Using DPP-4 inhibitors to modulate beta cell function in type 1 diabetes and in the treatment of diabetic kidney disease.
Introduction: DPP-4 inhibitors have pleomorphic effects that extend beyond the anti-hyperglycemic labeled use of the drug. DPP-4 inhibitors have demonstrated promising renal protective effects in T2DM and T1DM and protective effects against immune destruction of pancreatic beta-cells in T1DM.
Areas covered: The efficacy of DPP-4 inhibitors in the treatment of diabetic kidney disease and possible adjunct with insulin in the treatment of T1DM to preserve beta-cell function. Pertinent literature was identified through Medline, PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov (1997-November 2018) using the search terms T1DM, sitagliptin, vildagliptin, linagliptin, beta-cell function, diabetic nephropathy. Only articles are written in the English language, and clinical trials evaluating human subjects were used.
Expert opinion: DPP-4 inhibitors can be used safely in patients with diabetic kidney disease and do not appear to exacerbate existing diabetic nephropathy. Linagliptin reduces albuminuria and protects renal endothelium from the deleterious effects of hyperglycemia. The effects of DPP-4 inhibitors on preserving beta-cell function in certain subtypes of T1DM [e.g. Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adult (LADA) and Slowly Progressive Type 1 Diabetes (SPIDDM)] are encouraging and show promise.