibilities • Do not mix Calcium Gluconate Injection with ceftriaxone. Concurrent use of intravenous ceftriaxone and Calcium Gluconate Injection can lead to the formation of ceftriaxone-calcium precipitates. Concomitant use of ceftriaxone and intravenous calcium-containing products is contraindicated in neonates (28 days of age or younger) [see Contraindications (4) ] . In patients older than 28 days of age, ceftriaxone and calcium-containing products may be administered sequentially, provided the infusion lines are thoroughly flushed between infusions with a compatible fluid. Ceftriaxone must not be administered simultaneously with intravenous calcium-containing solutions via a Y-site in any age group [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) , Drug Interactions (7.3) ] . • Do not mix Calcium Gluconate Injection with fluids containing bicarbonate or phosphate. Calcium Gluconate Injection is not physically compatible with fluids containing phosphate or bicarbonate. Precipitation may result if mixed. • Do not mix Calcium Gluconate Injection with minocycline injection. Calcium complexes minocycline rendering it inactive.

Indications And Usage

1 INDICATIONS & USAGE Calcium Gluconate Injection is indicated for pediatric and adult patients for the treatment of acute symptomatic hypocalcemia. Limitations of Use The safety of Calcium Gluconate Injection for long term use has not been established. • Calcium Gluconate Injection is a form of calcium indicated for pediatric and adult patients for the treatment of acute symptomatic hypocalcemia. ( 1 ) • Limitations of Use: The safety of Calcium Gluconate Injection for long term use has not been established. ( 1 )

Overdosage

10 OVERDOSAGE Overdosage of Calcium Gluconate Injection may result in hypercalcemia. Symptoms of hypercalcemia typically develop when the total serum calcium concentration is ≥12 mg/dL. Neurologic symptoms include depression, weakness, fatigue, and confusion at lower levels, with patients experiencing hallucinations, disorientation, hypotonicity, seizures, and coma. Effects on the kidney include diminished ability to concentrate urine and diuresis. If overdose of Calcium Gluconate Injection occurs immediately discontinue administration and provide supportive treatments to restore intravascular volume as well as promote calcium excretion in the urine if necessary.

Drug Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS • Cardiac Glycoside : Synergistic arrhythmias may occur if calcium and cardiac glycosides are administered together. ( 7.1 ) • Calcium Channel Blockers : Administration of calcium may reduce the response. ( 7.2 ) • Drugs that may cause hypercalcemia Vitamin D, vitamin A, thiazide diuretics, estrogen, calcipotriene and teriparatide administration may cause hypercalcemia. Monitor plasma calcium concentrations in patients taking these drugs concurrently. ( 7.3 ) 7.1 Cardiac Glycosides Hypercalcemia increases the risk of digoxin toxicity, while digoxin may be therapeutically ineffective in the presence of hypocalcemia. Synergistic arrhythmias may occur if calcium and cardiac glycosides are administered together. Avoid administration of Calcium Gluconate Injection in patients receiving cardiac glycosides; if considered necessary, administer Calcium Gluconate Injection slowly in small amounts and monitor ECG closely during administration. 7.2 Calcium Channel Blockers Administration of calcium may reduce the response to calcium channel blockers. 7.3 Drugs that may cause Hypercalcemia Vitamin D, vitamin A, thiazide diuretics, estrogen, calcipotriene and teriparatide administration may cause hypercalcemia. Monitor plasma calcium concentrations in patients taking these drugs concurrently.

Clinical Pharmacology

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 12.1 Mechanism of Action Intravenous administration of calcium gluconate increases serum ionized calcium level. Calcium gluconate dissociates into ionized calcium in plasma. Ionized calcium and gluconate are normal constituents of body fluids. 12.3 Pharmacokinetics Absorption Calcium Gluconate Injection is 100% bioavailable following intravenous injection. Metabolism Calcium itself does not undergo direct metabolism. The release of ionized calcium from intravenous administration of calcium gluconate is direct and does not seem to be affected by the first pass through the liver. Distribution Calcium in the body is distributed mainly in skeleton (99%). Only 1% of the total body calcium is distributed within the extracellular fluids and soft tissues. About 50% of total serum calcium is in the ionized form and represents the biologically active part. 8% to 10% serum calcium is bound to organic and inorganic acid and approximately 40% is protein-bound (primarily to albumin). Elimination Studies have shown a relationship between urinary calcium excretion and the intravenous administration of calcium gluconate, with a significant increase in urinary calcium excretion observed after the intravenous administration of calcium gluconate.

Mechanism Of Action

12.1 Mechanism of Action Intravenous administration of calcium gluconate increases serum ionized calcium level. Calcium gluconate dissociates into ionized calcium in plasma. Ionized calcium and gluconate are normal constituents of body fluids.

Pharmacokinetics

12.3 Pharmacokinetics Absorption Calcium Gluconate Injection is 100% bioavailable following intravenous injection. Metabolism Calcium itself does not undergo direct metabolism. The release of ionized calcium from intravenous administration of calcium gluconate is direct and does not seem to be affected by the first pass through the liver. Distribution Calcium in the body is distributed mainly in skeleton (99%). Only 1% of the total body calcium is distributed within the extracellular fluids and soft tissues. About 50% of total serum calcium is in the ionized form and represents the biologically active part. 8% to 10% serum calcium is bound to organic and inorganic acid and approximately 40% is protein-bound (primarily to albumin). Elimination Studies have shown a relationship between urinary calcium excretion and the intravenous administration of calcium gluconate, with a significant increase in urinary calcium excretion observed after the intravenous administration of calcium gluconate.

Effective Time

20230901

Version

1

Dosage And Administration Table

Patient Population Initial Dose Subsequent Doses (if needed)
BolusContinuous Infusion
Neonate (≤ 1 month) 100 – 200 mg/kg 100 - 200 mg/kg every 6 hours Initiate at 17-33 mg/kg/hour
Pediatric (> 1 month to < 17 years) 29 - 60 mg/kg 29 - 60 mg/kg every 6 hours Initiate at 8-13 mg/kg/hour
Adult 1000 - 2000 mg 1000 - 2000 mg every 6 hours Initiate at 5.4 - 21.5 mg/kg/hour
For bolus administration, DO NOT exceed an infusion rate of: • 200 mg/minute in adult patients • 100 mg/minute in pediatric patients For continuous infusions, adjust rate as needed based on serum calcium levels

Dosage Forms And Strengths

3 DOSAGE FORMS & STRENGTHS Calcium Gluconate Injection, USP is a clear, colorless to slightly yellow, solution free from visible particles available in the following: • Single dose vial: 5,000 mg per 50 mL (100 mg per mL) Each mL of Calcium Gluconate Injection, USP contains 9.3 mg (0.465 mEq) of elemental calcium. Injection: ( 3 ) • Single-dose vial: 5,000 mg per 50 mL (100 mg per mL)

Spl Product Data Elements

calcium gluconate calcium gluconate CALCIUM GLUCONATE MONOHYDRATE CALCIUM CATION HYDROCHLORIC ACID SODIUM HYDROXIDE CALCIUM SACCHARATE

Carcinogenesis And Mutagenesis And Impairment Of Fertility

13.1 Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis & Impairment Of Fertility Long-term studies in animals have not been conducted to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Calcium Gluconate Injection. Calcium gluconate was not mutagenic with or without metabolic activation in the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium (strains TA-1535, TA-1537, and TA-1538) or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Strain D4). Fertility studies in animals have not been conducted with calcium gluconate administered by the intravenous route.

Nonclinical Toxicology

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY 13.1 Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis & Impairment Of Fertility Long-term studies in animals have not been conducted to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of Calcium Gluconate Injection. Calcium gluconate was not mutagenic with or without metabolic activation in the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium (strains TA-1535, TA-1537, and TA-1538) or Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Strain D4). Fertility studies in animals have not been conducted with calcium gluconate administered by the intravenous route.

Application Number

ANDA213071

Brand Name

Calcium gluconate

Generic Name

calcium gluconate

Product Ndc

0143-9184

Product Type

HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG

Route

INTRAVENOUS

Package Label Principal Display Panel

PACKAGE LABEL.PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL NDC 0143-9184-01 Calcium Gluconate Injection, USP Vial Label NDC 0143-9184-25 Calcium Gluconate Injection, USP Carton Label vial.jpg carton.jpg

Information For Patients

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION • Advise the patient that the risks associated with infusion including local tissue inflammation, local necrosis and calcinosis. [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ] . Manufactured for: Nivagen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Sacramento, CA 95827 USA Distributed by: Hikma Pharmaceuticals USA Inc. Berkley Heights, NJ 07922 Rev. 09/2023

Geriatric Use

8.5 Geriatric Use In general dose selection for an elderly patient should start at the lowest dose of the recommended dose range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Labor And Delivery

8.2 Lactation Risk summary Calcium is present in human milk as a natural component of human milk. It is not known whether intravenous administration of Calcium Gluconate Injection can alter calcium concentration in human milk. There are no data on the effects of Calcium Gluconate Injection on the breastfed infant, or on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Calcium Gluconate Injection and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from Calcium Gluconate Injection or from the underlying maternal condition.

Pediatric Use

8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of Calcium Gluconate Injection have been established in pediatric patients for the treatment of acute, symptomatic hypocalcemia. Pediatric approval for Calcium Gluconate Injection, including doses, is not based on adequate and well-controlled clinical studies. Safety and dosing recommendations in pediatric patients are based on published literature and clinical experience [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) ] . Concomitant use of ceftriaxone and Calcium Gluconate Injection is contraindicated in neonates (28 days of age or younger) due to reports of fatal outcomes associated with the presence of lung and kidney ceftriaxone-calcium precipitates. In patients older than 28 days of age, ceftriaxone and Calcium Gluconate Injection may be administered sequentially, provided the infusion lines are thoroughly flushed between infusions with a compatible fluid [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] . This product contains up to 400 mcg/L aluminum which may be toxic, particularly for premature neonates due to immature renal function. Parenteral administration of aluminum greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day is associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ] .

Pregnancy

8.1 Pregnancy Risk summary Limited available data with Calcium Gluconate Injection use in pregnant women are insufficient to inform a drug associated risk of adverse developmental outcomes. There are risks to the mother and the fetus associated with hypocalcemia in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations ] . The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. Clin ical Considerations Disease-associated maternal risk Maternal hypocalcemia can result in an increased rate of spontaneous abortion, premature and dysfunctional labor, and possibly preeclampsia. Fetal/Neonatal adverse reactions Infants born to mothers with hypocalcemia can have associated fetal and neonatal hyperparathyroidism, which in turn can cause fetal and neonatal skeletal demineralization, subperiosteal bone resorption, osteitis fibrosa cystica and neonatal seizures. Infants born to mothers with hypocalcemia should be carefully monitored for signs of hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia, including neuromuscular irritability, apnea, cyanosis and cardiac rhythm disorders.

Use In Specific Populations

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS • Geriatric use : Dosing in elderly patients should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosage range. ( 8.5 ) • Renal impairment Initiate with the lower limit of the dosage range and monitor serum calcium levels every 4 hours. ( 8.6 , 2.4 ) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk summary Limited available data with Calcium Gluconate Injection use in pregnant women are insufficient to inform a drug associated risk of adverse developmental outcomes. There are risks to the mother and the fetus associated with hypocalcemia in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations ] . The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively. Clin ical Considerations Disease-associated maternal risk Maternal hypocalcemia can result in an increased rate of spontaneous abortion, premature and dysfunctional labor, and possibly preeclampsia. Fetal/Neonatal adverse reactions Infants born to mothers with hypocalcemia can have associated fetal and neonatal hyperparathyroidism, which in turn can cause fetal and neonatal skeletal demineralization, subperiosteal bone resorption, osteitis fibrosa cystica and neonatal seizures. Infants born to mothers with hypocalcemia should be carefully monitored for signs of hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia, including neuromuscular irritability, apnea, cyanosis and cardiac rhythm disorders. 8.2 Lactation Risk summary Calcium is present in human milk as a natural component of human milk. It is not known whether intravenous administration of Calcium Gluconate Injection can alter calcium concentration in human milk. There are no data on the effects of Calcium Gluconate Injection on the breastfed infant, or on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Calcium Gluconate Injection and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from Calcium Gluconate Injection or from the underlying maternal condition. 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of Calcium Gluconate Injection have been established in pediatric patients for the treatment of acute, symptomatic hypocalcemia. Pediatric approval for Calcium Gluconate Injection, including doses, is not based on adequate and well-controlled clinical studies. Safety and dosing recommendations in pediatric patients are based on published literature and clinical experience [see Dosage and Administration (2.2) ] . Concomitant use of ceftriaxone and Calcium Gluconate Injection is contraindicated in neonates (28 days of age or younger) due to reports of fatal outcomes associated with the presence of lung and kidney ceftriaxone-calcium precipitates. In patients older than 28 days of age, ceftriaxone and Calcium Gluconate Injection may be administered sequentially, provided the infusion lines are thoroughly flushed between infusions with a compatible fluid [see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] . This product contains up to 400 mcg/L aluminum which may be toxic, particularly for premature neonates due to immature renal function. Parenteral administration of aluminum greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day is associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ] . 8.5 Geriatric Use In general dose selection for an elderly patient should start at the lowest dose of the recommended dose range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. 8.6 Renal Impairment For patients with renal impairment, initiate Calcium Gluconate Injection at the lowest dose of the recommended dose ranges across all age groups. Monitor serum calcium levels every 4 hours [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) ] . 8.7 Hepatic Impairment Hepatic function does not impact the availability of ionized calcium after calcium gluconate intravenous administration. Dose adjustment in hepatically impaired patients may not be necessary.

How Supplied

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING Calcium Gluconate Injection, USP is a clear, colorless to slightly yellow solution free from visible particles supplied as follows: NDC Strength/Vial Size (mL) 0143-9184-01 5,000 mg calcium gluconate per 50 mL (100 mg per mL), in a 50 mL plastic, single-dose vial. 0143-9184-25 5,000 mg calcium gluconate per 50 mL (100 mg per mL), in a 50 mL plastic, single-dose vial, packaged in a carton of 25. Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Do not freeze. Preservative Free. Discard any unused portion in the single-dose vial immediately. The diluted solution must be used immediately. NOTE: Supersaturated solutions are prone to precipitation. The precipitate, if present, may be dissolved by warming the vial to 60° to 80°C, with occasional agitation, until the solution becomes clear. Shake vigorously. Allow to cool to room temperature before dispensing. Use injection only if clear immediately prior to use.

How Supplied Table

NDC Strength/Vial Size (mL)
0143-9184-01 5,000 mg calcium gluconate per 50 mL (100 mg per mL), in a 50 mL plastic, single-dose vial.
0143-9184-25 5,000 mg calcium gluconate per 50 mL (100 mg per mL), in a 50 mL plastic, single-dose vial, packaged in a carton of 25.

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