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FDA Drug information

Lacosamide Oral Solution

Read time: 5 mins
Marketing start date: 28 May 2024

Summary of product characteristics


Adverse Reactions

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling: Suicidal Behavior and Ideation [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] Dizziness and Ataxia [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] Cardiac Rhythm and Conduction Abnormalities [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 )] Syncope [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )] Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS)/Multiorgan Hypersensitivity Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6 )] Adjunctive therapy: Most common adverse reactions in adults (≥10% and greater than placebo) are diplopia, headache, dizziness, nausea, and somnolence ( 6.1 ) Monotherapy: Most common adverse reactions are similar to those seen in adjunctive therapy studies ( 6.1 ) Pediatric patients: Adverse reactions are similar to those seen in adult patients ( 6.1 ) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Apotex Corp. at 1-800-706-5575 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. Lacosamide Oral Solution in Adults In the premarketing development of adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures, 1,327 adult patients received lacosamide in controlled and uncontrolled trials, of whom 1,000 were treated for longer than 6 months, and 852 for longer than 12 months. The monotherapy development program for partial-onset seizures included 425 adult patients, 310 of whom were treated for longer than 6 months, and 254 for longer than 12 months. Partial -Onset Seizures Monotherapy Historical-Control Trial (Study 1) In the monotherapy trial for partial-onset seizures, 16% of patients randomized to receive lacosamide at the recommended doses of 300 and 400 mg/day discontinued from the trial as a result of an adverse reaction. The adverse reaction most commonly (≥1% on lacosamide) leading to discontinuation was dizziness. Adverse reactions that occurred in this study were generally similar to those that occurred in adjunctive placebo-controlled studies. One adverse reaction, insomnia, occurred at a rate of ≥2% and was not reported at a similar rate in previous studies. This adverse reaction has also been observed in postmarketing experience [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.2 )] . Because this study did not include a placebo control group, causality could not be established. Dizziness, headache, nausea, somnolence, and fatigue all occurred at lower incidences during the AED Withdrawal Phase and Monotherapy Phase, compared with the Titration Phase [see Clinical Studies ( 14.1 )] . Adjunctive Therapy Controlled Trials (Studies 2, 3, and 4) In adjunctive therapy controlled clinical trials for partial-onset seizures, the rate of discontinuation as a result of an adverse reaction was 8% and 17% in patients randomized to receive lacosamide at the recommended doses of 200 and 400 mg/day, respectively, 29% at 600 mg/day (1.5 times greater than the maximum recommended dose), and 5% in patients randomized to receive placebo. The adverse reactions most commonly (>1% on lacosamide and greater than placebo) leading to discontinuation were dizziness, ataxia, vomiting, diplopia, nausea, vertigo, and blurred vision. Table 4 gives the incidence of adverse reactions that occurred in ≥2% of adult patients with partial-onset seizures in the lacosamide total group and for which the incidence was greater than placebo. Table 4: Adverse Reactions Incidence in Adjunctive Therapy Pooled, Placebo-Controlled Trials in Adult Patients with Partial-Onset Seizures (Studies 2, 3, and 4) Adverse Reaction Placebo N=364 % Lacosamide 200 mg/day N=270 % Lacosamide 400 mg/day N=471 % Lacosamide 600 mg/day* N=203 % Lacosamide Total N=944 % Ear and labyrinth disorder Vertigo 1 5 3 4 4 Eye disorders Diplopia 2 6 10 16 11 Blurred Vision 3 2 9 16 8 Gastrointestinal disorders Nausea 4 7 11 17 11 Vomiting 3 6 9 16 9 Diarrhea 3 3 5 4 4 General disorders and administration site conditions Fatigue 6 7 7 15 9 Gait disturbance <1 <1 2 4 2 Asthenia 1 2 2 4 2 Injury, poisoning and procedural complications Contusion 3 3 4 2 3 Skin laceration 2 2 3 3 3 Nervous system disorders Dizziness 8 16 30 53 31 Headache 9 11 14 12 13 Ataxia 2 4 7 15 8 Somnolence 5 5 8 8 7 Tremor 4 4 6 12 7 Nystagmus 4 2 5 10 5 Balance disorder 0 1 5 6 4 Memory impairment 2 1 2 6 2 Psychiatric disorders Depression 1 2 2 2 2 Skin and subcutaneous disorders Pruritus 1 3 2 3 2 *600 mg dose is 1.5 times greater than the maximum recommended dose. The overall adverse reaction rate was similar in male and female patients. Although there were few non-Caucasian patients, no differences in the incidences of adverse reactions compared to Caucasian patients were observed. Lacosamide Oral Solution in Pediatric Patients Safety of lacosamide oral solution was evaluated in clinical studies of pediatric patients 4 to less than 17 years of age for the treatment of partial-onset seizures. Across studies in pediatric patients with partial-onset seizures, 328 patients 4 to less than 17 years of age received lacosamide oral solution or tablet, of whom 148 received lacosamide for at least 1 year. Adverse reactions reported in clinical studies of pediatric patients 4 to less than 17 years of age were similar to those seen in adult patients. Laboratory Abnormalities Abnormalities in liver function tests have occurred in controlled trials with lacosamide in adult patients with partial-onset seizures who were taking 1 to 3 concomitant anti-epileptic drugs. Elevations of ALT to ≥3× ULN occurred in 0.7% (7/935) of lacosamide patients and 0% (0/356) of placebo patients. One case of hepatitis with transaminases >20x ULN occurred in one healthy subject 10 days after lacosamide treatment completion, along with nephritis (proteinuria and urine casts). Serologic studies were negative for viral hepatitis. Transaminases returned to normal within one month without specific treatment. At the time of this event, bilirubin was normal. The hepatitis/nephritis was interpreted as a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to lacosamide . Other Adverse Reactions The following is a list of adverse reactions reported by patients treated with lacosamide in all clinical trials in adult patients, including controlled trials and long-term open-label extension trials. Adverse reactions addressed in other tables or sections are not listed here. Blood and lymphatic system disorders: neutropenia, anemia Cardiac disorders: palpitations Ear and labyrinth disorders: tinnitus Gastrointestinal disorders: constipation, dyspepsia, dry mouth, oral hypoaesthesia General disorders and administration site conditions: irritability, pyrexia, feeling drunk Injury, poisoning, and procedural complications: fall Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: muscle spasms Nervous system disorders: paresthesia, cognitive disorder, hypoaesthesia, dysarthria, disturbance in attention, cerebellar syndrome Psychiatric disorders: confusional state, mood altered, depressed mood Additional pediatric use information is approved for UCB, Inc.’s VIMPAT ® (lacosamide) oral solution. However, due to UCB, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information. 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of lacosamide . Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Agranulocytosis Psychiatric disorders: Aggression, agitation, hallucination, insomnia, psychotic disorder Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Angioedema, rash, urticaria, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis. Neurologic disorders: Dyskinesia, new or worsening seizures

Contraindications

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS None. None ( 4 )

Description

11 DESCRIPTION The chemical name of lacosamide, the single (R)-enantiomer, is (2R)-2-Acetamido-N-benzyl-3-methoxypropanamide (IUPAC). Lacosamide is a functionalized amino acid. Its molecular formula is C 13 H 18 N 2 O 3 and its molecular weight is 250.30. The chemical structure is: Lacosamide is a white or almost white or light yellow powder. It is sparingly soluble in water, freely soluble in methanol, practically insoluble in heptane. 11.3 Lacosamide Oral Solution, USP Lacosamide oral solution, USP contains 10 mg of lacosamide per mL. The inactive ingredients are acesulfame potassium, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, citric acid (anhydrous), glycerin, methylparaben, polyethylene glycol, purified water, sodium chloride, sorbitol solution and strawberry natural and artificial flavor [FN-13819 (water, propylene glycol, ethyl alcohol, natural & artificial flavor)].

Dosage And Administration

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Adults (17 years and older): Initial dosage for monotherapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures is 100 mg twice daily ( 2.1 ) Initial dosage for adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures is 50 mg twice daily ( 2.1 ) Maximum recommended dosage for monotherapy and adjunctive therapy is 200 mg twice daily ( 2.1 ) Pediatric Patients 4 years to less than 17 years: The recommended dosage is based on body weight and is administered orally twice daily ( 2.1 ) Increase dosage based on clinical response and tolerability, no more frequently than once per week ( 2.1 ) Dose adjustment is recommended for severe renal impairment ( 2.4 , 12.3 ) Dose adjustment is recommended for mild or moderate hepatic impairment; use in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended ( 2.5 , 12.3 ) 2.1 Dosage Information The recommended dosage for monotherapy and adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures in patients 4 years of age and older is included in Table 1. In pediatric patients, the recommended dosing regimen is dependent upon body weight. Dosage should be increased based on clinical response and tolerability, no more frequently than once per week. Titration increments should not exceed those shown in Table 1. Table 1: Recommended Dosages for Partial-Onset Seizures (Monotherapy or Adjunctive Therapy) in Patients 4 Years of Age and Older* Age and Body Weight Initial Dosage Titration Regimen Maintenance Dosage Adults (17 years and older) Monotherapy**: 100 mg twice daily (200 mg per day) Increase by 50 mg twice daily (100 mg per day) every week Monotherapy**: 150 mg to 200 mg twice daily (300 mg to 400 mg per day) Adjunctive Therapy: 50 mg twice daily (100 mg per day) Adjunctive Therapy: 100 mg to 200 mg twice daily (200 mg to 400 mg per day) Pediatric patients weighing at least 50 kg 50 mg twice daily (100 mg per day) Increase by 50 mg twice daily (100 mg per day) every week Monotherapy**: 150 mg to 200 mg twice daily (300 mg to 400 mg per day) Adjunctive Therapy: 100 mg to 200 mg twice daily (200 mg to 400 mg per day) Pediatric patients weighing 30 kg to less than 50 kg 1 mg/kg twice daily (2 mg/kg/day) Increase by 1 mg/kg twice daily (2 mg/kg/day) every week 2 mg/kg to 4 mg/kg twice daily (4 mg/kg/day to 8 mg/kg/day) Pediatric patients weighing 11 kg to less than 30 kg 1 mg/kg twice daily (2 mg/kg/day) Increase by 1 mg/kg twice daily (2 mg/kg/day) every week 3 mg/kg to 6 mg/kg twice daily (6 mg/kg/day to 12 mg/kg/day) *when not specified, the dosage is the same for monotherapy for partial-onset seizures and adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures. ** Monotherapy for partial-onset seizures only In adjunctive clinical trials in adult patients with partial-onset seizures, a dosage higher than 200 mg twice daily (400 mg per day) was not more effective and was associated with a substantially higher rate of adverse reactions [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.1 ) and Clinical Studies ( 14.2 )] . Additional pediatric use information is approved for UCB, Inc.’s VIMPAT ® (lacosamide) oral solution. However, due to UCB, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information. 2.2 Alternate Initial Dosage Information to Achieve the Maintenance Dosage in a Shorter Timeframe For monotherapy and adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures in patients 17 years of age and older, an alternate initial dosing regimen for week 1 (e.g., including a loading dose and/or a higher initial dosage) may be administered in patients for whom achieving the recommended maintenance dosage in a shorter timeframe is clinically indicated (see Table 2). The alternate initial dosage regimen should be continued for one week. Lacosamide oral solution may then be titrated based on clinical response and tolerability, no more frequently than once per week, if needed. The loading dose should be administered with medical supervision because of the possibility of increased incidence of adverse reactions, including central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular adverse reactions [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 , 5.3 ), Adverse Reactions ( 6.1 ), and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 ) ] . Titration increments should not exceed those shown in Table 2. Table 2: Alternate Initial Dosing Regimen to Achieve the Maintenance D osage in a Shorter Timeframe if Clinically Indicated* Age and Body Weight Alternate Initial Dosage Titration Regimen Maintenance Dosage Adults (17 years and older) Single loading dose: 200 mg 12 hours later initiate: 100 mg twice daily (200 mg per day) Increase by 50 mg twice daily (100 mg per day) at weekly intervals, if needed Monotherapy**: 150 mg to 200 mg twice daily (300 mg to 400 mg per day) Adjunctive Therapy: 100 mg to 200 mg twice daily (200 mg to 400 mg per day) *when not specified, the dosage is the same for monotherapy for partial-onset seizures and adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures **Monotherapy for partial-onset seizures only Additional pediatric use information is approved for UCB, Inc.’s VIMPAT ® (lacosamide) oral solution. However, due to UCB, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information. 2.3 Converting From a Single Antiepileptic (AED) to Lacosamide Oral Solution Monotherapy for the Treatment of Partial-Onset Seizures For patients who are already on a single AED and will convert to lacosamide oral solution monotherapy, withdrawal of the concomitant AED should not occur until the therapeutic dosage of lacosamide is achieved and has been administered for at least 3 days. A gradual withdrawal of the concomitant AED over at least 6 weeks is recommended. 2.4 Dosage Information for Patients with Renal Impairment For patients with mild to moderate renal impairment, no dosage adjustment is necessary. For patients with severe renal impairment [creatinine clearance (CL CR ) less than 30 mL/min as estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault equation for adults; CL CR less than 30 mL/min/1.73m 2 as estimated by the Schwartz equation for pediatric patients] or end-stage renal disease, a reduction of 25% of the maximum dosage is recommended. In all patients with renal impairment, dose initiation and titration should be based on clinical response and tolerability. Hemodialysis Lacosamide is effectively removed from plasma by hemodialysis. Following a 4-hour hemodialysis treatment, dosage supplementation of up to 50% should be considered. Concomitant Strong CYP3A4 or CYP2C9 Inhibitors Dose reduction may be necessary in patients with renal impairment who are taking strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 [see Drug Interactions ( 7.1 ), Use in Specific Populations (8.6), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)] . 2.5 Dosage Information for Patients with Hepatic Impairment For patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, a reduction of 25% of the maximum dosage is recommended. The dose initiation and titration should be based on clinical response and tolerability in patients with hepatic impairment. Lacosamide oral solution use is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Concomitant Strong CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 Inhibitors Dose reduction may be necessary in patients with hepatic impairment who are taking strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 [see Drug Interactions ( 7.1 ), Use in Specific Populations ( 8.7 ), and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )]. 2.6 Administration Instructions for Lacosamide Oral Solution Lacosamide oral solution may be taken with or without food. Lacosamide Oral Solution A calibrated measuring device is recommended to measure and deliver the prescribed dose accurately. A household teaspoon or tablespoon is not an adequate measuring device. Lacosamide oral solution may also be administered using a nasogastric tube or gastrostomy tube. Discard any unused lacosamide oral solution remaining after 6 months of first opening the bottle. 2.8 Discontinuation of Lacosamide Oral Solution When discontinuing lacosamide oral solution, a gradual withdrawal over at least 1 week is recommended [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5 )] .

Indications And Usage

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Lacosamide oral solution is indicated for: Treatment of partial-onset seizures in patients 4 years of age and older (1.1) 1.1 Partial-Onset Seizures Lacosamide oral solution is indicated for the treatment of partial-onset seizures in patients 4 years of age and older. Additional pediatric use information is approved for UCB, Inc.’s VIMPAT ® (lacosamide) oral solution. However, due to UCB, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information.

Abuse

9.2 Abuse Abuse is the intentional, non-therapeutic use of a drug, even once, for its desirable psychological or physiological effects. In a human abuse potential study, single doses of 200 mg (equal to the maximum single dosage) and 800 mg lacosamide (equal to twice the recommended daily maintenance dosage) produced euphoria-type subjective responses that differentiated statistically from placebo; at 800 mg, these euphoria-type responses were statistically indistinguishable from those produced by alprazolam, a Schedule IV drug. The duration of the euphoria-type responses following lacosamide was less than that following alprazolam. A high rate of euphoria was also reported as an adverse event in the human abuse potential study following single doses of 800 mg lacosamide (15% [5/34]) compared to placebo (0%) and in two pharmacokinetic studies following single and multiple doses of 300-800 mg lacosamide (ranging from 6% [2/33] to 25% [3/12]) compared to placebo (0%). However, the rate of euphoria reported as an adverse event in the lacosamide development program at therapeutic doses was less than 1%.

Controlled Substance

9.1 Controlled Substance Lacosamide oral solution contains lacosamide, a Schedule V controlled substance.

Dependence

9.3 Dependence Physical dependence is a state that develops as a result of physiological adaptation in response to repeated drug use, manifested by withdrawal signs and symptoms after abrupt discontinuation or a significant dose reduction of a drug. Abrupt termination of lacosamide in clinical trials with diabetic neuropathic pain patients produced no signs or symptoms that are associated with a withdrawal syndrome indicative of physical dependence. However, psychological dependence cannot be excluded due to the ability of lacosamide to produce euphoria-type adverse events in humans.

Drug Abuse And Dependence

9 DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE 9.1 Controlled Substance Lacosamide oral solution contains lacosamide, a Schedule V controlled substance. 9.2 Abuse Abuse is the intentional, non-therapeutic use of a drug, even once, for its desirable psychological or physiological effects. In a human abuse potential study, single doses of 200 mg (equal to the maximum single dosage) and 800 mg lacosamide (equal to twice the recommended daily maintenance dosage) produced euphoria-type subjective responses that differentiated statistically from placebo; at 800 mg, these euphoria-type responses were statistically indistinguishable from those produced by alprazolam, a Schedule IV drug. The duration of the euphoria-type responses following lacosamide was less than that following alprazolam. A high rate of euphoria was also reported as an adverse event in the human abuse potential study following single doses of 800 mg lacosamide (15% [5/34]) compared to placebo (0%) and in two pharmacokinetic studies following single and multiple doses of 300-800 mg lacosamide (ranging from 6% [2/33] to 25% [3/12]) compared to placebo (0%). However, the rate of euphoria reported as an adverse event in the lacosamide development program at therapeutic doses was less than 1%. 9.3 Dependence Physical dependence is a state that develops as a result of physiological adaptation in response to repeated drug use, manifested by withdrawal signs and symptoms after abrupt discontinuation or a significant dose reduction of a drug. Abrupt termination of lacosamide in clinical trials with diabetic neuropathic pain patients produced no signs or symptoms that are associated with a withdrawal syndrome indicative of physical dependence. However, psychological dependence cannot be excluded due to the ability of lacosamide to produce euphoria-type adverse events in humans.

Overdosage

10 OVERDOSAGE Events reported after an intake of more than 800 mg (twice the maximum recommended daily dosage) of lacosamide include dizziness, nausea, and seizures (generalized tonic-clonic seizures, status epilepticus). Cardiac conduction disorders, confusion, decreased level of consciousness, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, and coma have also been observed. Fatalities have occurred following lacosamide overdoses of several grams. There is no specific antidote for overdose with lacosamide. Standard decontamination procedures should be followed. General supportive care of the patient is indicated including monitoring of vital signs and observation of the clinical status of patient. A Certified Poison Control Center should be contacted for up to date information on the management of overdose with lacosamide. Standard hemodialysis procedures result in significant clearance of lacosamide (reduction of systemic exposure by 50% in 4 hours). Hemodialysis may be indicated based on the patient's clinical state or in patients with significant renal impairment.

Adverse Reactions Table

Adverse ReactionPlaceboN=364%Lacosamide200 mg/dayN=270%Lacosamide400 mg/dayN=471%Lacosamide600 mg/day*N=203%LacosamideTotalN=944%
Ear and labyrinth disorder
Vertigo 1 5 3 4 4
Eye disorders
Diplopia 2 6 10 16 11
Blurred Vision 3 2 9 16 8
Gastrointestinal disorders
Nausea 4 7 11 17 11
Vomiting 3 6 9 16 9
Diarrhea 3 3 5 4 4
General disorders and administration site conditions
Fatigue 6 7 7 15 9
Gait disturbance <1 <1 2 4 2
Asthenia 1 2 2 4 2
Injury, poisoning and procedural complications
Contusion 3 3 4 2 3
Skin laceration 2 2 3 3 3
Nervous system disorders
Dizziness 8 16 30 53 31
Headache 9 11 14 12 13
Ataxia 2 4 7 15 8
Somnolence 5 5 8 8 7
Tremor 4 4 6 12 7
Nystagmus 4 2 5 10 5
Balance disorder 0 1 5 6 4
Memory impairment 2 1 2 6 2
Psychiatric disorders
Depression 1 2 2 2 2
Skin and subcutaneous disorders
Pruritus 1 3 2 3 2

Drug Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS 7.1 Strong CYP3A4 or CYP2C9 Inhibitors Patients with renal or hepatic impairment who are taking strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 may have a significant increase in exposure to lacosamide. Dose reduction may be necessary in these patients. 7.2 Concomitant Medications that Affect Cardiac Conduction Lacosamide should be used with caution in patients on concomitant medications that affect cardiac conduction (sodium channel blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, potassium channel blockers) including those that prolong PR interval (including sodium channel blocking AEDs), because of a risk of AV block, bradycardia, or ventricular tachyarrhythmia. In such patients, obtaining an ECG before beginning lacosamide, and after lacosamide is titrated to steady-state, is recommended. In addition, these patients should be closely monitored if they are administered lacosamide through the intravenous route [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 )].

Clinical Pharmacology

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 12.1 Mechanism of Action The precise mechanism by which lacosamide oral solution exerts its antiepileptic effects in humans remains to be fully elucidated. In vitro electrophysiological studies have shown that lacosamide selectively enhances slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels, resulting in stabilization of hyperexcitable neuronal membranes and inhibition of repetitive neuronal firing. 12.2 Pharmacodynamics A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (efficacy) analysis was performed based on the pooled data from the 3 efficacy trials for partial-onset seizures. Lacosamide exposure is correlated with the reduction in seizure frequency. However, doses above 400 mg/day do not appear to confer additional benefit in group analyses. Cardiac Electrophysiology Electrocardiographic effects of lacosamide were determined in a double-blind, randomized clinical pharmacology trial of 247 healthy subjects. Chronic oral doses of 400 and 800 mg/day (equal to and two times the maximum daily recommended dose, respectively) were compared with placebo and a positive control (400 mg moxifloxacin). Lacosamide did not prolong QTc interval and did not have a dose-related or clinically important effect on QRS duration . Lacosamide produced a small, dose-related increase in mean PR interval. At steady-state, the time of the maximum observed mean PR interval corresponded with t max . The placebo-subtracted maximum increase in PR interval (at t max ) was 7.3 ms for the 400 mg/day group and 11.9 ms for the 800 mg/day group. For patients who participated in the controlled trials, the placebo-subtracted mean maximum increase in PR interval for a 400 mg/day lacosamide dose was 3.1 ms in patients with partial-onset seizures and 9.4 ms for patients with diabetic neuropathy. 12.3 Pharmacokinetics The pharmacokinetics of lacosamide have been studied in healthy adult subjects (age range 18 to 87), adults with partial-onset seizures, adults with diabetic neuropathy, and subjects with renal and hepatic impairment. The pharmacokinetics of lacosamide are similar in healthy subjects, patients with partial-onset seizures, and patients with primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Lacosamide is completely absorbed after oral administration with negligible first-pass effect with a high absolute bioavailability of approximately 100%. The maximum lacosamide plasma concentrations occur approximately 1-to-4-hour post-dose after oral dosing, and elimination half-life is approximately 13 hours. Steady state plasma concentrations are achieved after 3 days of twice daily repeated administration. Pharmacokinetics of lacosamide are dose proportional (100 to 800 mg) and time invariant, with low inter- and intra-subject variability. Compared to lacosamide the major metabolite, O-desmethyl metabolite, has a longer T max (0.5 to 12 hours) and elimination half-life (15 to 23 hours). Absorption and Bioavailability Lacosamide is completely absorbed after oral administration. The oral bioavailability of lacosamide tablets is approximately 100%. Food does not affect the rate and extent of absorption. After intravenous administration, C max is reached at the end of infusion. The 30- and 60-minute intravenous infusions are bioequivalent to the oral tablet. For the 15-minute intravenous infusion, bioequivalence was met for AUC (0-tz) but not for C max . The point estimate of C max was 20% higher than C max for oral tablet and the 90% CI for C max exceeded the upper boundary of the bioequivalence range. In a trial comparing the oral tablet with an oral solution containing 10 mg/mL lacosamide, bioequivalence between both formulations was shown. A single loading dose of 200 mg approximates steady-state concentrations comparable to the 100 mg twice daily oral administration. Distribution The volume of distribution is approximately 0.6 L/kg and thus close to the volume of total body water. Lacosamide is less than 15% bound to plasma proteins. Metabolism and Elimination Lacosamide is primarily eliminated from the systemic circulation by renal excretion and biotransformation. After oral administration of 100 mg [ 14 C]-lacosamide approximately 95% of radioactivity administered was recovered in the urine and less than 0.5% in the feces. The major compounds excreted were unchanged lacosamide (approximately 40% of the dose), its O-desmethyl metabolite (approximately 30%), and a structurally unknown polar fraction (~20%). The plasma exposure of the major human metabolite, O-desmethyl-lacosamide, is approximately 10% of that of lacosamide. This metabolite has no known pharmacological activity. The CYP isoforms mainly responsible for the formation of the major metabolite (O-desmethyl) are CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19. The elimination half-life of the unchanged drug is approximately 13 hours and is not altered by different doses, multiple dosing or intravenous administration. There is no enantiomeric interconversion of lacosamide. Specific Populations Renal Impairment Lacosamide and its major metabolite are eliminated from the systemic circulation primarily by renal excretion. The AUC of lacosamide was increased approximately 25% in mildly (CL CR 50 to 80 mL/min) and moderately (CL CR 30 to 50 mL/min) and 60% in severely (CL CR ≤30 mL/min) renally impaired patients compared to subjects with normal renal function (CL CR >80 mL/min), whereas C max was unaffected. Lacosamide is effectively removed from plasma by hemodialysis. Following a 4-hour hemodialysis treatment, AUC of lacosamide is reduced by approximately 50% [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.4 )]. Hepatic Impairment Lacosamide undergoes metabolism. Subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B) showed higher plasma concentrations of lacosamide (approximately 50 to 60% higher AUC compared to healthy subjects). The pharmacokinetics of lacosamide have not been evaluated in severe hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.5 )]. Pediatric Patients (4 to less than 17 Years of Age) The pediatric pharmacokinetic profile of lacosamide was determined in a population pharmacokinetic analysis using sparse plasma concentration data obtained in two open-label studies in 79 pediatric patients with epilepsy aged 4 years to less than 17 years who received oral solution or oral tablet formulations. A weight based dosing regimen is necessary to achieve lacosamide exposures in pediatric patients 4 years to less than 17 years of age similar to those observed in adults treated at effective doses of lacosamide [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.1 )] . For patients weighing 11 kg, 28.9 kg (the mean population body weight), and 70 kg, the typical plasma half-life (t 1/2 ) is 7.4 hours, 10.6 hours, and 14.8 hours, respectively. Steady state plasma concentrations are achieved after 3 days of twice daily repeated administration. The pharmacokinetics of lacosamide in pediatric patients are similar when used as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures. Additional pediatric use information is approved for UCB, Inc.’s VIMPAT ® (lacosamide) tablets and oral solution. However, due to UCB, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information. Geriatric Patients In the elderly (>65 years), dose and body-weight normalized AUC and C max is about 20% increased compared to young subjects (18 to 64 years). This may be related to body weight and decreased renal function in elderly subjects. Gender Lacosamide clinical trials indicate that gender does not have a clinically relevant influence on the pharmacokinetics of lacosamide . Race There are no clinically relevant differences in the pharmacokinetics of lacosamide between Asian, Black, and Caucasian subjects. CYP2C19 Polymorphism There are no clinically relevant differences in the pharmacokinetics of lacosamide between CYP2C19 poor metabolizers and extensive metabolizers. Results from a trial in poor metabolizers (PM) (N=4) and extensive metabolizers (EM) (N=8) of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 showed that lacosamide plasma concentrations were similar in PMs and EMs, but plasma concentrations and the amount excreted into urine of the O-desmethyl metabolite were about 70% reduced in PMs compared to EMs. Drug Interactions In Vitro Assessment of Drug Interactions In vitro metabolism studies indicate that lacosamide does not induce the enzyme activity of drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19 and 3A4. Lacosamide did not inhibit CYP 1A1, 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4/5 at plasma concentrations observed in clinical studies. In vitro data suggest that lacosamide has the potential to inhibit CYP2C19 at therapeutic concentrations. However, an in vivo study with omeprazole did not show an inhibitory effect on omeprazole pharmacokinetics. Lacosamide was not a substrate or inhibitor for P-glycoprotein. Lacosamide is a substrate of CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19. Patients with renal or hepatic impairment who are taking strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 may have increased exposure to lacosamide. Since <15% of lacosamide is bound to plasma proteins, a clinically relevant interaction with other drugs through competition for protein binding sites is unlikely. In Vivo Assessment of Drug Interactions Drug interaction studies with AEDs Effect of lacosamide on concomitant AEDs Lacosamide 400 mg/day had no influence on the pharmacokinetics of 600 mg/day valproic acid and 400 mg/day carbamazepine in healthy subjects. The placebo-controlled clinical studies in patients with partial-onset seizures showed that steady-state plasma concentrations of levetiracetam, carbamazepine, carbamazepine epoxide, lamotrigine, topiramate, oxcarbazepine monohydroxy derivative (MHD), phenytoin, valproic acid, phenobarbital, gabapentin, clonazepam, and zonisamide were not affected by concomitant intake of lacosamide at any dose. Effect of concomitant AEDs on lacosamide Drug-drug interaction studies in healthy subjects showed that 600 mg/day valproic acid had no influence on the pharmacokinetics of 400 mg/day lacosamide . Likewise, 400 mg/day carbamazepine had no influence on the pharmacokinetics of lacosamide in a healthy subject study. Population pharmacokinetics results in patients with partial-onset seizures showed small reductions (15% to 20% lower) in lacosamide plasma concentrations when lacosamide was coadministered with carbamazepine, phenobarbital or phenytoin. Drug-drug interaction studies with other drugs Digoxin There was no effect of lacosamide (400 mg/day) on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin (0.5 mg once daily) in a study in healthy subjects. Metformin There were no clinically relevant changes in metformin levels following coadministration of lacosamide (400 mg/day). Metformin (500 mg three times a day) had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of lacosamide (400 mg/day). Omeprazole Omeprazole is a CYP2C19 substrate and inhibitor. There was no effect of lacosamide (600 mg/day) on the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole (40 mg single dose) in healthy subjects. The data indicated that lacosamide had little in vivo inhibitory or inducing effect on CYP2C19. Omeprazole at a dose of 40 mg once daily had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of lacosamide (300 mg single dose). However, plasma levels of the O-desmethyl metabolite were reduced about 60% in the presence of omeprazole. Midazolam Midazolam is a 3A4 substrate. There was no effect of lacosamide (200 mg single dose or repeat doses of 400 mg/day given as 200 mg BID) on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam (single dose, 7.5 mg), indicating no inhibitory or inducing effects on CYP3A4. Oral Contraceptives There was no influence of lacosamide (400 mg/day) on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of an oral contraceptive containing 0.03 mg ethinylestradiol and 0.15 mg levonorgestrel in healthy subjects, except that a 20% increase in ethinylestradiol C max was observed. Warfarin Co-administration of lacosamide (400 mg/day) with warfarin (25 mg single dose) did not result in a clinically relevant change in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of warfarin in a study in healthy male subjects.

Mechanism Of Action

12.1 Mechanism of Action The precise mechanism by which lacosamide oral solution exerts its antiepileptic effects in humans remains to be fully elucidated. In vitro electrophysiological studies have shown that lacosamide selectively enhances slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels, resulting in stabilization of hyperexcitable neuronal membranes and inhibition of repetitive neuronal firing.

Pharmacodynamics

12.2 Pharmacodynamics A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (efficacy) analysis was performed based on the pooled data from the 3 efficacy trials for partial-onset seizures. Lacosamide exposure is correlated with the reduction in seizure frequency. However, doses above 400 mg/day do not appear to confer additional benefit in group analyses. Cardiac Electrophysiology Electrocardiographic effects of lacosamide were determined in a double-blind, randomized clinical pharmacology trial of 247 healthy subjects. Chronic oral doses of 400 and 800 mg/day (equal to and two times the maximum daily recommended dose, respectively) were compared with placebo and a positive control (400 mg moxifloxacin). Lacosamide did not prolong QTc interval and did not have a dose-related or clinically important effect on QRS duration . Lacosamide produced a small, dose-related increase in mean PR interval. At steady-state, the time of the maximum observed mean PR interval corresponded with t max . The placebo-subtracted maximum increase in PR interval (at t max ) was 7.3 ms for the 400 mg/day group and 11.9 ms for the 800 mg/day group. For patients who participated in the controlled trials, the placebo-subtracted mean maximum increase in PR interval for a 400 mg/day lacosamide dose was 3.1 ms in patients with partial-onset seizures and 9.4 ms for patients with diabetic neuropathy.

Pharmacokinetics

12.3 Pharmacokinetics The pharmacokinetics of lacosamide have been studied in healthy adult subjects (age range 18 to 87), adults with partial-onset seizures, adults with diabetic neuropathy, and subjects with renal and hepatic impairment. The pharmacokinetics of lacosamide are similar in healthy subjects, patients with partial-onset seizures, and patients with primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Lacosamide is completely absorbed after oral administration with negligible first-pass effect with a high absolute bioavailability of approximately 100%. The maximum lacosamide plasma concentrations occur approximately 1-to-4-hour post-dose after oral dosing, and elimination half-life is approximately 13 hours. Steady state plasma concentrations are achieved after 3 days of twice daily repeated administration. Pharmacokinetics of lacosamide are dose proportional (100 to 800 mg) and time invariant, with low inter- and intra-subject variability. Compared to lacosamide the major metabolite, O-desmethyl metabolite, has a longer T max (0.5 to 12 hours) and elimination half-life (15 to 23 hours). Absorption and Bioavailability Lacosamide is completely absorbed after oral administration. The oral bioavailability of lacosamide tablets is approximately 100%. Food does not affect the rate and extent of absorption. After intravenous administration, C max is reached at the end of infusion. The 30- and 60-minute intravenous infusions are bioequivalent to the oral tablet. For the 15-minute intravenous infusion, bioequivalence was met for AUC (0-tz) but not for C max . The point estimate of C max was 20% higher than C max for oral tablet and the 90% CI for C max exceeded the upper boundary of the bioequivalence range. In a trial comparing the oral tablet with an oral solution containing 10 mg/mL lacosamide, bioequivalence between both formulations was shown. A single loading dose of 200 mg approximates steady-state concentrations comparable to the 100 mg twice daily oral administration. Distribution The volume of distribution is approximately 0.6 L/kg and thus close to the volume of total body water. Lacosamide is less than 15% bound to plasma proteins. Metabolism and Elimination Lacosamide is primarily eliminated from the systemic circulation by renal excretion and biotransformation. After oral administration of 100 mg [ 14 C]-lacosamide approximately 95% of radioactivity administered was recovered in the urine and less than 0.5% in the feces. The major compounds excreted were unchanged lacosamide (approximately 40% of the dose), its O-desmethyl metabolite (approximately 30%), and a structurally unknown polar fraction (~20%). The plasma exposure of the major human metabolite, O-desmethyl-lacosamide, is approximately 10% of that of lacosamide. This metabolite has no known pharmacological activity. The CYP isoforms mainly responsible for the formation of the major metabolite (O-desmethyl) are CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19. The elimination half-life of the unchanged drug is approximately 13 hours and is not altered by different doses, multiple dosing or intravenous administration. There is no enantiomeric interconversion of lacosamide. Specific Populations Renal Impairment Lacosamide and its major metabolite are eliminated from the systemic circulation primarily by renal excretion. The AUC of lacosamide was increased approximately 25% in mildly (CL CR 50 to 80 mL/min) and moderately (CL CR 30 to 50 mL/min) and 60% in severely (CL CR ≤30 mL/min) renally impaired patients compared to subjects with normal renal function (CL CR >80 mL/min), whereas C max was unaffected. Lacosamide is effectively removed from plasma by hemodialysis. Following a 4-hour hemodialysis treatment, AUC of lacosamide is reduced by approximately 50% [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.4 )]. Hepatic Impairment Lacosamide undergoes metabolism. Subjects with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh B) showed higher plasma concentrations of lacosamide (approximately 50 to 60% higher AUC compared to healthy subjects). The pharmacokinetics of lacosamide have not been evaluated in severe hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.5 )]. Pediatric Patients (4 to less than 17 Years of Age) The pediatric pharmacokinetic profile of lacosamide was determined in a population pharmacokinetic analysis using sparse plasma concentration data obtained in two open-label studies in 79 pediatric patients with epilepsy aged 4 years to less than 17 years who received oral solution or oral tablet formulations. A weight based dosing regimen is necessary to achieve lacosamide exposures in pediatric patients 4 years to less than 17 years of age similar to those observed in adults treated at effective doses of lacosamide [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.1 )] . For patients weighing 11 kg, 28.9 kg (the mean population body weight), and 70 kg, the typical plasma half-life (t 1/2 ) is 7.4 hours, 10.6 hours, and 14.8 hours, respectively. Steady state plasma concentrations are achieved after 3 days of twice daily repeated administration. The pharmacokinetics of lacosamide in pediatric patients are similar when used as monotherapy or as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures. Additional pediatric use information is approved for UCB, Inc.’s VIMPAT ® (lacosamide) tablets and oral solution. However, due to UCB, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information. Geriatric Patients In the elderly (>65 years), dose and body-weight normalized AUC and C max is about 20% increased compared to young subjects (18 to 64 years). This may be related to body weight and decreased renal function in elderly subjects. Gender Lacosamide clinical trials indicate that gender does not have a clinically relevant influence on the pharmacokinetics of lacosamide . Race There are no clinically relevant differences in the pharmacokinetics of lacosamide between Asian, Black, and Caucasian subjects. CYP2C19 Polymorphism There are no clinically relevant differences in the pharmacokinetics of lacosamide between CYP2C19 poor metabolizers and extensive metabolizers. Results from a trial in poor metabolizers (PM) (N=4) and extensive metabolizers (EM) (N=8) of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 showed that lacosamide plasma concentrations were similar in PMs and EMs, but plasma concentrations and the amount excreted into urine of the O-desmethyl metabolite were about 70% reduced in PMs compared to EMs. Drug Interactions In Vitro Assessment of Drug Interactions In vitro metabolism studies indicate that lacosamide does not induce the enzyme activity of drug metabolizing cytochrome P450 isoforms CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19 and 3A4. Lacosamide did not inhibit CYP 1A1, 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4/5 at plasma concentrations observed in clinical studies. In vitro data suggest that lacosamide has the potential to inhibit CYP2C19 at therapeutic concentrations. However, an in vivo study with omeprazole did not show an inhibitory effect on omeprazole pharmacokinetics. Lacosamide was not a substrate or inhibitor for P-glycoprotein. Lacosamide is a substrate of CYP3A4, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19. Patients with renal or hepatic impairment who are taking strong inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 may have increased exposure to lacosamide. Since <15% of lacosamide is bound to plasma proteins, a clinically relevant interaction with other drugs through competition for protein binding sites is unlikely. In Vivo Assessment of Drug Interactions Drug interaction studies with AEDs Effect of lacosamide on concomitant AEDs Lacosamide 400 mg/day had no influence on the pharmacokinetics of 600 mg/day valproic acid and 400 mg/day carbamazepine in healthy subjects. The placebo-controlled clinical studies in patients with partial-onset seizures showed that steady-state plasma concentrations of levetiracetam, carbamazepine, carbamazepine epoxide, lamotrigine, topiramate, oxcarbazepine monohydroxy derivative (MHD), phenytoin, valproic acid, phenobarbital, gabapentin, clonazepam, and zonisamide were not affected by concomitant intake of lacosamide at any dose. Effect of concomitant AEDs on lacosamide Drug-drug interaction studies in healthy subjects showed that 600 mg/day valproic acid had no influence on the pharmacokinetics of 400 mg/day lacosamide . Likewise, 400 mg/day carbamazepine had no influence on the pharmacokinetics of lacosamide in a healthy subject study. Population pharmacokinetics results in patients with partial-onset seizures showed small reductions (15% to 20% lower) in lacosamide plasma concentrations when lacosamide was coadministered with carbamazepine, phenobarbital or phenytoin. Drug-drug interaction studies with other drugs Digoxin There was no effect of lacosamide (400 mg/day) on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin (0.5 mg once daily) in a study in healthy subjects. Metformin There were no clinically relevant changes in metformin levels following coadministration of lacosamide (400 mg/day). Metformin (500 mg three times a day) had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of lacosamide (400 mg/day). Omeprazole Omeprazole is a CYP2C19 substrate and inhibitor. There was no effect of lacosamide (600 mg/day) on the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole (40 mg single dose) in healthy subjects. The data indicated that lacosamide had little in vivo inhibitory or inducing effect on CYP2C19. Omeprazole at a dose of 40 mg once daily had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of lacosamide (300 mg single dose). However, plasma levels of the O-desmethyl metabolite were reduced about 60% in the presence of omeprazole. Midazolam Midazolam is a 3A4 substrate. There was no effect of lacosamide (200 mg single dose or repeat doses of 400 mg/day given as 200 mg BID) on the pharmacokinetics of midazolam (single dose, 7.5 mg), indicating no inhibitory or inducing effects on CYP3A4. Oral Contraceptives There was no influence of lacosamide (400 mg/day) on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of an oral contraceptive containing 0.03 mg ethinylestradiol and 0.15 mg levonorgestrel in healthy subjects, except that a 20% increase in ethinylestradiol C max was observed. Warfarin Co-administration of lacosamide (400 mg/day) with warfarin (25 mg single dose) did not result in a clinically relevant change in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of warfarin in a study in healthy male subjects.

Effective Time

20231201

Version

3

Dosage And Administration Table

Age and Body WeightInitial DosageTitration RegimenMaintenance Dosage
Adults (17 years and older) Monotherapy**: 100 mg twice daily (200 mg per day) Increase by 50 mg twice daily (100 mg per day) every week Monotherapy**: 150 mg to 200 mg twice daily (300 mg to 400 mg per day)
Adjunctive Therapy: 50 mg twice daily (100 mg per day) Adjunctive Therapy: 100 mg to 200 mg twice daily (200 mg to 400 mg per day)
Pediatric patients weighing at least 50 kg 50 mg twice daily (100 mg per day) Increase by 50 mg twice daily (100 mg per day) every week Monotherapy**: 150 mg to 200 mg twice daily (300 mg to 400 mg per day) Adjunctive Therapy: 100 mg to 200 mg twice daily (200 mg to 400 mg per day)
Pediatric patients weighing 30 kg to less than 50 kg 1 mg/kg twice daily (2 mg/kg/day) Increase by 1 mg/kg twice daily (2 mg/kg/day) every week 2 mg/kg to 4 mg/kg twice daily (4 mg/kg/day to 8 mg/kg/day)
Pediatric patients weighing 11 kg to less than 30 kg 1 mg/kg twice daily (2 mg/kg/day) Increase by 1 mg/kg twice daily (2 mg/kg/day) every week 3 mg/kg to 6 mg/kg twice daily (6 mg/kg/day to 12 mg/kg/day)

Dosage Forms And Strengths

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Lacosamide Oral Solution, USP 10 mg/mL: clear, colorless to yellow or yellow-brown, strawberry-flavored liquid. 10 mg/mL oral solution (3)

Spl Product Data Elements

Lacosamide Oral Solution lacosamide LACOSAMIDE lacosamide WATER SORBITOL GLYCERIN POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 4000 CARBOXYMETHYLCELLULOSE SODIUM, UNSPECIFIED ACESULFAME POTASSIUM METHYLPARABEN ANHYDROUS CITRIC ACID SODIUM CHLORIDE PROPYLENE GLYCOL ALCOHOL clear, colorless to yellow or yellow-brown chemical structure principal display panel-200-ml-bottle-label 10mg-mL200mLCarton.jpg

Carcinogenesis And Mutagenesis And Impairment Of Fertility

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenesis There was no evidence of drug related carcinogenicity in mice or rats. Mice and rats received lacosamide once daily by oral administration for 104 weeks at doses producing plasma exposures (AUC) up to approximately 1 and 3 times, respectively, the plasma AUC in humans at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 400 mg/day. Mutagenesis Lacosamide was negative in an in vitro Ames test and an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. Lacosamide induced a positive response in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay. Fertility No adverse effects on male or female fertility or reproduction were observed in rats at doses producing plasma exposures (AUC) up to approximately 2 times the plasma AUC in humans at the MRHD.

Nonclinical Toxicology

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY 13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenesis There was no evidence of drug related carcinogenicity in mice or rats. Mice and rats received lacosamide once daily by oral administration for 104 weeks at doses producing plasma exposures (AUC) up to approximately 1 and 3 times, respectively, the plasma AUC in humans at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 400 mg/day. Mutagenesis Lacosamide was negative in an in vitro Ames test and an in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. Lacosamide induced a positive response in the in vitro mouse lymphoma assay. Fertility No adverse effects on male or female fertility or reproduction were observed in rats at doses producing plasma exposures (AUC) up to approximately 2 times the plasma AUC in humans at the MRHD.

Application Number

ANDA206355

Brand Name

Lacosamide Oral Solution

Generic Name

lacosamide

Product Ndc

60505-0405

Product Type

HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG

Route

ORAL

Package Label Principal Display Panel

PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 200 mL Bottle Label APOTEX CORP. , NDC 60505-0405-4 Lacosamide Oral Solution , USP 10 mg / mL Rx only ATTENTION PHARMACIST: Each patient is required to receive the accompanying Medication Guide. 200 mL PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 200 mL Carton Label APOTEX CORP. , NDC 60505-0405-4 Lacosamide Oral Solution , USP 10 mg / mL Rx only ATTENTION PHARMACIST: Each patient is required to receive the accompanying Medication Guide.

Recent Major Changes

RECENT MAJOR CHANGES Dosage and Administration ( 2.1 , 2.2 ) 4/2023

Information For Patients

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION Advise the patient or caregiver to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide). Suicidal Thinking and Behavior Patients, their caregivers, and families should be counseled that AEDs, including lacosamide oral solution , may increase the risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior and should be advised of the need to be alert for the emergence or worsening of symptoms of depression, any unusual changes in mood or behavior, or the emergence of suicidal thoughts, behavior, or thoughts about self-harm. Behaviors of concern should be reported immediately to healthcare providers [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] . Dizziness and Ataxia Patients should be counseled that lacosamide oral solution use may cause dizziness, double vision, abnormal coordination and balance, and somnolence. Patients taking lacosamide oral solution should be advised not to drive, operate complex machinery, or engage in other hazardous activities until they have become accustomed to any such effects associated with lacosamide oral solution [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] . Cardiac Rhythm and Conduction Abnormalities Patients should be counseled that lacosamide oral solution is associated with electrocardiographic changes that may predispose to irregular heart beat and syncope. Cardiac arrest has been reported. This risk is increased in patients with underlying cardiovascular disease, with heart conduction problems, or who are taking other medications that affect the heart. Patients should be made aware of and report cardiac signs or symptoms to their healthcare provider right away. Patients who develop syncope should lay down with raised legs and contact their health care provider [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 )] . Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS)/Multi-Organ Hypersensitivity Patients should be aware that lacosamide oral solution may cause serious hypersensitivity reactions affecting multiple organs such as the liver and kidney. Lacosamide oral solution should be discontinued if a serious hypersensitivity reaction is suspected. Patients should also be instructed to report promptly to their physicians any symptoms of liver toxicity (e.g., fatigue, jaundice, dark urine) [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6 )] . Pregnancy Registry Advise patients to notify their healthcare provider if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during lacosamide therapy. Encourage patients to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) pregnancy registry if they become pregnant. This registry is collecting information about the safety of AEDs during pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1) ]. Lactation Advise breastfeeding women using lacosamide oral solution to monitor infants for excess sleepiness and to seek medical care if they notice this sign [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.2 )]. All registered trademarks in this document are the property of their respective owners. Manufactured by: Apotex Inc. Toronto, Ontario Canada M9L 1T9 Manufactured for: Apotex Corp. Weston, Florida USA 33326 Revision No: 4

Information For Patients Table

Manufactured by: Apotex Inc. Toronto, Ontario Canada M9L 1T9 Manufactured for: Apotex Corp. Weston, Florida USA 33326

Spl Medguide

MEDICATION GUIDE Lacosamide ( la koe' sa mide ) Oral Solution, USP CV Read this Medication Guide before you start taking lacosamide oral solution and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This Medication Guide describes important safety information about lacosamide oral solution . This information does not take the place of talking to your healthcare provider about your medical condition or treatment. What is the most important information I should know about lacosamide oral solution? Do not stop taking lacosamide oral solution without first talking to your healthcare provider. Stopping lacosamide oral solution suddenly can cause serious problems. Stopping seizure medicine suddenly in a patient who has epilepsy can cause seizures that will not stop (status epilepticus). L acosamide oral solution can cause serious side effects, including: 1. Like other antiepileptic drugs, lacosamide oral solution may cause suicidal thoughts or actions in a very small number of people, about 1 in 500. Call a healthcare provider right away if you have any of these symptoms, especially if they are new, worse, or worry you: thoughts about suicide or dying attempt to commit suicide new or worse depression new or worse anxiety feeling agitated or restless panic attacks trouble sleeping (insomnia) new or worse irritability acting aggressive, being angry, or violent acting on dangerous impulses an extreme increase in activity and talking (mania) other unusual changes in behavior or mood How can I watch for early symptoms of suicidal thoughts and actions? Pay attention to any changes, especially sudden changes, in mood, behaviors, thoughts, or feelings. Keep all follow-up visits with your healthcare provider as scheduled. Call your healthcare provider between visits as needed, especially if you are worried about symptoms. Suicidal thoughts or actions can be caused by things other than medicines. If you have suicidal thoughts or actions, your healthcare provider may check for other causes. 2. Lacosamide oral solution may cause you to feel dizzy, have double vision, feel sleepy, or have problems with coordination and walking. Do not drive, operate heavy machinery, or do other dangerous activities until you know how lacosamide oral solution affects you. 3. Lacosamide oral solution may cause you to have an irregular heartbeat or may cause you to faint. In rare cases, cardiac arrest has been reported. Call your healthcare provider right away if you: have a fast, slow, or pounding heartbeat or feel your heart skip a beat have shortness of breath have chest pain feel lightheaded fainted or if you feel like you are going to faint If you have fainted or feel like you are going to faint you should lay down with your legs raised. 4. Lacosamide oral solution is a federally controlled substance (CV) because it can be abused or lead to drug dependence. Keep your lacosamide oral solution in a safe place, to protect it from theft. Never give your lacosamide oral solution to anyone else, because it may harm them. Selling or giving away this medicine is against the law. What is lacosamide oral solution ? Lacosamide oral solution is a prescription medicine used: to treat partial-onset seizures in people 4 years of age and older. It is not known if lacosamide oral solution is safe and effective for partial-onset seizures in children under 1 month of age. What should I tell my healthcare provider before taking lacosamide oral solution ? Before you take lacosamide oral solution, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you: have or have had depression, mood problems or suicidal thoughts or behavior. have heart problems. have kidney problems. have liver problems. have abused prescription medicines, street drugs or alcohol in the past. are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. It is not known if lacosamide oral solution can harm your unborn baby. Tell your healthcare provider right away if you become pregnant while taking lacosamide oral solution . You and your healthcare provider will decide if you should take lacosamide oral solution while you are pregnant. If you become pregnant while taking lacosamide oral solution, talk to your healthcare provider about registering with the North American Antiepileptic Drug Pregnancy Registry. You can enroll in this registry by calling 1-888-233-2334. The purpose of this registry is to collect information about the safety of antiepileptic medicine during pregnancy. are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. Lacosamide passes into breast milk. Breastfeeding during treatment with lacosamide oral solution may cause your baby to have more sleepiness than normal. If this happens, contact your baby’s healthcare provider. Talk to your healthcare provider about the best way to feed your baby if you take lacosamide oral solution . Tell your healthcare provider about all the medicines you take, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Taking lacosamide oral solution with certain other medicines may cause side effects or affect how well they work. Do not start or stop other medicines without talking to your healthcare provider. Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them and show it to your healthcare provider and pharmacist each time you get a new medicine. How should I take lacosamide oral solution ? Take lacosamide oral solution exactly as your healthcare provider tells you. Your healthcare provider will tell you how much lacosamide oral solution to take and when to take it. Your healthcare provider may change your dose if needed. Do not stop lacosamide oral solution without first talking to a healthcare provider. Stopping lacosamide oral solution suddenly in a patient who has epilepsy can cause seizures that will not stop (status epilepticus). Lacosamide oral solution may be taken with or without food. If your healthcare provider has prescribed lacosamide oral solution, be sure to ask your pharmacist for a medicine dropper or medicine cup to help you measure the correct amount of lacosamide oral solution. Do not use a household teaspoon. Ask your pharmacist for instructions on how to use the measuring device the right way. If you take too much lacosamide oral solution, call your healthcare provider or local Poison Control Center right away. What should I avoid while taking lacosamide oral solution ? Do not drive, operate heavy machinery, or do other dangerous activities until you know how lacosamide oral solution affects you. Lacosamide oral solution may cause you to feel dizzy, have double vision, feel sleepy, or have problems with coordination and walking. What are the possible side effects of lacosamide oral solution ? See "What is the most important information I should know about lacosamide oral solution?" L acosamide oral solution may cause other serious side effects including: A serious allergic reaction that may affect your skin or other parts of your body such as your liver or blood cells . Call your healthcare provider right away if you have: a skin rash, hives fever or swollen glands that do not go away shortness of breath tiredness (fatigue) swelling of the legs yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes dark urine The most common side effects of lacosamide oral solution include: double vision headache dizziness nausea sleepiness These are not all of the possible side effects of lacosamide oral solution. For more information ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist. Tell your healthcare provider about any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. How should I store lacosamide oral solution ? Store lacosamide oral solution at room temperature between 68°F to 77°F (20°C to 25°C). Do not freeze lacosamide oral solution. Throw away any unused lacosamide oral solution 6 months after you first open the bottle. Keep lacosamide oral solution and all medicines out of the reach of children. General Information about the safe and effective use of lacosamide oral solution. Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use lacosamide oral solution for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give lacosamide oral solution to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them. This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about lacosamide oral solution. If you would like more information, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about lacosamide oral solution that is written for health professionals. For more information, go to www.apotex.com/products or call 1-800-706-5575. What are the ingredients in lacosamide oral solution ? Active ingredient: lacosamide Inactive ingredients: acesulfame potassium, carboxymethylcellulose sodium, citric acid (anhydrous), glycerin, methylparaben, polyethylene glycol, purified water, sodium chloride, sorbitol solution and strawberry natural and artificial flavor [FN-13819 (water, propylene glycol, ethyl alcohol, natural & artificial flavor)] Additional pediatric use information is approved for UCB, Inc.’s VIMPAT® (lacosamide) oral solution. However, due to UCB, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information. This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Manufactured by: Apotex Inc. Toronto, Ontario Canada M9L 1T9 Manufactured for: Apotex Corp. Weston, Florida USA 33326 Revised: December 2023 Revision No: 4

Spl Medguide Table

Manufactured by: Apotex Inc. Toronto, Ontario Canada M9L 1T9 Manufactured for: Apotex Corp. Weston, Florida USA 33326

Clinical Studies

14 CLINICAL STUDIES 14.1 Monotherapy in Patients with Partial-Onset Seizures The efficacy of lacosamide in monotherapy was established in a historical-control, multicenter, randomized trial that included 425 patients, age 16 to 70 years, with partial-onset seizures (Study 1). To be included in Study 1, patients were required to be taking stable doses of 1 or 2 marketed antiepileptic drugs. This treatment continued into the 8 week baseline period. To remain in the study, patients were required to have at least 2 partial-onset seizures per 28 days during the 8 week baseline period. The baseline period was followed by a 3 week titration period, during which lacosamide was added to the ongoing antiepileptic regimen. This was followed by a 16- week maintenance period (i.e., a 6-week withdrawal period for background antiepileptic drugs, followed by a 10-week monotherapy period). Patients were randomized 3 to 1 to receive lacosamide 400 mg/day or lacosamide 300 mg/day. Treatment assignments were blinded. Response to treatment was based upon a comparison of the number of patients who met exit criteria during the maintenance phase, compared to historical controls. The historical control consisted of a pooled analysis of the control groups from 8 studies of similar design, which utilized a sub-therapeutic dose of an antiepileptic drug. Statistical superiority to the historical control was considered to be demonstrated if the upper limit from a 2-sided 95% confidence interval for the percentage of patients meeting exit criteria in patients receiving lacosamide remained below the lower 95% prediction limit of 65% derived from the historical control data. The exit criteria were one or more of the following: (1) doubling of average monthly seizure frequency during any 28 consecutive days, (2) doubling of highest consecutive 2-day seizure frequency, (3) occurrence of a single generalized tonic-clonic seizure, (4) clinically significant prolongation or worsening of overall seizure duration, frequency, type or pattern considered by the investigator to require trial discontinuation, (5) status epilepticus or new onset of serial/cluster seizures. The study population profile appeared comparable to that of the historical control population. For the lacosamide 400 mg/day group, the estimate of the percentage of patients meeting at least 1 exit criterion was 30% (95% CI: 25%, 36%). The upper limit of the 2-sided 95% CI (36%) was below the threshold of 65% derived from the historical control data, meeting the pre-specified criteria for efficacy. Lacosamide 300 mg/day also met the pre-specified criteria for efficacy. 14.2 Adjunctive Therapy in Patients with Partial-Onset Seizures The efficacy of lacosamide as adjunctive therapy in partial-onset seizures was established in three 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trials in adult patients (Study 2, Study 3, and Study 4). Enrolled patients had partial-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization, and were not adequately controlled with 1 to 3 concomitant AEDs. During an 8-week baseline period, patients were required to have an average of ≥4 partial-onset seizures per 28 days with no seizure-free period exceeding 21 days. In these 3 trials, patients had a mean duration of epilepsy of 24 years and a median baseline seizure frequency ranging from 10 to 17 per 28 days. 84% of patients were taking 2 to 3 concomitant AEDs with or without concurrent vagal nerve stimulation. Study 2 compared doses of lacosamide 200, 400, and 600 mg/day with placebo. Study 3 compared doses of lacosamide 400 and 600 mg/day with placebo. Study 4 compared doses of lacosamide 200 and 400 mg/day with placebo. In all three trials, following an 8-week baseline phase to establish baseline seizure frequency prior to randomization, patients were randomized and titrated to the randomized dose (a 1-step back-titration of lacosamide 100 mg/day or placebo was allowed in the case of intolerable adverse reactions at the end of the titration phase). During the titration phase, in all 3 adjunctive therapy trials, treatment was initiated at 100 mg/day (50 mg twice daily) and increased in weekly increments of 100 mg/day to the target dose. The titration phase lasted 6 weeks in Study 2 and Study 3, and 4 weeks in Study 4. In all three trials, the titration phase was followed by a maintenance phase that lasted 12 weeks, during which patients were to remain on a stable dose of lacosamide . A reduction in 28-day seizure frequency (baseline to maintenance phase), as compared to the placebo group, was the primary variable in all three adjunctive therapy trials. A statistically significant effect was observed with lacosamide treatment (Figure 1) at doses of 200 mg/day (Study 4), 400 mg/day (Studies 2, 3, and 4), and 600 mg/day (Studies 2 and 3). Subset evaluations of lacosamide demonstrate no important differences in seizure control as a function of gender or race, although data on race was limited (about 10% of patients were non-Caucasian). Figure 2 presents the percentage of patients (X-axis) with a percent reduction in partial seizure frequency (responder rate) from baseline to the maintenance phase at least as great as that represented on the Y-axis. A positive value on the Y-axis indicates an improvement from baseline (i.e., a decrease in seizure frequency), while a negative value indicates a worsening from baseline (i.e., an increase in seizure frequency). Thus, in a display of this type, a curve for an effective treatment is shifted to the left of the curve for placebo. The proportion of patients achieving any particular level of reduction in seizure frequency was consistently higher for the lacosamide groups, compared to the placebo group. For example, 40% of patients randomized to lacosamide (400 mg/day) experienced a 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency, compared to 23% of patients randomized to placebo. Patients with an increase in seizure frequency >100% are represented on the Y-axis as equal to or greater than -100%. figure1 figure2

Geriatric Use

8.5 Geriatric Use There were insufficient numbers of elderly patients enrolled in partial-onset seizure trials (n=18) to adequately determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. No lacosamide oral solution dose adjustment based on age is necessary. In elderly patients, dose titration should be performed with caution, usually starting at the lower end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic function, decreased renal function, increased cardiac conduction abnormalities, and polypharmacy [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.1 , 2.4 , 2.5 ) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )].

Labor And Delivery

8.2 Lactation Risk Summary Data from published literature indicate that lacosamide is present in human milk. There are reports of increased sleepiness in breastfed infants exposed to lacosamide (see Clinical Considerations). There is no information on the effects of lacosamide on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for lacosamide and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from lacosamide or from the underlying maternal condition. Clinical Considerations Monitor infants exposed to lacosamide through breastmilk for excess sedation.

Pediatric Use

8.4 Pediatric Use Partial-Onset Seizures Safety and effectiveness of lacosamide oral solution for the treatment of partial-onset seizures have been established in pediatric patients 4 years to less than 17 years of age. Use of lacosamide oral solution in this age group is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of lacosamide oral solution in adults with partial-onset seizures, pharmacokinetic data from adult and pediatric patients, and safety data in 328 pediatric patients 4 years to less than 17 years of age [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 ), and Clinical Studies ( 14.1 , 14.2 )] . Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below 1 month of age have not been established. Animal Data Lacosamide has been shown in vitro to interfere with the activity of collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2), a protein involved in neuronal differentiation and control of axonal outgrowth. Potential related adverse effects on CNS development cannot be ruled out. Administration of lacosamide to rats during the neonatal and juvenile periods of postnatal development (approximately equivalent to neonatal through adolescent development in humans) resulted in decreased brain weights and long-term neurobehavioral changes (altered open field performance, deficits in learning and memory). The no-effect dose for developmental neurotoxicity in rats was associated with a plasma lacosamide exposure (AUC) less than that in humans at the maximum recommended human dose of 400 mg/day. Additional pediatric use information is approved for UCB, Inc.’s VIMPAT ® (lacosamide) oral solution. However, due to UCB, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information .

Pregnancy

8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Exposure Registry There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), such as lacosamide oral solution, during pregnancy. Encourage women who are taking lacosamide oral solution during pregnancy to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) pregnancy registry by calling 1-888-233-2334 or visiting http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/. Risk Summary Available data from the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) pregnancy registry, a prospective cohort study, case reports, and a case series with lacosamide oral solution use in pregnant women are insufficient to identify a drug associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or other adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Lacosamide produced developmental toxicity (increased embryofetal and perinatal mortality, growth deficit) in rats following administration during pregnancy. Developmental neurotoxicity was observed in rats following administration during a period of postnatal development corresponding to the third trimester of human pregnancy. These effects were observed at doses associated with clinically relevant plasma exposures (see Data) . The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. Data Animal Data Oral administration of lacosamide to pregnant rats (20, 75, or 200 mg/kg/day) and rabbits (6.25, 12.5, or 25 mg/kg/day) during the period of organogenesis did not produce any effects on the incidences of fetal structural abnormalities. However, the maximum doses evaluated were limited by maternal toxicity in both species and embryofetal death in rats. These doses were associated with maternal plasma lacosamide exposures (AUC) approximately 2 and 1 times (rat and rabbit, respectively) that in humans at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 400 mg/day. In two studies in which lacosamide (25, 70, or 200 mg/kg/day and 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to rats throughout pregnancy and lactation, increased perinatal mortality and decreased body weights in the offspring were observed at the highest dose tested. The no-effect dose for pre-and postnatal developmental toxicity in rats (70 mg/kg/day) was associated with a maternal plasma lacosamide AUC similar to that in humans at the MRHD. Oral administration of lacosamide (30, 90, or 180 mg/kg/day) to rats during the neonatal and juvenile periods of development resulted in decreased brain weights and long-term neurobehavioral changes (altered open field performance, deficits in learning and memory). The early postnatal period in rats is generally thought to correspond to late pregnancy in humans in terms of brain development. The no-effect dose for developmental neurotoxicity in rats was associated with a plasma lacosamide AUC less than that in humans at the MRHD. In Vitro Data Lacosamide has been shown in vitro to interfere with the activity of collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2), a protein involved in neuronal differentiation and control of axonal outgrowth. Potential adverse effects on CNS development related to this activity cannot be ruled out.

Use In Specific Populations

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pregnancy: B ased on animal data, may cause fetal harm (8.1) Additional pediatric use information is approved for UCB, Inc.’s VIMPAT ® (lacosamide) oral solution. However, due to UCB, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information. 8.1 Pregnancy Pregnancy Exposure Registry There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), such as lacosamide oral solution, during pregnancy. Encourage women who are taking lacosamide oral solution during pregnancy to enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) pregnancy registry by calling 1-888-233-2334 or visiting http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/. Risk Summary Available data from the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) pregnancy registry, a prospective cohort study, case reports, and a case series with lacosamide oral solution use in pregnant women are insufficient to identify a drug associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or other adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Lacosamide produced developmental toxicity (increased embryofetal and perinatal mortality, growth deficit) in rats following administration during pregnancy. Developmental neurotoxicity was observed in rats following administration during a period of postnatal development corresponding to the third trimester of human pregnancy. These effects were observed at doses associated with clinically relevant plasma exposures (see Data) . The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. Data Animal Data Oral administration of lacosamide to pregnant rats (20, 75, or 200 mg/kg/day) and rabbits (6.25, 12.5, or 25 mg/kg/day) during the period of organogenesis did not produce any effects on the incidences of fetal structural abnormalities. However, the maximum doses evaluated were limited by maternal toxicity in both species and embryofetal death in rats. These doses were associated with maternal plasma lacosamide exposures (AUC) approximately 2 and 1 times (rat and rabbit, respectively) that in humans at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 400 mg/day. In two studies in which lacosamide (25, 70, or 200 mg/kg/day and 50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to rats throughout pregnancy and lactation, increased perinatal mortality and decreased body weights in the offspring were observed at the highest dose tested. The no-effect dose for pre-and postnatal developmental toxicity in rats (70 mg/kg/day) was associated with a maternal plasma lacosamide AUC similar to that in humans at the MRHD. Oral administration of lacosamide (30, 90, or 180 mg/kg/day) to rats during the neonatal and juvenile periods of development resulted in decreased brain weights and long-term neurobehavioral changes (altered open field performance, deficits in learning and memory). The early postnatal period in rats is generally thought to correspond to late pregnancy in humans in terms of brain development. The no-effect dose for developmental neurotoxicity in rats was associated with a plasma lacosamide AUC less than that in humans at the MRHD. In Vitro Data Lacosamide has been shown in vitro to interfere with the activity of collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2), a protein involved in neuronal differentiation and control of axonal outgrowth. Potential adverse effects on CNS development related to this activity cannot be ruled out. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary Data from published literature indicate that lacosamide is present in human milk. There are reports of increased sleepiness in breastfed infants exposed to lacosamide (see Clinical Considerations). There is no information on the effects of lacosamide on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for lacosamide and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from lacosamide or from the underlying maternal condition. Clinical Considerations Monitor infants exposed to lacosamide through breastmilk for excess sedation. 8.4 Pediatric Use Partial-Onset Seizures Safety and effectiveness of lacosamide oral solution for the treatment of partial-onset seizures have been established in pediatric patients 4 years to less than 17 years of age. Use of lacosamide oral solution in this age group is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of lacosamide oral solution in adults with partial-onset seizures, pharmacokinetic data from adult and pediatric patients, and safety data in 328 pediatric patients 4 years to less than 17 years of age [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 ), and Clinical Studies ( 14.1 , 14.2 )] . Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients below 1 month of age have not been established. Animal Data Lacosamide has been shown in vitro to interfere with the activity of collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2), a protein involved in neuronal differentiation and control of axonal outgrowth. Potential related adverse effects on CNS development cannot be ruled out. Administration of lacosamide to rats during the neonatal and juvenile periods of postnatal development (approximately equivalent to neonatal through adolescent development in humans) resulted in decreased brain weights and long-term neurobehavioral changes (altered open field performance, deficits in learning and memory). The no-effect dose for developmental neurotoxicity in rats was associated with a plasma lacosamide exposure (AUC) less than that in humans at the maximum recommended human dose of 400 mg/day. Additional pediatric use information is approved for UCB, Inc.’s VIMPAT ® (lacosamide) oral solution. However, due to UCB, Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that information . 8.5 Geriatric Use There were insufficient numbers of elderly patients enrolled in partial-onset seizure trials (n=18) to adequately determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. No lacosamide oral solution dose adjustment based on age is necessary. In elderly patients, dose titration should be performed with caution, usually starting at the lower end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic function, decreased renal function, increased cardiac conduction abnormalities, and polypharmacy [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.1 , 2.4 , 2.5 ) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )]. 8.6 Renal Impairment No dose adjustment is necessary in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment (CL CR ≥30 mL/min). In patients with severe renal impairment (CL CR <30 mL/min as estimated by the Cockcroft-Gault equation for adults; CL CR less than 30 mL/min/ 1.73m 2 as estimated by the Schwartz equation for pediatric patients) and in those with end-stage renal disease, a reduction of 25% of the maximum dosage is recommended [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.4 ) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )]. In all patients with renal impairment, dose initiation and titration should be based on clinical response and tolerability. Lacosamide is effectively removed from plasma by hemodialysis. Dosage supplementation of up to 50% following hemodialysis should be considered. 8.7 Hepatic Impairment For adult and pediatric patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment, a reduction of 25% of the maximum dosage is recommended. Patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment should be observed closely for adverse reactions, and dose initiation and titration should be based on clinical response and tolerability [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.5 ), Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3 )]. The pharmacokinetics of lacosamide has not been evaluated in severe hepatic impairment. Lacosamide oral solution use is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment.

How Supplied

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING 16.1 How Supplied Lacosamide oral solution, USP 10 mg/mL is a clear, colorless to yellow or yellow-brown, strawberry-flavored liquid. It is supplied in HDPE bottles as follows: 200 mL bottles NDC 60505-0405-4 465 mL bottles NDC 60505-0405-6 16.2 Storage and Handling Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Do not freeze. Discard any unused lacosamide oral solution, USP remaining after six (6) months of first opening the bottle.

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