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Diagnosis and Staging of Bladder Cancer

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Published:1st Jun 2021
Author: Ahmadi H, Duddalwar V, Daneshmand S.
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Ref.:Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2021 Jun;35(3):531-541.
Diagnosis and Staging of Bladder Cancer

Cystoscopic examination remains the gold standard technique for initial diagnosis of bladder cancer (BCa). Despite significant progress in enhanced cystoscopic techniques, blue light cystoscopy and narrow band imaging are the only ones well supported by high-level evidence and, if available, should be used during initial staging of BCa. Multiparametric MRI could be an important imaging tool in local staging of BCa. With ever-expanding targeted therapy and immunotherapy options in both muscle-invasive and non-muscle-invasive BCa, molecular subtyping could become an essential part of initial histologic staging in the near future.

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