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Combined and sequential liver-kidney transplantation in children

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Published:9th Jan 2018
Author: Grenda R, Kaliciński P.
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Ref.:Pediatr Nephrol. 2018 Dec;33(12):2227-2237.
Combined and sequential liver-kidney transplantation in children

Combined and sequential liver–kidney transplantation (CLKT and SLKT) is a definitive treatment in children with end-stage organ failure. There are two major indications: - terminal insufficiency of both organs, or - need for transplanting new liver as a source of lacking enzyme or specific regulator of the immune system in a patient with renal failure. A third (uncommon) option is secondary end-stage renal failure in liver transplant recipients. These three clinical settings use distinct qualification algorithms. The most common indications include primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) and autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD), followed by liver diseases associated with occasional kidney failure. Availability of anti-C5a antibody (eculizumab) has limited the validity of CLKT in genetic atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). The liver coming from the same donor as renal graft (in CLKT) is immunologically protective for the kidney and this provides long-term rejection-free follow-up. No such protection is observed in SLKT, when both organs come from different donors, except uncommon cases of living donation of both organs. Overall long-term outcome in CLKT in terms of graft survival is good and not different from isolated liver or kidney transplantation, however patient survival is inferior due to complexity of this procedure.

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