British HIV Association guidelines on the management of opportunistic infection in people living with HIV: The clinical management of gastrointestinal opportunistic infections 2020
British HIV Association guidelines on the management of opportunistic infection in people living with HIV: The clinical management of gastrointestinal opportunistic infections 2020 (2022 interim update)
Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms occur frequently in people living with HIV. Dysphagia and diarrhoea may be caused by a wide variety of infections. Symptoms may arise from any part of the GI tract including the mouth, throat, oesophagus, stomach, small and large intestine, liver, gall bladder, rectum and anus. The incidence of opportunistic infections has fallen as most people with HIV take combination antiretroviral therapy, however there remain some differences in type of pathology seen compared to non-HIV-positive populations, and opportunistic infections may still occur in those with higher CD4 counts. If a cause of persisting GI symptoms is not apparent, consultation with a gastroenterologist is indicated because people with HIV are also susceptible to many of the same conditions as the non-HIV-infected population. Co-infection with hepatitis B or C virus is not discussed in these guidelines as it is the subject of separate guidelines.
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