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FDA Drug information

Hydromorphone hydrochloride

Read time: 12 mins
Marketing start date: 18 Jun 2024

Summary of product characteristics


Adverse Reactions

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS The following serious adverse reactions are discussed elsewhere in the labeling: • Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] • Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] • Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )] • Interactions with Benzodiazepine or Other CNS Depressants [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 )] • Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia and Allodynia [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6 )] • Adrenal Insufficiency [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8 )] • Severe Hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.9 )] • Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.11 )] • Seizures [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.12 )] • Withdrawal [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.13 )] Most common adverse reactions (incidence >10%) are: constipation, nausea, vomiting, somnolence, headache, and dizziness. ( 6.1 ) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Padagis ® at 1-866-634-9120 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch . 6.1 Clinical Trial Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice. Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets were administered to a total of 2,524 patients in 15 controlled and uncontrolled clinical studies. Of these, 423 patients were exposed to hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets for greater than 6 months and 141 exposed for greater than one year. The most common adverse reactions leading to study discontinuation were nausea, vomiting, constipation, somnolence, and dizziness. The most common treatment-related serious adverse reactions from controlled and uncontrolled chronic pain studies were drug withdrawal syndrome, overdose, confusional state, and constipation. The overall incidence of adverse reactions in patients greater than 65 years of age was higher, with a greater than 5% difference in rates for constipation and nausea when compared with younger patients. The overall incidence of adverse reactions in female patients was higher, with a greater than 5% difference in rates for nausea, vomiting, constipation and somnolence when compared with male patients. A 12-week double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study was conducted in opioid tolerant patients with moderate to severe low back pain [see Clinical Studies ( 14 )] . A total of 447 patients were enrolled into the open-label titration phase with 268 patients randomized into the double-blind treatment phase. The adverse reactions that were reported in at least 2% of the patients are contained in Table 2 . Table 2. Number (%) of Patients with Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 2% of Patients with Moderate to Severe Low Back Pain During the Open-Label Titration Phase or Double-Blind Treatment Phase by Preferred Term Preferred Term Open-Label Titration Phase Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets (N=447) Double-Blind Treatment Phase Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets (N=134) Placebo (N=134) Constipation 69 (15) 10 (7) 5 (4) Nausea 53 (12) 12 (9) 10 (7) Somnolence 39 (9) 1 (1) 0 (0) Headache 35 (8) 7 (5) 10 (7) Vomiting 29 (6) 8 (6) 6 (4) Pruritus 21 (5) 1 (1) 0 (0) Dizziness 17 (4) 3 (2) 2 (1) Insomnia 13 (3) 7 (5) 5 (4) Dry Mouth 13 (3) 2 (1) 0 (0) Edema Peripheral 13 (3) 3 (2) 1 (1) Hyperhidrosis 13 (3) 2 (1) 2 (1) Anorexia/Decreased Appetite 10 (2) 2 (1) 0 (0) Arthralgia 9 (2) 8 (6) 3 (2) Abdominal Pain 9 (2) 4 (3) 3 (2) Muscle Spasms 5 (1) 3 (2) 1 (1) Weight Decreased 3 (1) 4 (3) 3 (2) The adverse reactions that were reported in at least 2% of the total treated patients (N=2,474) in the 14 chronic clinical trials are contained in Table 3 . Table 3. Number (%) of Patients with Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥ 2% of Patients with Chronic Pain Receiving Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets in 14 Clinical Studies by Preferred Term Preferred Term All Patients (N=2,474) Constipation 765 (31) Nausea 684 (28) Vomiting 337 (14) Somnolence 367 (15) Headache 308 (12) Asthenia/Fatigue 272 (11) Dizziness 262 (11) Diarrhea 201 (8) Pruritus 193 (8) Insomnia 161 (7) Hyperhidrosis 143 (6) Edema Peripheral 135 (5) Anorexia/Decreased Appetite 139 (6) Dry Mouth 121 (5) Abdominal Pain 115 (5) Anxiety 95 (4) Back Pain 95 (4) Dyspepsia* 88 (4) Depression 81 (3) Dyspnea 76 (3) Muscle Spasms 74 (3) Arthralgia 72 (3) Rash 64 (3) Pain in Extremity 63 (3) Pain 58 (2) Drug Withdrawal Syndrome 55 (2) Pyrexia 52 (2) Fall 51 (2) Chest Pain 51 (2) * Reflux esophagitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett’s esophagus were grouped and reported with dyspepsia The following Adverse Reactions occurred in patients with an overall frequency of <2% and are listed in descending order within each System Organ Class: Cardiac disorders : palpitations, tachycardia, bradycardia, extrasystoles Ear and labyrinth disorders : vertigo, tinnitus Endocrine disorders : hypogonadism Eye disorders : vision blurred, diplopia, dry eye, miosis Gastrointestinal disorders : flatulence, dysphagia, hematochezia, abdominal distension, hemorrhoids, abnormal feces, intestinal obstruction, eructation, diverticulum, gastrointestinal motility disorder, large intestine perforation, anal fissure, bezoar, duodenitis, ileus, impaired gastric emptying, painful defecation General disorders and administration site conditions : chills, malaise, feeling abnormal, feeling of body temperature change, feeling jittery, hangover, gait disturbance, feeling drunk, body temperature decreased Infections and infestations : gastroenteritis, diverticulitis Injury, poisoning and procedural complications : contusion, overdose Investigations : weight decreased, hepatic enzyme increased, blood potassium decreased, blood amylase increased, blood testosterone decreased Metabolism and nutrition disorders : dehydration, fluid retention, increased appetite, hyperuricemia Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders : myalgia Nervous system disorders : tremor, sedation, hypoesthesia, paresthesia, disturbance in attention, memory impairment, dysarthria, syncope, balance disorder, dysgeusia, depressed level of consciousness, coordination abnormal, hyperesthesia, myoclonus, dyskinesia, crying, hyperreflexia, encephalopathy, cognitive disorder, convulsion, psychomotor hyperactivity Psychiatric disorders: confusional state, nervousness, restlessness, abnormal dreams, mood altered, hallucination, panic attack, euphoric mood, paranoia, dysphoria, listless, suicide ideation, libido decreased, aggression Renal and urinary disorders : dysuria, urinary retention, urinary frequency, urinary hesitation, micturition disorder Reproductive system and breast disorders : erectile dysfunction, sexual dysfunction Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders : rhinorrhea, respiratory distress, hypoxia, bronchospasm, sneezing, hyperventilation, respiratory depression Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders : erythema Vascular disorders : flushing, hypertension, hypotension 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of hydromorphone. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Serotonin syndrome : Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported during concomitant use of opioids with serotonergic drugs [see Drug Interactions ( 7 )]. Adrenal insufficiency : Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8 )]. Anaphylaxis : Anaphylactic reaction has been reported with ingredients contained in hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets [see Contraindications ( 4 ) and Warnings and Precautions ( 5.14 )]. Androgen deficiency : Cases of androgen deficiency have occurred with use of opioids for an extended period of time [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.2 )]. Hyperalgesia and Allodynia : Cases of hyperalgesia and allodynia have been reported with opioid therapy of any duration [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6 )]. Hypoglycemia: Cases of hypoglycemia have been reported in patients taking opioids. Most reports were in patients with at least one predisposing risk factor (e.g. diabetes).

Contraindications

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are contraindicated in: • Opioid non-tolerant patients. Fatal respiratory depression could occur in patients who are not opioid tolerant. • Patients with significant respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] . • Acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in the absence of resuscitative equipment [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.7 )] . • Known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.11 )] . • Patients who have had surgical procedures and/or underlying disease resulting in narrowing of the gastrointestinal tract, or have “blind loops” of the gastrointestinal tract or gastrointestinal obstruction [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.11 )] . • Patients with hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis) to hydromorphone [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.14 )]. • Opioid non-tolerant patients ( 4 ) • Significant respiratory depression ( 4 ) • Acute or severe bronchial asthma in an unmonitored setting or in absence of resuscitative equipment ( 4 ) • Known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus ( 4 ) • Narrowed or obstructed gastrointestinal tract ( 4 ) • Known hypersensitivity to any components including hydromorphone hydrochloride and sulfites ( 4 , 5.14 )

Description

11 DESCRIPTION Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are for oral use and contain hydromorphone hydrochloride, an opioid agonist. Hydromorphone hydrochloride USP is 4,5α-epoxy-3-hydroxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-one hydrochloride. Hydromorphone hydrochloride is a white or almost white crystalline powder that is freely soluble in water, very slightly soluble in ethanol (96%), and practically insoluble in methylene chloride. Its empirical formula is C 17 H 19 NO 3 •HCl. The compound has the following structural formula: Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets also contain the following inactive ingredients: ammonio methacrylate copolymer, colloidal silicon dioxide, ethylcellulose, magnesium stearate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone, talc and triethyl citrate. The color coating of the tablets contains FD&C Blue No. 1, ferric oxide red (8, 16, and 32 mg only), ferric oxide yellow (8 and 16 mg only), hypromellose, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80 (12 mg only), propylene glycol, and titanium dioxide. structural formula

Dosage And Administration

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION • Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be prescribed only by healthcare professionals knowledgeable about the use of extended-release opioids and how to mitigate the associated risks. ( 2.1 ) • For once daily administration IN OPIOID-TOLERANT PATIENTS. ( 2.1 ) • Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration of time consistent with individual patient treatment goals. Reserve titration to higher doses of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets for patients in whom lower doses are insufficiently effective and in whom the expected benefits of using a higher dose opioid clearly outweigh the substantial risks. ( 2.1 , 5 ) • Initiate the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient’s underlying cause and severity of pain, prior analgesic treatment and response, and risk factors for addiction, abuse, and misuse ( 5.1 ) • Respiratory depression can occur at any time during opioid therapy, especially when initiating and following dosage increases with hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Consider this risk when selecting an initial dose and when making dose adjustments ( 2.1 , 5.2 ) • Instruct patients to swallow hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets intact, and not to cut, break, chew, crush, or dissolve the tablets (risk of potentially fatal overdose). ( 2.1 , 5.1 ) • Discuss the availability of naloxone with the patient and caregiver and assess each patient’s need for access to naloxone, both when initiating and renewing treatment with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Consider prescribing naloxone based on the patient’s risk factors for overdose. ( 2.2 , 5.1 , 5.2 , 5.3 ) • Dose may be increased using increments of 4 to 8 mg every 3 to 4 days as needed to achieve adequate analgesia. ( 2.4 ) • Do not abruptly discontinue hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in a physically-dependent patient because rapid discontinuation of opioid analgesics has resulted in serious withdrawal symptoms, uncontrolled pain, and suicide. ( 2.5 , 5.13 ) • Moderate Hepatic Impairment : Initiate treatment with 25% of the dose that would be prescribed for patients with normal hepatic function. Monitor closely for respiratory and central nervous system depression. ( 2.6 ) • Moderate and Severe Renal Impairment : Initiate treatment in patients with moderate renal impairment with 50% and patients with severe renal impairment with 25% of the hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release dose that would be prescribed for patients with normal renal function. Monitor closely for respiratory and central nervous system depression. ( 2.7 ) 2.1 Important Dosage and Administration Information To avoid medication errors, prescribers and pharmacists must be aware that hydromorphone is available as both immediate-release 8 mg tablets and extended-release 8 mg tablets. Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be prescribed only by healthcare professionals who are knowledgeable about the use of extended-release opioids and how to mitigate the associated risks. Due to the risk of respiratory depression, hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are only indicated for use in patients who are already opioid-tolerant. Discontinue or taper all other extended-release opioids when beginning hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablet therapy. As hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are only for use in opioid-tolerant patients, do not begin any patient on hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets as the first opioid. Patients who are opioid-tolerant are those receiving, for one week or longer, at least 60 mg of oral morphine per day, at least 25 mcg transdermal fentanyl per hour, at least 30 mg of oral oxycodone per day, at least 8 mg of oral hydromorphone per day, at least 25 mg oral oxymorphone per day, at least 60 mg oral hydrocodone per day, or an equianalgesic dose of another opioid. • Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration of time consistent with individual patient treatment goals [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5 )] . Because the risk of overdose increases as opioid doses increase, reserve titration to higher doses of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets for patients in whom lower doses are insufficiently effective and in whom the expected benefits of using a higher dose opioid clearly outweigh the substantial risks. • Initiate the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient's underlying cause and prior analgesic treatment and response, and risk factors for addiction, abuse, and misuse [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] . • Respiratory depression can occur at any time during opioid therapy, especially when initiating and following dosage increases with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Consider this risk when selecting an initial dose and when making dose adjustments [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5 )] . Instruct patients to swallow hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets whole [see Patient Counseling Information ( 17 )] . Crushing, chewing, or dissolving hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets will result in uncontrolled delivery of hydromorphone and can lead to overdose or death [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] . 2.2 Patient Access to Naloxone for the Emergency Treatment of Opioid Overdose Discuss the availability of naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose with the patient and caregiver and assess the potential need for access to naloxone, both when initiating and renewing treatment with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 ), Patient Counseling Information ( 17 )] . Inform patients and caregivers about the various ways to obtain naloxone as permitted by individual state naloxone dispensing and prescribing requirements or guidelines (e.g., by prescription, directly from a pharmacist, or as part of a community-based program). Consider prescribing naloxone, based on the patient’s risk factors for overdose, such as concomitant use of CNS depressants, a history of opioid use disorder, or prior opioid overdose. The presence of risk factors for overdose should not prevent the proper management of pain in any given patient [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 , 5.2 , 5.3 )] . Consider prescribing naloxone if the patient has household members (including children) or other close contacts at risk for accidental ingestion or overdose. 2.3 Initial Dosage Conversion from Other Oral Hydromorphone Formulations to Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets Patients receiving oral immediate-release hydromorphone may be converted to hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets by administering a starting dose equivalent to the patient’s total daily oral hydromorphone dose, taken once daily. Conversion from Other Oral Opioids to Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets When hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablet therapy is initiated, discontinue all other opioid analgesics other than those used on an as needed basis for breakthrough pain when appropriate. There is substantial inter-patient variability in the relative potency of different opioid drugs and opioid formulations. Therefore, a conservative approach is advised when determining the total daily dosage of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. It is safer to underestimate a patient's 24-hour oral hydromorphone dosage and provide rescue medication (e.g., immediate-release opioid) than to overestimate the 24-hour oral hydromorphone dosage and manage an adverse reaction due to overdose. In a hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablet clinical trial with an open-label titration period, patients were converted from their prior opioid to hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets using the Table 1 as a guide for the initial hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose. The recommended starting dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets is 50% of the calculated estimate of daily hydromorphone requirement. Calculate the estimated daily hydromorphone requirement using Table 1 . Consider the following when using the information in Table 1 : • This is not a table of equianalgesic doses. • The conversion factors in this table are only for the conversion from one of the listed oral opioid analgesics to hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. • The table cannot be used to convert from hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets to another opioid. Doing so will result in an overestimation of the dose of the new opioid and may result in fatal overdose. Table 1. Conversion Factors to Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets Prior Oral Opioid Approximate Oral Conversion Factor Hydromorphone 1 Codeine 0.06 Hydrocodone 0.4 Methadone 0.6 Morphine 0.2 Oxycodone 0.4 Oxymorphone 0.6 To calculate the estimated hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose using Table 1 : • For patients on a single opioid, sum the current total daily dose of the opioid and then multiply the total daily dose by the conversion factor to calculate the approximate oral hydromorphone daily dose. • For patients on a regimen of more than one opioid, calculate the approximate oral hydromorphone dose for each opioid and sum the totals to obtain the approximate total hydromorphone daily dose. • For patients on a regimen of fixed-ratio opioid/non-opioid analgesic products, use only the opioid component of these products in the conversion. Always round the dose down, if necessary, to the appropriate hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablet strength(s) available. Example conversion from a single opioid to hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets: Step 1: Sum the total daily dose of the opioid • 30 mg of oxycodone 2 times daily = 60 mg total daily dose of oxycodone Step 2: Calculate the approximate equivalent dose of oral hydromorphone based on the total daily dose of the current opioid using Table 1 • 60 mg total daily dose of oxycodone x Conversion Factor of 0.4 = 24 mg of oral hydromorphone daily Step 3: Calculate the approximate starting dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets to be given every 24 hours, which is 50% of the calculated oral hydromorphone dose. Round down, if necessary, to the appropriate hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablet strengths available. • 50% of 24 mg results in an initial dose of 12 mg of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets once daily • Adjust individually for each patient Close observation and frequent titration are warranted until pain management is stable on the new opioid. Monitor patients for signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal or for signs of over-sedation/toxicity after converting patients to hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Conversion from Transdermal Fentanyl to Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets Eighteen hours following the removal of the transdermal fentanyl patch, hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets treatment can be initiated. To calculate the 24-hour hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose, use a conversion factor of 25 mcg/hr fentanyl transdermal patch to 12 mg of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Then reduce the hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose by 50%. For example: Step 1: Identify the dose of transdermal fentanyl. • 75 mg of transdermal fentanyl Step 2: Use the conversion factor of 25 mcg/hr fentanyl transdermal patch to 12 mg of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. • 75 mg of transdermal fentanyl: 36 mg total daily dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets Step 3: Calculate the approximate starting dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets to be given every 24 hours, which is 50% of the converted dose. Round down, if necessary, to the appropriate hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablet strengths available. • 50% of 36 mg results in an initial dose of 18 mg, which would be rounded down to 16 mg of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets once daily • Adjust individually for each patient Conversion from Methadone to Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets Close monitoring is of particular importance when converting from methadone to other opioid agonists. The ratio between methadone and other opioid agonists may vary widely as a function of previous dose exposure. Methadone has a long half-life and can accumulate in the plasma. 2.4 Titration and Maintenance of Therapy Individually titrate hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets to a dose that provides adequate analgesia and minimizes adverse reactions. Continually reevaluate patients receiving hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets to assess the maintenance of pain control, signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal, and other adverse reactions, as well as to reassess for the development of addiction, abuse, or misuse [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 , 5.13 )] . Frequent communication is important among the prescriber, other members of the healthcare team, the patient, and the caregiver/family during periods of changing analgesic requirements, including initial titration. During use of opioid therapy for an extended period of time, periodically reassess the continued need for opioid analgesics. Plasma levels of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are sustained for 18 to 24 hours. Dosage adjustments of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets may be made in increments of 4 to 8 mg every 3 to 4 days as needed to achieve adequate analgesia. Patients who experience breakthrough pain may require a dose increase of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, or may need rescue medication with an appropriate dose of an immediate-release analgesic. If the level of pain increases after dose stabilization, attempt to identify the source of increased pain before increasing the hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose. If after increasing the dosage, unacceptable opioid-related adverse reactions are observed (including an increase in pain after dosage increase), consider reducing the dosage [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5 )] . Adjust the dose to obtain an appropriate balance between management of pain and opioid-related adverse reactions. 2.5 Safe Reduction or Discontinuation of Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets Do not abruptly discontinue hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in patients who may be physically dependent on opioids. Rapid discontinuation of opioid analgesics in patients who are physically dependent on opioids has resulted in serious withdrawal symptoms, uncontrolled pain, and suicide. Rapid discontinuation has also been associated with attempts to find other sources of opioid analgesics, which may be confused with drug-seeking for abuse. Patients may also attempt to treat their pain or withdrawal symptoms with illicit opioids, such as heroin, and other substances. When a decision has been made to decrease the dose or discontinue therapy in an opioid-dependent patient taking hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, there are a variety of factors that should be considered, including the total daily dose of opioid (including hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets) the patient has been taking, the duration of treatment, the type of pain being treated, and the physical and psychological attributes of the patient. It is important to ensure ongoing care of the patient and to agree on an appropriate tapering schedule and follow-up plan so that patient and provider goals and expectations are clear and realistic. When opioid analgesics are being discontinued due to a suspected substance use disorder, evaluate and treat the patient, or refer for evaluation and treatment of the substance use disorder. Treatment should include evidence-based approaches, such as medication assisted treatment of opioid use disorder. Complex patients with comorbid pain and substance use disorders may benefit from referral to a specialist. There are no standard opioid tapering schedules that are suitable for all patients. Good clinical practice dictates a patient-specific plan to taper the dose of the opioid gradually. For patients on hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets who are physically opioid-dependent, initiate the taper by a small enough increment (e.g., no greater than 10% to 25% of the total daily dose) to avoid withdrawal symptoms, and proceed with dose-lowering at an interval of every 2 to 4 weeks. Patients who have been taking opioids for briefer periods of time may tolerate a more rapid taper. It may be necessary to provide the patient with lower dosage strengths to accomplish a successful taper. Reassess the patient frequently to manage pain and withdrawal symptoms, should they emerge. Common withdrawal symptoms include restlessness, lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning, perspiration, chills, myalgia, and mydriasis. Other signs and symptoms also may develop, including irritability, anxiety, backache, joint pain, weakness, abdominal cramps, insomnia, nausea, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, or increased blood pressure, respiratory rate, or heart rate. If withdrawal symptoms arise, it may be necessary to pause the taper for a period of time or raise the dose of the opioid analgesic to the previous dose, and then proceed with a slower taper. In addition, evaluate patients for any changes in mood, emergence of suicidal thoughts, or use of other substances. When managing patients taking opioid analgesics, particularly those who have been treated for an extended period of time and/or with high doses for chronic pain, ensure that a multimodal approach to pain management, including mental health support (if needed), is in place prior to initiating an opioid analgesic taper. A multimodal approach to pain management may optimize the treatment of chronic pain, as well as assist with the successful tapering of the opioid analgesic [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.13 ), Drug Abuse and Dependence ( 9.3 )] . 2.6 Dosage Modifications in Patients with Moderate Hepatic Impairment Start patients with moderate hepatic impairment on 25% of the hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose that would be prescribed for patients with normal hepatic function. Closely monitor patients with moderate hepatic impairment for respiratory and central nervous system depression during initiation of therapy with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and during dose titration. Use of alternate analgesics is recommended for patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.6 )] . 2.7 Dosage Modifications in Patients with Renal Impairment Start patients with moderate renal impairment on 50% of the hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose that would be prescribed for patients with normal renal function. Closely monitor patients with renal impairment for respiratory and central nervous system depression during initiation of therapy with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and during dose titration. As hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are only intended for once daily administration, consider use of an alternate analgesic that may permit more flexibility with the dosing interval in patients with severe renal impairment [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.7 )] .

Indications And Usage

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are indicated for the management of severe and persistent pain in opioid-tolerant patients that requires an extended treatment period with a daily opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate. Patients considered opioid tolerant are those who are receiving, for one week or longer, at least 60 mg oral morphine per day, 25 mcg transdermal fentanyl per hour, 30 mg oral oxycodone per day, 8 mg oral hydromorphone per day, 25 mg oral oxymorphone per day, 60 mg oral hydrocodone per day, or an equianalgesic dose of another opioid. Limitations of Use • Because of the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse with opioids, which can occur at any dosage or duration, and because of the greater risks of overdose and death with extended-release opioid formulations, [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] , reserve hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options (e.g., non-opioid analgesics or immediate-release opioids) are ineffective, not tolerated, or would be otherwise inadequate to provide sufficient management of pain. • Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are not indicated as an as-needed (prn) analgesic. Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are an opioid agonist indicated in opioid-tolerant patients for the management of severe and persistent pain that requires an extended treatment period with a daily opioid analgesic and for which alternative treatment options are inadequate. Patients considered opioid tolerant are those who are taking, for one week or longer, at least 60 mg oral morphine per day, 25 mcg transdermal fentanyl per hour, 30 mg oral oxycodone per day, 8 mg oral hydromorphone per day, 25 mg oral oxymorphone per day, 60 mg oral hydrocodone per day, or an equianalgesic dose of another opioid. Limitations of Use • Because of the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse with opioids, which can occur at any dosage or duration, and because of the greater risks of overdose and death with extended-release opioid formulations, reserve hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options (e.g., non-opioid analgesics or immediate-release opioids) are ineffective, not tolerated, or would be otherwise inadequate to provide sufficient management of pain. ( 1 ) • Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are not indicated as an as-needed (prn) analgesic. ( 1 )

Abuse

9.2 Abuse Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets contain hydromorphone, a substance with high potential for misuse and abuse, which can lead to the development of substance use disorder, including addiction [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] . Misuse is the intentional use, for therapeutic purposes, of a drug by an individual in a way other than prescribed by a healthcare provider or for whom it was not prescribed. Abuse is the intentional, non-therapeutic use of a drug, even once, for its desirable psychological or physiological effects. Drug addiction is a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that may include a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling drug use (e.g., continuing drug use despite harmful consequences, giving a higher priority to drug use than other activities and obligations), and possible tolerance or physical dependence. Misuse and abuse of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets increases risk of overdose, which may lead to central nervous system and respiratory depression, hypotension, seizures, and death. The risk is increased with concurrent abuse of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets with alcohol and other CNS depressants. Abuse of and addiction to opioids in some individuals may not be accompanied by concurrent tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence. In addition, abuse of opioids can occur in the absence of addiction. All patients treated with opioids require careful and frequent reevaluation for signs of misuse, abuse, and addiction, because use of opioid analgesic products carries the risk of addiction even under appropriate medical use. Patients at high risk of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets abuse include those with a history of prolonged use of any opioid, including products containing hydromorphone, those with a history of drug or alcohol abuse, or those who use hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in combination with other abused drugs. "Drug-seeking" behavior is very common in persons with substance use disorders. Drug-seeking tactics include emergency calls or visits near the end of office hours, refusal to undergo appropriate examination, testing or referral, repeated “loss” of prescriptions, tampering with prescriptions, and reluctance to provide prior medical records or contact information for other treating healthcare provider(s). “Doctor shopping” (visiting multiple prescribers to obtain additional prescriptions) is common among people who abuse drugs and people with substance use disorder. Preoccupation with achieving adequate pain relief can be appropriate behavior in a patient with inadequate pain control. Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, like other opioids, can be diverted for nonmedical use into illicit channels of distribution. Careful record-keeping of prescribing information, including quantity, frequency, and renewal requests, as required by state and federal law, is strongly advised. Proper assessment of the patient, proper prescribing practices, periodic reevaluation of therapy, and proper dispensing and storage are appropriate measures that help to limit abuse of opioid drugs. Risks Specific to Abuse of Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets Abuse of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets poses a risk of overdose and death. This risk is increased with concurrent use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets with alcohol and/or other CNS depressants. Taking cut, broken, chewed, crushed, or dissolved hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets enhances drug release and increases the risk of overdose and death. Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets is approved for oral use only. Inappropriate intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets can result in death, local tissue necrosis, infection, pulmonary granulomas, increased risk of endocarditis, and valvular heart injury, and embolism. Parenteral drug abuse is commonly associated with transmission of infectious disease such as hepatitis and HIV.

Controlled Substance

9.1 Controlled Substance Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets contain hydromorphone, a Schedule II controlled substance.

Dependence

9.3 Dependence Both tolerance and physical dependence can develop during use of opioid therapy. Tolerance is a physiological state characterized by a reduced response to a drug after repeated administration (i.e., a higher dose of a drug is required to produce the same effect that was once obtained at a lower dose). Physical dependence is a state that develops as a result of a physiological adaptation in response to repeated drug use, manifested by withdrawal signs and symptoms after abrupt discontinuation or a significant dose reduction of a drug. Withdrawal may be precipitated through the administration of drugs with opioid antagonist activity (e.g., naloxone), mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics (e.g., pentazocine, butorphanol, nalbuphine), or partial agonists (e.g., buprenorphine). Physical dependence may not occur to a clinically significant degree until after several days to weeks of continued use. Do not abruptly discontinue hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in a patient physically dependent on opioids. Rapid tapering of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in a patient physically dependent on opioids may lead to serious withdrawal symptoms, uncontrolled pain, and suicide. Rapid discontinuation has also been associated with attempts to find other sources of opioid analgesics, which may be confused with drug-seeking for abuse. When discontinuing hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, gradually taper the dosage using a patient-specific plan that considers the following: the dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets the patient has been taking, the duration of treatment, and the physical and psychological attributes of the patient. To improve the likelihood of a successful taper and minimize withdrawal symptoms, it is important that the opioid tapering schedule is agreed upon by the patient. In patients taking opioids for an extended period of time at high doses, ensure that a multimodal approach to pain management, including mental health support (if needed), is in place prior to initiating an opioid analgesic taper [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.5 ), Warnings and Precautions ( 5.13 )] . Infants born to mothers physically dependent on opioids will also be physically dependent and may exhibit respiratory difficulties and withdrawal signs [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1 )] .

Drug Abuse And Dependence

9 DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE 9.1 Controlled Substance Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets contain hydromorphone, a Schedule II controlled substance. 9.2 Abuse Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets contain hydromorphone, a substance with high potential for misuse and abuse, which can lead to the development of substance use disorder, including addiction [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] . Misuse is the intentional use, for therapeutic purposes, of a drug by an individual in a way other than prescribed by a healthcare provider or for whom it was not prescribed. Abuse is the intentional, non-therapeutic use of a drug, even once, for its desirable psychological or physiological effects. Drug addiction is a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that may include a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling drug use (e.g., continuing drug use despite harmful consequences, giving a higher priority to drug use than other activities and obligations), and possible tolerance or physical dependence. Misuse and abuse of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets increases risk of overdose, which may lead to central nervous system and respiratory depression, hypotension, seizures, and death. The risk is increased with concurrent abuse of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets with alcohol and other CNS depressants. Abuse of and addiction to opioids in some individuals may not be accompanied by concurrent tolerance and symptoms of physical dependence. In addition, abuse of opioids can occur in the absence of addiction. All patients treated with opioids require careful and frequent reevaluation for signs of misuse, abuse, and addiction, because use of opioid analgesic products carries the risk of addiction even under appropriate medical use. Patients at high risk of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets abuse include those with a history of prolonged use of any opioid, including products containing hydromorphone, those with a history of drug or alcohol abuse, or those who use hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in combination with other abused drugs. "Drug-seeking" behavior is very common in persons with substance use disorders. Drug-seeking tactics include emergency calls or visits near the end of office hours, refusal to undergo appropriate examination, testing or referral, repeated “loss” of prescriptions, tampering with prescriptions, and reluctance to provide prior medical records or contact information for other treating healthcare provider(s). “Doctor shopping” (visiting multiple prescribers to obtain additional prescriptions) is common among people who abuse drugs and people with substance use disorder. Preoccupation with achieving adequate pain relief can be appropriate behavior in a patient with inadequate pain control. Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, like other opioids, can be diverted for nonmedical use into illicit channels of distribution. Careful record-keeping of prescribing information, including quantity, frequency, and renewal requests, as required by state and federal law, is strongly advised. Proper assessment of the patient, proper prescribing practices, periodic reevaluation of therapy, and proper dispensing and storage are appropriate measures that help to limit abuse of opioid drugs. Risks Specific to Abuse of Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets Abuse of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets poses a risk of overdose and death. This risk is increased with concurrent use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets with alcohol and/or other CNS depressants. Taking cut, broken, chewed, crushed, or dissolved hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets enhances drug release and increases the risk of overdose and death. Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets is approved for oral use only. Inappropriate intravenous, intramuscular, or subcutaneous use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets can result in death, local tissue necrosis, infection, pulmonary granulomas, increased risk of endocarditis, and valvular heart injury, and embolism. Parenteral drug abuse is commonly associated with transmission of infectious disease such as hepatitis and HIV. 9.3 Dependence Both tolerance and physical dependence can develop during use of opioid therapy. Tolerance is a physiological state characterized by a reduced response to a drug after repeated administration (i.e., a higher dose of a drug is required to produce the same effect that was once obtained at a lower dose). Physical dependence is a state that develops as a result of a physiological adaptation in response to repeated drug use, manifested by withdrawal signs and symptoms after abrupt discontinuation or a significant dose reduction of a drug. Withdrawal may be precipitated through the administration of drugs with opioid antagonist activity (e.g., naloxone), mixed agonist/antagonist analgesics (e.g., pentazocine, butorphanol, nalbuphine), or partial agonists (e.g., buprenorphine). Physical dependence may not occur to a clinically significant degree until after several days to weeks of continued use. Do not abruptly discontinue hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in a patient physically dependent on opioids. Rapid tapering of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in a patient physically dependent on opioids may lead to serious withdrawal symptoms, uncontrolled pain, and suicide. Rapid discontinuation has also been associated with attempts to find other sources of opioid analgesics, which may be confused with drug-seeking for abuse. When discontinuing hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, gradually taper the dosage using a patient-specific plan that considers the following: the dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets the patient has been taking, the duration of treatment, and the physical and psychological attributes of the patient. To improve the likelihood of a successful taper and minimize withdrawal symptoms, it is important that the opioid tapering schedule is agreed upon by the patient. In patients taking opioids for an extended period of time at high doses, ensure that a multimodal approach to pain management, including mental health support (if needed), is in place prior to initiating an opioid analgesic taper [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.5 ), Warnings and Precautions ( 5.13 )] . Infants born to mothers physically dependent on opioids will also be physically dependent and may exhibit respiratory difficulties and withdrawal signs [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1 )] .

Overdosage

10 OVERDOSAGE Clinical Presentation Acute overdosage with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets can be manifested by respiratory depression, somnolence progressing to stupor or coma, skeletal muscle flaccidity, cold and clammy skin, constricted pupils, and, in some cases pulmonary edema, bradycardia, hypotension, hypoglycemia, partial or complete airway obstruction, atypical snoring, and death. Marked mydriasis rather than miosis may be seen with hypoxia in overdose situations. Treatment of Overdose In case of overdose, priorities are the re-establishment of a patent and protected airway and institution of assisted or controlled ventilation, if needed. Employ other supportive measures (including oxygen, vasopressors) in the management of circulatory shock and pulmonary edema as indicated. Cardiac arrest or arrhythmias will require advanced life support measures. Opioid antagonists, such as naloxone, are specific antidotes to respiratory depression resulting from opioid overdose. For clinically significant respiratory or circulatory depression secondary to hydromorphone overdose, administer an opioid antagonist. Because the duration of reversal is expected to be less than the duration of action of hydromorphone in hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, carefully monitor the patient until spontaneous respiration is reliably reestablished. Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets will continue to release hydromorphone and add to the hydromorphone load for up to 24 to 48 hours or longer following ingestion, necessitating prolonged monitoring. If the response to opioid antagonist is suboptimal or only brief in nature, administer additional antagonist as directed by the product's prescribing information. In an individual physically dependent on opioids, administration of the recommended usual dosage of the antagonist will precipitate an acute withdrawal syndrome. The severity of the withdrawal symptoms experienced will depend on the degree of physical dependence and the dose of the antagonist administered. If a decision is made to treat serious respiratory depression in the physically dependent patient, administration of the antagonist should be initiated with care and by titration with smaller than usual doses of the antagonist.

Adverse Reactions Table

Preferred Term

Open-Label Titration Phase

Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets (N=447)

Double-Blind Treatment Phase

Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets (N=134)

Placebo

(N=134)

Constipation

69 (15)

10 (7)

5 (4)

Nausea

53 (12)

12 (9)

10 (7)

Somnolence

39 (9)

1 (1)

0 (0)

Headache

35 (8)

7 (5)

10 (7)

Vomiting

29 (6)

8 (6)

6 (4)

Pruritus

21 (5)

1 (1)

0 (0)

Dizziness

17 (4)

3 (2)

2 (1)

Insomnia

13 (3)

7 (5)

5 (4)

Dry Mouth

13 (3)

2 (1)

0 (0)

Edema Peripheral

13 (3)

3 (2)

1 (1)

Hyperhidrosis

13 (3)

2 (1)

2 (1)

Anorexia/Decreased Appetite

10 (2)

2 (1)

0 (0)

Arthralgia

9 (2)

8 (6)

3 (2)

Abdominal Pain

9 (2)

4 (3)

3 (2)

Muscle Spasms

5 (1)

3 (2)

1 (1)

Weight Decreased

3 (1)

4 (3)

3 (2)

Drug Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Table 4 includes clinically significant drug interactions with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Table 4. Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets Benzodiazepines and Other Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants Clinical Impact: Due to additive pharmacologic effect, the concomitant use of benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death. Intervention: Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Inform patients and caregivers of this potential interaction, educate them on the signs and symptoms of respiratory depression (including sedation). If concomitant use is warranted, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.2 ), Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 , 5.2 , 5.3 )]. Examples: Benzodiazepines and other sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol. Serotonergic Drugs Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome. Intervention: If concomitant use is warranted, frequently evaluate the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets if serotonin syndrome is suspected. Examples: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), triptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that affect the serotonin neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol), certain muscle relaxants (i.e., cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue). Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) Clinical Impact: MAOI interactions with opioids may manifest as serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity (e.g., respiratory depression, coma) [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 )]. Intervention: The use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets is not recommended for patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping such treatment. Examples: phenelzine, tranylcypromine, linezolid Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics Clinical Impact: May reduce the analgesic effect of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.13 )]. Intervention: Avoid concomitant use. Examples: butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine, buprenorphine Muscle Relaxants Clinical Impact: Hydromorphone may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of skeletal muscle relaxants and produce an increased degree of respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 )]. Intervention: Because respiratory depression may be greater than otherwise expected, decrease the dosage of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and/or the muscle relaxant as necessary. Due to the risk of respiratory depression with concomitant use of skeletal muscle relaxants and opioids, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.2 ), Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 , 5.3 )] . Diuretics Clinical Impact: Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone. Intervention: Evaluate patients for signs of diminished diuresis and/or effects on blood pressure and increase the dosage of the diuretic as needed. Anticholinergic Drugs Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus. Intervention: Evaluate patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are used concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs. • Serotonergic Drugs : Concomitant use may result in serotonin syndrome. Discontinue hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets if serotonin syndrome is suspected. ( 7 ) • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs) : Can potentiate the effects of hydromorphone. Avoid concomitant use in patients receiving MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping treatment with an MAOI. ( 7 ) • Mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist opioid analgesics : Avoid use with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets because they may reduce analgesic effect of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets or precipitate withdrawal symptoms. ( 5.13 , 7 )

Drug Interactions Table

Benzodiazepines and Other Central Nervous System (CNS) Depressants

Clinical Impact:

Due to additive pharmacologic effect, the concomitant use of benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, can increase the risk of hypotension, respiratory depression, profound sedation, coma, and death.

Intervention:

Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Inform patients and caregivers of this potential interaction, educate them on the signs and symptoms of respiratory depression (including sedation). If concomitant use is warranted, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2, 5.3)].

Examples:

Benzodiazepines and other sedatives/hypnotics, anxiolytics, tranquilizers, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, antipsychotics, other opioids, alcohol.

Serotonergic Drugs

Clinical Impact:

The concomitant use of opioids with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter system has resulted in serotonin syndrome.

Intervention:

If concomitant use is warranted, frequently evaluate the patient, particularly during treatment initiation and dose adjustment. Discontinue hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets if serotonin syndrome is suspected.

Examples:

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), triptans, 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, drugs that affect the serotonin neurotransmitter system (e.g., mirtazapine, trazodone, tramadol), certain muscle relaxants (i.e., cyclobenzaprine, metaxalone), monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors (those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others, such as linezolid and intravenous methylene blue).

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)

Clinical Impact:

MAOI interactions with opioids may manifest as serotonin syndrome or opioid toxicity (e.g., respiratory depression, coma) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Intervention:

The use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets is not recommended for patients taking MAOIs or within 14 days of stopping such treatment.

Examples:

phenelzine, tranylcypromine, linezolid

Mixed Agonist/Antagonist and Partial Agonist Opioid Analgesics

Clinical Impact:

May reduce the analgesic effect of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)].

Intervention:

Avoid concomitant use.

Examples:

butorphanol, nalbuphine, pentazocine, buprenorphine

Muscle Relaxants

Clinical Impact:

Hydromorphone may enhance the neuromuscular blocking action of skeletal muscle relaxants and produce an increased degree of respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Intervention:

Because respiratory depression may be greater than otherwise expected, decrease the dosage of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and/or the muscle relaxant as necessary. Due to the risk of respiratory depression with concomitant use of skeletal muscle relaxants and opioids, consider prescribing naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose [see Dosage and Administration (2.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3)].

Diuretics

Clinical Impact:

Opioids can reduce the efficacy of diuretics by inducing the release of antidiuretic hormone.

Intervention:

Evaluate patients for signs of diminished diuresis and/or effects on blood pressure and increase the dosage of the diuretic as needed.

Anticholinergic Drugs

Clinical Impact:

The concomitant use of anticholinergic drugs may increase risk of urinary retention and/or severe constipation, which may lead to paralytic ileus.

Intervention:

Evaluate patients for signs of urinary retention or reduced gastric motility when hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are used concomitantly with anticholinergic drugs.

Clinical Pharmacology

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 12.1 Mechanism of Action Hydromorphone, a semi-synthetic morphine derivative, is a hydrogenated ketone of morphine. Hydromorphone is a full opioid agonist and is relatively selective for the mu-opioid receptor, although it can bind to other opioid receptors at higher doses. The principal therapeutic action of hydromorphone is analgesia. Like all full opioid agonists, there is no ceiling effect for analgesia with morphine. Clinically, dosage is titrated to provide adequate analgesia and may be limited by adverse reactions, including respiratory and CNS depression. The precise mechanism of the analgesic action is unknown. However, specific CNS opioid receptors for endogenous compounds with opioid-like activity have been identified throughout the brain and spinal cord and are thought to play a role in the analgesic effects of this drug. 12.2 Pharmacodynamics CNS Depressant/Alcohol Interaction Additive pharmacodynamic effects may be expected when hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are used in conjunction with alcohol, other opioids, legal or illicit drugs that cause central nervous system depression. Effects on the Central Nervous System Hydromorphone produces dose-related respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratory centers. The respiratory depression involves a reduction in the responsiveness of the brain stem respiratory centers to both increases in carbon dioxide tension and to electrical stimulation. Hydromorphone causes miosis, even in total darkness. Pinpoint pupils are a sign of opioid overdose but are not pathognomic (e.g., pontine lesions of hemorrhagic or ischemic origins may produce similar findings). Marked mydriasis, rather than miosis, may be seen due to severe hypoxia in overdose situations. Effects on the Gastrointestinal Tract and Other Smooth Muscle Hydromorphone causes a reduction in motility associated with an increase in tone in the antrum of the stomach and duodenum. Digestion of food in the small intestine is delayed and propulsive contractions are decreased. Propulsive peristaltic waves in the colon are decreased, while tone is increased to the point of spasm, resulting in constipation. Other opioid-induced effects may include a reduction in biliary and pancreatic secretions, spasm of sphincter of Oddi, and transient elevations in serum amylase. Effects on the Cardiovascular System Hydromorphone produces peripheral vasodilation which may result in orthostatic hypotension or syncope. Release of histamine may be induced by hydromorphone and can contribute to opioid-induced hypotension. Manifestations of histamine release or peripheral vasodilation may include pruritus, flushing, red eyes, sweating and/or orthostatic hypotension. Effects on the Endocrine System Opioids inhibit the secretion of ACTH, cortisol, and luteinizing hormone (LH) in humans. They also stimulate prolactin, growth hormone (GH) secretion, and pancreatic secretion of insulin and glucagon. Use of opioids for an extended period of time may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to androgen deficiency that may manifest as low libido, impotence, erectile dysfunction, amenorrhea, or infertility. The causal role of opioids in the clinical syndrome of hypogonadism is unknown because the various medical, physical, lifestyle, and psychological stressors that may influence gonadal hormone levels have not been adequately controlled for in studies conducted to date [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.2 )] . Effects on the Immune System Opioids have been shown to have a variety of effects on components of the immune system in in vitro and animal models. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Overall, the effects of opioids appear to be modestly immunosuppressive. Concentration-Efficacy Relationships The minimum effective analgesic concentration will vary widely among patients, especially among patients who have been previously treated with extended-release agonist opioids. The minimum effective analgesic concentration of hydromorphone for any individual patient may increase over time due to an increase in pain, the development of a new pain syndrome, and/or the development of analgesic tolerance [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.1 ), ( 2.4 )] . Concentration-Adverse Reaction Relationships There is a relationship between increasing hydromorphone plasma concentration and increasing frequency of dose-related opioid adverse reactions such as nausea, vomiting, CNS effects, and respiratory depression. In opioid-tolerant patients, the situation may be altered by the development of tolerance to opioid-related adverse reactions [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.1 ), ( 2.3 ), ( 2.4 )] . 12.3 Pharmacokinetics Absorption Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are an extended-release formulation of hydromorphone that produces a gradual increase in hydromorphone concentrations. Following a single-dose administration of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, plasma concentrations gradually increase over 6 to 8 hours, and thereafter concentrations are sustained for approximately 18 to 24 hours post-dose. The median T max values ranged from 12 to 16 hours. The mean half-life was approximately 11 hours, ranging from 8 to 15 hours in most individual subjects. Linear pharmacokinetics has been demonstrated for hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets over the dose range 8 to 64 mg, with a dose-proportional increase in C max and overall exposure (AUC 0-∞ ) ( see Table 5 ). Steady-state plasma concentrations are approximately twice those observed following the first dose, and steady state is reached after 3 to 4 days of once-daily dosing of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. At steady state, hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets given once daily maintained hydromorphone plasma concentrations within the same concentration range as the immediate-release tablet given 4 times daily at the same total daily dose and diminished the fluctuations between peak and trough concentrations seen with the immediate-release tablet ( see Figure 1 ). The bioavailability of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets once daily and immediate-release hydromorphone four times daily in adults is comparable, as presented in Table 5 . Figure 1. Mean Steady-State Plasma Concentration Profile Table 5. Mean (±SD) Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets Pharmacokinetic Parameters Regimen Dosage T max * (hrs) C max (ng/mL) AUC (ng●hr/mL) T 1/2 (hr) Single Dose (N=31) 8 mg 12 (4-30) 0.93 (1.01) 18.1 (5.8) 10.6 (4.3) 16 mg 16 (6-30) 1.69 (0.78) 36.5 (11.3) 10.3 (2.4) 32 mg 16 (4-24) 3.25 (1.37) 72.2 (24.3) 11.0 (3.2) 64 mg 16 (6-30) 6.61 (1.75) 156.0 (30.6) 10.9 (3.8) Multiple Dose † (N=29) 16 mg q24h 12 (6-24) 3.54 (0.96) ‡ 57.6 (16.3) NA IR 4 mg q6h 0.75 (0.5-2) 5.28 (1.37) § 54.8 (14.8) NA NA = not applicable * Median (range) reported for T max † Steady-state results on Day 5 (0-24 hours) ‡ C min 2.15 (0.87) ng/mL § C min 1.47 (0.42) ng/mL Food Effect The pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are not affected by food as indicated by bioequivalence when administered under fed and fasting conditions. Therefore, hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets may be administered without regard to meals. When a 16 mg dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets was administered to healthy volunteers immediately following a high-fat meal, the median time to C max (T max ) was minimally affected by the high-fat meal occurring at 16 hours compared to 18 hours while fasting. Distribution Following intravenous administration of hydromorphone to healthy volunteers, the mean volume of distribution was 2.9 (±1.3) L/kg, suggesting extensive tissue distribution. The mean extent of binding of hydromorphone to human plasma proteins was determined to be 27% in an in vitro study. Elimination Metabolism After oral administration of an immediate-release formulation, hydromorphone undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism and is metabolized primarily in the liver by glucuronidation to hydromorphone-3-glucuronide, which follows a similar time course to hydromorphone in plasma. Exposure to the glucuronide metabolite is 35 to 40 times higher than exposure to the parent drug. In vitro data suggest that hydromorphone in clinically relevant concentrations has minimal potential to inhibit the activity of human hepatic CYP450 enzymes including CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 3A4, and 4A11. Excretion Approximately 75% of the administered dose is excreted in urine. Most of the administered hydromorphone dose is excreted as metabolites. Approximately 7% and 1% of the dose are excreted as unchanged hydromorphone in urine and feces, respectively. Specific Populations Age: Geriatric Patients Population PK analysis performed on plasma concentration data from 407 osteoarthritis (OA) patients using hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets showed an average 11% increase in hydromorphone AUC in the elderly group (65 to 75 years of age) when compared to the younger age group (less than or equal to 65 years of age). Sex Females appeared to have approximately 10% higher mean systemic exposure in terms of C max and AUC values. Hepatic Impairment In a study that used a single 4 mg oral dose of immediate-release hydromorphone tablets, four-fold increases in plasma levels of hydromorphone (C max and AUC 0-∞ ) were observed in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Group B). Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone in severe hepatic impairment patients has not been studied. Further increase in C max and AUC 0-∞ of hydromorphone in this group is expected. Start patients with moderate hepatic impairment on 25% of the usual dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and closely monitor for respiratory and central nervous system depression during dose titration. Consider alternate analgesic therapy for patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.6 ) and Specific Populations ( 8.6 )] . Renal Impairment Renal impairment affected the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone and its metabolites following administration of a single 4 mg dose of immediate-release tablets. The effects of renal impairment on hydromorphone pharmacokinetics were two-fold and four-fold increases in plasma levels of hydromorphone (C max and AUC 0-48h ) in moderate (CLcr = 40 to 60 mL/min) and severe (CLcr < 30 mL/min) impairment, respectively. In addition, in patients with severe renal impairment hydromorphone appeared to be more slowly eliminated with longer terminal elimination half-life (40 hr) compared to subjects with normal renal function (15 hr). Start patients with moderate renal impairment on 50% of the usual hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose for patients with normal renal function and closely monitor for respiratory and central nervous system depression during dose titration. As hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are only intended for once-daily administration, consider use of an alternate analgesic that may permit more flexibility with the dosing interval in patients with severe renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.7 ) and Use in Specific Populations ( 8.7 )] . Drug Interaction Studies Alcohol Interaction An in vivo study examined the effect of alcohol (40%, 20%, 4% and 0%) on the bioavailability of a single dose of 16 mg of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in healthy, fasted or fed volunteers. The results showed that the hydromorphone mean AUC 0-∞ was 5% higher and 4% lower (not statistically significant) in the fasted and fed groups respectively after co-administration of 240 mL of 40% alcohol. The AUC 0-∞ was similarly unaffected in subjects following the co-administration of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and alcohol (240 mL of 20% or 4% alcohol). The change in geometric mean C max with concomitant administration of alcohol and hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets ranged from an increase of 10% to 31% across all conditions studied. The change in mean C max was greater in the fasted group of subjects. Following concomitant administration of 240 mL of 40% alcohol while fasting, the mean C max increased by 37% and up to 151% in an individual subject. Following the concomitant administration of 240 mL of 20% alcohol while fasting, the mean C max increased by 35% and up to 139% in an individual subject. Following the concomitant administration of 240 mL of 4% alcohol while fasting, the mean C max increased by 19% on average and as much as 73% for an individual subject. The range of median T max for the fed and fasted treatments with 4%, 20% and 40% alcohol was 12 to 16 hours compared to 16 hours for the 0% alcohol treatments. Figure 1.

Clinical Pharmacology Table

Regimen

Dosage

Tmax* (hrs)

Cmax (ng/mL)

AUC (ng●hr/mL)

T1/2 (hr)

Single Dose (N=31)

8 mg

12 (4-30)

0.93 (1.01)

18.1 (5.8)

10.6 (4.3)

16 mg

16 (6-30)

1.69 (0.78)

36.5 (11.3)

10.3 (2.4)

32 mg

16 (4-24)

3.25 (1.37)

72.2 (24.3)

11.0 (3.2)

64 mg

16 (6-30)

6.61 (1.75)

156.0 (30.6)

10.9 (3.8)

Multiple Dose (N=29)

16 mg q24h

12 (6-24)

3.54 (0.96)

57.6 (16.3)

NA

IR 4 mg q6h

0.75 (0.5-2)

5.28 (1.37)§

54.8 (14.8)

NA

Mechanism Of Action

12.1 Mechanism of Action Hydromorphone, a semi-synthetic morphine derivative, is a hydrogenated ketone of morphine. Hydromorphone is a full opioid agonist and is relatively selective for the mu-opioid receptor, although it can bind to other opioid receptors at higher doses. The principal therapeutic action of hydromorphone is analgesia. Like all full opioid agonists, there is no ceiling effect for analgesia with morphine. Clinically, dosage is titrated to provide adequate analgesia and may be limited by adverse reactions, including respiratory and CNS depression. The precise mechanism of the analgesic action is unknown. However, specific CNS opioid receptors for endogenous compounds with opioid-like activity have been identified throughout the brain and spinal cord and are thought to play a role in the analgesic effects of this drug.

Pharmacodynamics

12.2 Pharmacodynamics CNS Depressant/Alcohol Interaction Additive pharmacodynamic effects may be expected when hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are used in conjunction with alcohol, other opioids, legal or illicit drugs that cause central nervous system depression. Effects on the Central Nervous System Hydromorphone produces dose-related respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratory centers. The respiratory depression involves a reduction in the responsiveness of the brain stem respiratory centers to both increases in carbon dioxide tension and to electrical stimulation. Hydromorphone causes miosis, even in total darkness. Pinpoint pupils are a sign of opioid overdose but are not pathognomic (e.g., pontine lesions of hemorrhagic or ischemic origins may produce similar findings). Marked mydriasis, rather than miosis, may be seen due to severe hypoxia in overdose situations. Effects on the Gastrointestinal Tract and Other Smooth Muscle Hydromorphone causes a reduction in motility associated with an increase in tone in the antrum of the stomach and duodenum. Digestion of food in the small intestine is delayed and propulsive contractions are decreased. Propulsive peristaltic waves in the colon are decreased, while tone is increased to the point of spasm, resulting in constipation. Other opioid-induced effects may include a reduction in biliary and pancreatic secretions, spasm of sphincter of Oddi, and transient elevations in serum amylase. Effects on the Cardiovascular System Hydromorphone produces peripheral vasodilation which may result in orthostatic hypotension or syncope. Release of histamine may be induced by hydromorphone and can contribute to opioid-induced hypotension. Manifestations of histamine release or peripheral vasodilation may include pruritus, flushing, red eyes, sweating and/or orthostatic hypotension. Effects on the Endocrine System Opioids inhibit the secretion of ACTH, cortisol, and luteinizing hormone (LH) in humans. They also stimulate prolactin, growth hormone (GH) secretion, and pancreatic secretion of insulin and glucagon. Use of opioids for an extended period of time may influence the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to androgen deficiency that may manifest as low libido, impotence, erectile dysfunction, amenorrhea, or infertility. The causal role of opioids in the clinical syndrome of hypogonadism is unknown because the various medical, physical, lifestyle, and psychological stressors that may influence gonadal hormone levels have not been adequately controlled for in studies conducted to date [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.2 )] . Effects on the Immune System Opioids have been shown to have a variety of effects on components of the immune system in in vitro and animal models. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Overall, the effects of opioids appear to be modestly immunosuppressive. Concentration-Efficacy Relationships The minimum effective analgesic concentration will vary widely among patients, especially among patients who have been previously treated with extended-release agonist opioids. The minimum effective analgesic concentration of hydromorphone for any individual patient may increase over time due to an increase in pain, the development of a new pain syndrome, and/or the development of analgesic tolerance [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.1 ), ( 2.4 )] . Concentration-Adverse Reaction Relationships There is a relationship between increasing hydromorphone plasma concentration and increasing frequency of dose-related opioid adverse reactions such as nausea, vomiting, CNS effects, and respiratory depression. In opioid-tolerant patients, the situation may be altered by the development of tolerance to opioid-related adverse reactions [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.1 ), ( 2.3 ), ( 2.4 )] .

Pharmacokinetics

12.3 Pharmacokinetics Absorption Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are an extended-release formulation of hydromorphone that produces a gradual increase in hydromorphone concentrations. Following a single-dose administration of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, plasma concentrations gradually increase over 6 to 8 hours, and thereafter concentrations are sustained for approximately 18 to 24 hours post-dose. The median T max values ranged from 12 to 16 hours. The mean half-life was approximately 11 hours, ranging from 8 to 15 hours in most individual subjects. Linear pharmacokinetics has been demonstrated for hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets over the dose range 8 to 64 mg, with a dose-proportional increase in C max and overall exposure (AUC 0-∞ ) ( see Table 5 ). Steady-state plasma concentrations are approximately twice those observed following the first dose, and steady state is reached after 3 to 4 days of once-daily dosing of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. At steady state, hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets given once daily maintained hydromorphone plasma concentrations within the same concentration range as the immediate-release tablet given 4 times daily at the same total daily dose and diminished the fluctuations between peak and trough concentrations seen with the immediate-release tablet ( see Figure 1 ). The bioavailability of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets once daily and immediate-release hydromorphone four times daily in adults is comparable, as presented in Table 5 . Figure 1. Mean Steady-State Plasma Concentration Profile Table 5. Mean (±SD) Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets Pharmacokinetic Parameters Regimen Dosage T max * (hrs) C max (ng/mL) AUC (ng●hr/mL) T 1/2 (hr) Single Dose (N=31) 8 mg 12 (4-30) 0.93 (1.01) 18.1 (5.8) 10.6 (4.3) 16 mg 16 (6-30) 1.69 (0.78) 36.5 (11.3) 10.3 (2.4) 32 mg 16 (4-24) 3.25 (1.37) 72.2 (24.3) 11.0 (3.2) 64 mg 16 (6-30) 6.61 (1.75) 156.0 (30.6) 10.9 (3.8) Multiple Dose † (N=29) 16 mg q24h 12 (6-24) 3.54 (0.96) ‡ 57.6 (16.3) NA IR 4 mg q6h 0.75 (0.5-2) 5.28 (1.37) § 54.8 (14.8) NA NA = not applicable * Median (range) reported for T max † Steady-state results on Day 5 (0-24 hours) ‡ C min 2.15 (0.87) ng/mL § C min 1.47 (0.42) ng/mL Food Effect The pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are not affected by food as indicated by bioequivalence when administered under fed and fasting conditions. Therefore, hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets may be administered without regard to meals. When a 16 mg dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets was administered to healthy volunteers immediately following a high-fat meal, the median time to C max (T max ) was minimally affected by the high-fat meal occurring at 16 hours compared to 18 hours while fasting. Distribution Following intravenous administration of hydromorphone to healthy volunteers, the mean volume of distribution was 2.9 (±1.3) L/kg, suggesting extensive tissue distribution. The mean extent of binding of hydromorphone to human plasma proteins was determined to be 27% in an in vitro study. Elimination Metabolism After oral administration of an immediate-release formulation, hydromorphone undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism and is metabolized primarily in the liver by glucuronidation to hydromorphone-3-glucuronide, which follows a similar time course to hydromorphone in plasma. Exposure to the glucuronide metabolite is 35 to 40 times higher than exposure to the parent drug. In vitro data suggest that hydromorphone in clinically relevant concentrations has minimal potential to inhibit the activity of human hepatic CYP450 enzymes including CYP1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 3A4, and 4A11. Excretion Approximately 75% of the administered dose is excreted in urine. Most of the administered hydromorphone dose is excreted as metabolites. Approximately 7% and 1% of the dose are excreted as unchanged hydromorphone in urine and feces, respectively. Specific Populations Age: Geriatric Patients Population PK analysis performed on plasma concentration data from 407 osteoarthritis (OA) patients using hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets showed an average 11% increase in hydromorphone AUC in the elderly group (65 to 75 years of age) when compared to the younger age group (less than or equal to 65 years of age). Sex Females appeared to have approximately 10% higher mean systemic exposure in terms of C max and AUC values. Hepatic Impairment In a study that used a single 4 mg oral dose of immediate-release hydromorphone tablets, four-fold increases in plasma levels of hydromorphone (C max and AUC 0-∞ ) were observed in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Group B). Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone in severe hepatic impairment patients has not been studied. Further increase in C max and AUC 0-∞ of hydromorphone in this group is expected. Start patients with moderate hepatic impairment on 25% of the usual dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and closely monitor for respiratory and central nervous system depression during dose titration. Consider alternate analgesic therapy for patients with severe hepatic impairment [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.6 ) and Specific Populations ( 8.6 )] . Renal Impairment Renal impairment affected the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone and its metabolites following administration of a single 4 mg dose of immediate-release tablets. The effects of renal impairment on hydromorphone pharmacokinetics were two-fold and four-fold increases in plasma levels of hydromorphone (C max and AUC 0-48h ) in moderate (CLcr = 40 to 60 mL/min) and severe (CLcr < 30 mL/min) impairment, respectively. In addition, in patients with severe renal impairment hydromorphone appeared to be more slowly eliminated with longer terminal elimination half-life (40 hr) compared to subjects with normal renal function (15 hr). Start patients with moderate renal impairment on 50% of the usual hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose for patients with normal renal function and closely monitor for respiratory and central nervous system depression during dose titration. As hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are only intended for once-daily administration, consider use of an alternate analgesic that may permit more flexibility with the dosing interval in patients with severe renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.7 ) and Use in Specific Populations ( 8.7 )] . Drug Interaction Studies Alcohol Interaction An in vivo study examined the effect of alcohol (40%, 20%, 4% and 0%) on the bioavailability of a single dose of 16 mg of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in healthy, fasted or fed volunteers. The results showed that the hydromorphone mean AUC 0-∞ was 5% higher and 4% lower (not statistically significant) in the fasted and fed groups respectively after co-administration of 240 mL of 40% alcohol. The AUC 0-∞ was similarly unaffected in subjects following the co-administration of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and alcohol (240 mL of 20% or 4% alcohol). The change in geometric mean C max with concomitant administration of alcohol and hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets ranged from an increase of 10% to 31% across all conditions studied. The change in mean C max was greater in the fasted group of subjects. Following concomitant administration of 240 mL of 40% alcohol while fasting, the mean C max increased by 37% and up to 151% in an individual subject. Following the concomitant administration of 240 mL of 20% alcohol while fasting, the mean C max increased by 35% and up to 139% in an individual subject. Following the concomitant administration of 240 mL of 4% alcohol while fasting, the mean C max increased by 19% on average and as much as 73% for an individual subject. The range of median T max for the fed and fasted treatments with 4%, 20% and 40% alcohol was 12 to 16 hours compared to 16 hours for the 0% alcohol treatments. Figure 1.

Pharmacokinetics Table

Regimen

Dosage

Tmax* (hrs)

Cmax (ng/mL)

AUC (ng●hr/mL)

T1/2 (hr)

Single Dose (N=31)

8 mg

12 (4-30)

0.93 (1.01)

18.1 (5.8)

10.6 (4.3)

16 mg

16 (6-30)

1.69 (0.78)

36.5 (11.3)

10.3 (2.4)

32 mg

16 (4-24)

3.25 (1.37)

72.2 (24.3)

11.0 (3.2)

64 mg

16 (6-30)

6.61 (1.75)

156.0 (30.6)

10.9 (3.8)

Multiple Dose (N=29)

16 mg q24h

12 (6-24)

3.54 (0.96)

57.6 (16.3)

NA

IR 4 mg q6h

0.75 (0.5-2)

5.28 (1.37)§

54.8 (14.8)

NA

Effective Time

20231006

Version

16

Dosage And Administration Table

Table 1.

Conversion Factors to Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablets

Prior Oral Opioid

Approximate Oral Conversion Factor

Hydromorphone

1

Codeine

0.06

Hydrocodone

0.4

Methadone

0.6

Morphine

0.2

Oxycodone

0.4

Oxymorphone

0.6

Dosage Forms And Strengths

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Extended-release tablets: available in 8 mg, 12 mg, 16 mg or 32 mg dosage strengths. 8 mg tablets: round, biconvex, dark beige tablets imprinted with “P293” over “8” on one side. 12 mg tablets: round, biconvex, white tablets imprinted with “P294” over “12” on one side. 16 mg tablets: round, biconvex, light beige tablets imprinted with “P295” over “16” on one side. 32 mg tablets: round, biconvex, pink tablets imprinted with "P297" over "32" on one side. Extended-release tablets: 8 mg, 12 mg, 16 mg, 32 mg ( 3 )

Spl Product Data Elements

hydromorphone hydrochloride hydromorphone hydrochloride HYDROMORPHONE HYDROCHLORIDE HYDROMORPHONE MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE MANNITOL SILICON DIOXIDE MAGNESIUM STEARATE ETHYLCELLULOSE (100 MPA.S) POVIDONE K30 TRIETHYL CITRATE AMMONIO METHACRYLATE COPOLYMER TYPE A TALC HYPROMELLOSE 2910 (3 MPA.S) HYPROMELLOSE 2910 (6 MPA.S) POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 400 TITANIUM DIOXIDE FD&C BLUE NO. 1 PROPYLENE GLYCOL FERRIC OXIDE YELLOW FERRIC OXIDE RED Dark Beige biconvex P293;8 hydromorphone hydrochloride hydromorphone hydrochloride HYDROMORPHONE HYDROCHLORIDE HYDROMORPHONE MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE MANNITOL SILICON DIOXIDE MAGNESIUM STEARATE ETHYLCELLULOSE (100 MPA.S) POVIDONE K30 TRIETHYL CITRATE AMMONIO METHACRYLATE COPOLYMER TYPE A TALC HYPROMELLOSE 2910 (3 MPA.S) HYPROMELLOSE 2910 (6 MPA.S) POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 400 TITANIUM DIOXIDE FD&C BLUE NO. 1 PROPYLENE GLYCOL POLYSORBATE 80 biconvex P294;12 hydromorphone hydrochloride hydromorphone hydrochloride HYDROMORPHONE HYDROCHLORIDE HYDROMORPHONE MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE MANNITOL SILICON DIOXIDE MAGNESIUM STEARATE ETHYLCELLULOSE (100 MPA.S) POVIDONE K30 TRIETHYL CITRATE AMMONIO METHACRYLATE COPOLYMER TYPE A TALC HYPROMELLOSE 2910 (3 MPA.S) HYPROMELLOSE 2910 (6 MPA.S) POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 400 TITANIUM DIOXIDE FD&C BLUE NO. 1 PROPYLENE GLYCOL FERRIC OXIDE YELLOW FERRIC OXIDE RED Light Beige biconvex P295;16 hydromorphone hydrochloride hydromorphone hydrochloride HYDROMORPHONE HYDROCHLORIDE HYDROMORPHONE MICROCRYSTALLINE CELLULOSE MANNITOL SILICON DIOXIDE MAGNESIUM STEARATE ETHYLCELLULOSE (100 MPA.S) POVIDONE K30 TRIETHYL CITRATE AMMONIO METHACRYLATE COPOLYMER TYPE A TALC HYPROMELLOSE 2910 (3 MPA.S) HYPROMELLOSE 2910 (6 MPA.S) POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL 400 TITANIUM DIOXIDE FD&C BLUE NO. 1 PROPYLENE GLYCOL FERRIC OXIDE RED biconvex P297;32

Carcinogenesis And Mutagenesis And Impairment Of Fertility

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenesis Long-term studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of hydromorphone hydrochloride were completed in both Han-Wistar rats and Crl:CD1® (ICR) mice. Hydromorphone HCl was administered to Han-Wistar rats (2, 5, and 15 mg/kg/day for males, and 8, 25 and 75 mg/kg/day for females) for 2 years by oral gavage. In female rats, incidences of hibernoma (tumor of brown fat) were increased at 10.5 times the maximum recommended daily exposure based on AUC at the mid dose (2 tumor, 25 mg/kg/day) and 53.7 times the maximum recommended human daily exposure based on AUC at the maximum dose (4 tumors, 75 mg/kg/day). The clinical relevance of this finding to humans has not been established. There was no evidence of carcinogenicity in male rats. The systemic drug exposure (AUC, ng·h/mL) at the 15 mg/kg/day in male rats was 7.6 times greater than the human exposure at a single dose of 32 mg/day of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. There was no evidence of carcinogenic potential in Crl:CD1® (ICR) mice administered hydromorphone HCl at doses up to 15 mg/kg/day for 2 years by oral gavage. The systemic drug exposure (AUC, ng•h/mL) at the 15 mg/kg/day in mice was 1.1 (in males) and 1.2 (in females) times greater than the human exposure at a single dose of 32 mg/day of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Mutagenesis Hydromorphone was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames assay). Hydromorphone was not clastogenic in either the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosome aberration assay or the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. Impairment of Fertility Reduced implantation sites and viable fetuses were noted at 2.1 times the human daily dose of 32 mg/day in a study in which female rats were treated orally with 1.75, 3.5, or 7 mg/kg/day hydromorphone hydrochloride (0.7, 1.4, or 2.8 times a human daily dose of 24 mg/day (HDD) based on body surface area) beginning 14 days prior to mating through Gestation Day 7 and male rats were treated with the same hydromorphone hydrochloride doses beginning 28 days prior to and throughout mating.

Nonclinical Toxicology

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY 13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenesis Long-term studies to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of hydromorphone hydrochloride were completed in both Han-Wistar rats and Crl:CD1® (ICR) mice. Hydromorphone HCl was administered to Han-Wistar rats (2, 5, and 15 mg/kg/day for males, and 8, 25 and 75 mg/kg/day for females) for 2 years by oral gavage. In female rats, incidences of hibernoma (tumor of brown fat) were increased at 10.5 times the maximum recommended daily exposure based on AUC at the mid dose (2 tumor, 25 mg/kg/day) and 53.7 times the maximum recommended human daily exposure based on AUC at the maximum dose (4 tumors, 75 mg/kg/day). The clinical relevance of this finding to humans has not been established. There was no evidence of carcinogenicity in male rats. The systemic drug exposure (AUC, ng·h/mL) at the 15 mg/kg/day in male rats was 7.6 times greater than the human exposure at a single dose of 32 mg/day of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. There was no evidence of carcinogenic potential in Crl:CD1® (ICR) mice administered hydromorphone HCl at doses up to 15 mg/kg/day for 2 years by oral gavage. The systemic drug exposure (AUC, ng•h/mL) at the 15 mg/kg/day in mice was 1.1 (in males) and 1.2 (in females) times greater than the human exposure at a single dose of 32 mg/day of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Mutagenesis Hydromorphone was not mutagenic in the in vitro bacterial reverse mutation assay (Ames assay). Hydromorphone was not clastogenic in either the in vitro human lymphocyte chromosome aberration assay or the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. Impairment of Fertility Reduced implantation sites and viable fetuses were noted at 2.1 times the human daily dose of 32 mg/day in a study in which female rats were treated orally with 1.75, 3.5, or 7 mg/kg/day hydromorphone hydrochloride (0.7, 1.4, or 2.8 times a human daily dose of 24 mg/day (HDD) based on body surface area) beginning 14 days prior to mating through Gestation Day 7 and male rats were treated with the same hydromorphone hydrochloride doses beginning 28 days prior to and throughout mating.

Application Number

ANDA204278

Brand Name

Hydromorphone hydrochloride

Generic Name

hydromorphone hydrochloride

Product Ndc

0574-0297

Product Type

HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG

Route

ORAL

Package Label Principal Display Panel

PACKAGE/LABEL PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL – 8 mg NDC 0574-0293-01 Rx Only Once Daily HYDROmorphone HCl Extended-Release Tablets 8 mg CII For opioid tolerant patients only Dispense the accompanying Medication Guide to each patient. Print Medication Guides at www.padagis.com/medguide/HDMRTabs 100 TABLETS The following image is a placeholder representing the product identifier that is either affixed or imprinted on the drug package label during the packaging operation. 8mg label serialization template 8mg

Recent Major Changes

Boxed Warning 09/2023 Indications and Usage (1) 09/2023 Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.3) 09/2023 Warnings and Precautions (5.6) 09/2023

Information For Patients

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide). Storage and Disposal Because of the risks associated with accidental ingestion, misuse, and abuse, advise patients to store hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets securely, out of sight and reach of children, and in a location not accessible by others, including visitors to the home [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 , 5.5 ), Drug Abuse and Dependence ( 9.2 )] . Inform patients that leaving hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets unsecured can pose a deadly risk to others in the home. Advise patients and caregivers that when medicines are no longer needed, they should be disposed of promptly. Expired, unwanted, or unused hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be disposed of by flushing the unused medication down the toilet if a drug take-back option is not readily available. Inform patients that they can visit www.fda.gov/drugdisposal for a complete list of medicines recommended for disposal by flushing, as well as additional information on disposal of unused medicines. Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse Inform patients that the use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, even when taken as recommended, can result in addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose or death [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] . Instruct patients not to share hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets with others and to take steps to protect hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets from theft or misuse. Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression Inform patients of the risk of life-threatening respiratory depression, including information that the risk is greatest when starting hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets or when the dose is increased, and that it can occur even at recommended dosages. Educate patients and caregivers on how to recognize respiratory depression and emphasize the importance of calling 911 or getting emergency medical help right away in the event of a known or suspected overdose [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] . Patient Access to Naloxone for the Emergency Treatment of Opioid Overdose Discuss with the patient and caregiver the availability of naloxone for the emergency treatment of opioid overdose, both when initiating and renewing treatment with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Inform patients and caregivers about the various ways to obtain naloxone as permitted by individual state naloxone dispensing and prescribing requirements or guidelines (e.g., by prescription, directly from a pharmacist, or as part of a community-based program) [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.2 ), Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] . Educate patients and caregivers on how to recognize the signs and symptoms of an overdose. Explain to patients and caregivers that naloxone’s effects are temporary, and that they must call 911 or get emergency medical help right away in all cases of known or suspected opioid overdose, even if naloxone is administered [see Overdosage ( 10 )] . If naloxone is prescribed, also advise patients and caregivers: • How to treat with naloxone in the event of an opioid overdose • To tell family and friends about their naloxone and to keep it in a place where family and friends can access it in an emergency • To read the Patient Information (or other educational material) that will come with their naloxone. Emphasize the importance of doing this before an opioid emergency happens, so the patient and caregiver will know what to do. Accidental Ingestion Inform patients that accidental ingestion, especially by children, may result in respiratory depression or death [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] . Interactions with Benzodiazepines and Other CNS Depressants Inform patients and caregivers that potentially fatal additive effects may occur if hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are used with benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants, including alcohol, and not to use these concomitantly unless supervised by a health care provider [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 ), Drug Interactions ( 7 )] . Hyperalgesia and Allodynia Inform patients and caregivers not to increase opioid dosage without first consulting a clinician. Advise patients to seek medical attention if they experience symptoms of hyperalgesia, including worsening pain, increased sensitivity to pain, or new pain [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.6 ); Adverse Reactions ( 6.2 )] . Serotonin Syndrome Inform patients that hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets could cause a rare but potentially life-threatening condition resulting from concomitant administration of serotonergic drugs. Warn patients of the symptoms of serotonin syndrome and to seek medical attention right away if symptoms develop. Instruct patients to inform their healthcare providers if they are taking, or plan to take serotonergic medications [see Drug Interactions ( 7 )] . MAOI Interaction Inform patients to avoid taking hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets while using any drugs that inhibit monoamine oxidase. Patients should not start MAOIs while taking hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets [see Drug Interactions ( 7 )] . Important Administration Instructions Instruct patients how to properly take hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, including the following: • Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are designed to work properly only if swallowed intact. Taking cut, broken, chewed, crushed, or dissolved hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets can result in a fatal overdose [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.1 )] . • Using hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets exactly as prescribed to reduce the risk of life-threatening adverse reactions (e.g., respiratory depression) Important Discontinuation Instructions In order to avoid developing withdrawal symptoms, instruct patients not to discontinue hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets without first discussing a tapering plan with the prescriber [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.5 )] . Driving or Operating Heavy Machinery Inform patients that hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets may impair the ability to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. Advise patients not to perform such tasks until they know how they will react to the medication [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.15 )] . Constipation Advise patients of the potential for severe constipation, including management instructions and when to seek medical attention [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.1 ), Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.2 )] . Adrenal Insufficiency Inform patients that hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets could cause adrenal insufficiency, a potentially life-threatening condition. Adrenal insufficiency may present with non-specific symptoms and signs such as nausea, vomiting, anorexia, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, and low blood pressure. Advise patients to seek medical attention if they experience a constellation of these symptoms [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.8 )] . Gastrointestinal Blockage Advise patients that people with certain stomach or intestinal problems such as narrowing of the intestines or previous surgery may be at higher risk of developing a blockage. Symptoms include abdominal distension, abdominal pain, severe constipation, or vomiting. Instruct patients to contact their healthcare provider immediately if they develop these symptoms. Hypotension Inform patients that hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets may cause orthostatic hypotension and syncope. Instruct patients how to recognize symptoms of low blood pressure and how to reduce the risk of serious consequences should hypotension occur (e.g., sit or lie down, carefully rise from a sitting or lying position). Anaphylaxis Inform patients that anaphylaxis has been reported with ingredients contained in hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Advise patients how to recognize such a reaction and when to seek medical attention [see Contraindications ( 4 ), Warnings and Precautions ( 5.14 ), and Adverse Reactions ( 6.2 )] . Pregnancy Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome Inform female patients of reproductive potential that use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets for an extended period of time during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 ), Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1 )] . Embryo-Fetal Toxicity Inform female patients of reproductive potential that hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets can cause fetal harm and to inform their healthcare provider of a known or suspected pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1 )] . Lactation Advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.2 )]. Infertility Inform patients that use of opioids for an extended period of time may cause reduced fertility. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.3 )] . Manufactured By Padagis Minneapolis, MN 55427 Rev 09/23 1B500 RC PH17 2204828 PHARMACIST: Dispense a separate Medication Guide to each patient. Dispense with Medication Guide available at www.padagis.com/medguide/HDMRTabs

Spl Medguide

Medication Guide Dispense with Medication Guide available at www.padagis.com/medguide/HDMRTabs Medication Guide Hydromorphone Hydrochloride (hy-dr uh -mor-fon hy-dr uh -klawr-ahyd) Extended-Release Tablets, CII Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are: • A strong prescription pain medicine that contains an opioid (narcotic) that is used to manage severe and persistent pain that requires an extended treatment period with a daily opioid pain medicine when other pain medicines do not treat your pain well enough or you cannot tolerate them. • A long-acting (extended-release) opioid pain medicine that can put you at risk for overdose and death. Even if you take your dose correctly as prescribed you are at risk for opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse that can lead to death. • Not to be taken on an “as needed” basis. Important information about hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets: • Get emergency help or call 911 right away if you take too many hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets (overdose). When you first start taking hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, when your dose is changed, or if you take too much (overdose), serious or life-threatening breathing problems that can lead to death may occur. Talk to your healthcare provider about naloxone, a medicine for the emergency treatment of an opioid overdose. • Taking hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets with other opioid medicines, benzodiazepines, alcohol, or other central nervous system depressants (including street drugs) can cause severe drowsiness, decreased awareness, breathing problems, coma, and death. • Never give anyone else your hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. They could die from taking it. Selling or giving away hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets is against the law. • Store hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets securely, out of sight and reach of children, and in a location not accessible by others, including visitors to the home. Do not take hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets if you have: • severe asthma, trouble breathing, or other lung problems. • a bowel blockage or have narrowing of the stomach or intestines. Before taking hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, tell your healthcare provider if you have a history of: • head injury, seizures • liver, kidney, thyroid problems • allergy to sulfites • problems urinating • pancreas or gallbladder problems • abuse of street or prescription drugs, alcohol addiction, opioid overdose, or mental health problems. Tell your healthcare provider if you: • notice your pain getting worse. If your pain gets worse after you take hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, do not take more of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets without first talking to your healthcare provider. Talk to your healthcare provider if the pain that you have increases, if you feel more sensitive to pain, or if you have new pain after taking hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. • are pregnant or planning to become pregnant. Use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets for an extended period of time during pregnancy can cause withdrawal symptoms in your newborn baby that could be life-threatening if not recognized and treated. • are breastfeeding. Not recommended during treatment with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. It may harm your baby. • are living in a household where there are small children or someone who has abused street or prescription drugs. • are taking prescription or over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, or herbal supplements. Taking hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets with certain other medicines can cause serious side effects. When taking hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets: • Do not change your dose. Take hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets exactly as prescribed by your healthcare provider. Use the lowest dose possible for the shortest time needed. • Take your prescribed dose every 24 hours, at the same time every day. Do not take more than your prescribed dose in 24 hours. If you miss a dose, take your next dose at your usual time the next day. • Swallow hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets whole. Do not cut, break, chew, crush, dissolve, snort, or inject hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets because this may cause you to overdose and die. • Call your healthcare provider if the dose you are taking does not control your pain. • Do not stop taking hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets without talking to your healthcare provider. • Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are contained in a hard tablet shell that you may see in your bowel movement; this is normal. • Dispose of expired, unwanted, or unused hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets by promptly flushing down the toilet, if a drug take-back option is not readily available. Visit www.fda.gov/drugdisposal for additional information on disposal of unused medicines. While taking hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, DO NOT: • Drive or operate heavy machinery, until you know how hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets affect you. Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets can make you sleepy, dizzy, or lightheaded. • Drink alcohol or use prescription or over-the-counter medicines containing alcohol. Using products containing alcohol during treatment with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets may cause you to overdose and die. The possible side effects of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are: • constipation, nausea, sleepiness, vomiting, tiredness, headache, dizziness, abdominal pain. Call your healthcare provider if you have any of these symptoms and they are severe. Get emergency medical help or call 911 right away if you have: • trouble breathing, shortness of breath, fast heartbeat, chest pain, swelling of your face, tongue, or throat, extreme drowsiness, light-headedness when changing positions, feeling faint, agitation, high body temperature, trouble walking, stiff muscles, or mental changes such as confusion. These are not all the possible side effects of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Call your healthcare provider for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. For more information go to dailymed.nlm.nih.gov Manufactured by Padagis, Minneapolis, MN 55427 1B500 RC MG8 www.padagis.com or call 1-866-634-9120 This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Revised September 2023

Clinical Studies

14 CLINICAL STUDIES Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study in opioid tolerant patients with moderate-to-severe low back pain. Patients were considered opioid tolerant if they were currently on opioid therapy that was ≥ 60 mg/day of oral morphine equivalent for at least 2 months prior to screening. Patients entered an open-label conversion and titration phase with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, were converted to a starting dose that was approximately 75% of their total daily morphine equivalent dose, and were dosed once daily until adequate pain control was achieved while exhibiting tolerable side effects. Supplemental immediate-release hydromorphone tablets were allowed throughout the study. Patients who achieved a stable dose entered a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized treatment phase. Mean daily dose at randomization was 37.8 mg/day (range of 12 mg/day to 64 mg/day). Fifty-eight (58) percent of patients were successfully titrated to a stable dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets during the open-label conversion and titration phase. During the double-blind treatment phase, patients randomized to hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets continued with the stable dose achieved in the conversion and titration phase of the study. Patients randomized to placebo received, in a blinded manner, hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and matching placebo in doses tapering from the stable dose achieved in conversion and titration. During the taper down period, patients were allowed immediate-release hydromorphone tablets as supplemental analgesia to minimize opioid withdrawal symptoms in placebo patients. After the taper period, the number of immediate-release hydromorphone tablets was limited to two tablets per day. Forty-nine (49) percent of patients treated with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and 33% of patients treated with placebo completed the 12-week treatment period. Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets provided superior analgesia compared to placebo. There was a significant difference between the mean changes from Baseline to Week 12 or Final Visit in average weekly pain intensity Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) scores obtained from patient diaries between the two groups. The proportion of patients with various degrees of improvement from screening to Week 12 or Final Visit is shown in Figure 2 . For this analysis, patients who discontinued treatment for any reason prior to Week 12 were assigned a value of zero improvement. Figure 2. Percent Reduction in Average Pain Intensity from Screening to Week 12 or Final Visit Figure 2.

Geriatric Use

8.5 Geriatric Use Elderly patients (aged 65 years or older) may have increased sensitivity to hydromorphone. In general, use caution when selecting a dosage for an elderly patient, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Respiratory depression is the chief risk for elderly patients treated with opioids and has occurred after large initial doses were administered to patients who were not opioid-tolerant or when opioids were co-administered with other agents that depress respiration. Titrate the dosage of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets slowly in geriatric patients and frequently reevaluate the patient for signs of central nervous system and respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] . Hydromorphone is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.

Labor And Delivery

8.2 Lactation Risk Summary Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including excess sedation and respiratory depression in a breastfed infant, advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Low concentrations of hydromorphone have been detected in human milk in clinical trials. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfeeding infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped. Nursing should not be undertaken while a patient is receiving hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets since hydromorphone is excreted in the milk. Clinical Considerations Monitor infants exposed to hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets through breast milk for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfed infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped, or when breast-feeding is stopped.

Nursing Mothers

8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential Infertility Use of opioids for an extended period of time may cause reduced fertility in females and males of reproductive potential. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.2 ), Nonclinical Toxicology ( 13.1 )] .

Pediatric Use

8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in patients 17 years of age and younger have not been established.

Pregnancy

8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Use of opioid analgesics for an extended period of time during pregnancy may cause neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )]. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Based on animal data, advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. In animal reproduction studies, reduced postnatal survival of pups, developmental delays, and altered behavioral responses were noted following oral treatment of pregnant rats with hydromorphone during gestation and through lactation at doses 2.1 times the human daily dose of 32 mg/day (HDD), respectively. In published studies, neural tube defects were noted following subcutaneous injection of hydromorphone to pregnant hamsters at doses 4.8 times the HDD and soft tissue and skeletal abnormalities were noted following subcutaneous continuous infusion of 2.3 times the HDD to pregnant mice. No malformations were noted at 2.1 or 17 times the HDD in pregnant rats or rabbits, respectively [see Data] . Based on animal data, advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions Use of opioid analgesics for an extended period of time during pregnancy for medical or nonmedical purposes can result in physical dependence in the neonate and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome shortly after birth. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome presents as irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea, and failure to gain weight. The onset, duration, and severity of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination of the drug by the newborn. Observe newborns for symptoms of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, and manage accordingly [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )] . Labor or Delivery Opioids cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression and psycho-physiologic effects in neonates. An opioid antagonist, such as naloxone, must be available for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression in the neonate. Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are not recommended for use in pregnant women during or immediately prior to labor, when use of shorter-acting analgesics or other analgesic techniques are more appropriate. Opioid analgesics, including hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets can prolong labor through actions which temporarily reduce the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions. However, this effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilation, which tends to shorten labor. Monitor neonates exposed to opioid analgesics during labor for signs of excess sedation and respiratory depression. Data Animal Data Pregnant rats were treated with hydromorphone hydrochloride from Gestation Day 6 to 17 via oral gavage doses of 1.75, 3.5, or 7 mg/kg/day (0.5, 1.1, or 2.1 times the HDD of 32 mg/day based on body surface area, respectively). Maternal toxicity was noted in all treatment groups (reduced food consumption and body weights in the two highest dose groups). There was no evidence of malformations or embryotoxicity reported. Pregnant rabbits were treated with hydromorphone hydrochloride from Gestation Day 6 to 20 via oral gavage doses of 10, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day (4.3, 8.5, or 17 times the HDD of 32 mg/day based on body surface area, respectively). Maternal toxicity was noted in the highest dose group (reduced food consumption and body weights). There was no evidence of malformations or embryotoxicity reported. In a published study, neural tube defects (exencephaly and cranioschisis) were noted following subcutaneous administration of hydromorphone hydrochloride (19 to 258 mg/kg) on Gestation Day 8 to pregnant hamsters (4.8 to 65.4 times the HDD of 32 mg/day based on body surface area). The findings cannot be clearly attributed to maternal toxicity. No neural tube defects were noted at 14 mg/kg (3.5 times the human daily dose of 32 mg/day). In a published study, CF-1 mice were treated subcutaneously with continuous infusion of 7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg/day hydromorphone hydrochloride (1.1, 2.3, or 4.6 times the human daily dose of 32 mg based on body surface area) via implanted osmotic pumps during organogenesis (Gestation Days 7 to 10). Soft tissue malformations (cryptorchidism, cleft palate, malformed ventricles and retina), and skeletal variations (split supraoccipital, checkerboard and split sternebrae, delayed ossification of the paws and ectopic ossification sites) were observed at doses 2.3 times the human dose of 32 mg/day based on body surface area. The findings cannot be clearly attributed to maternal toxicity. Pregnant rats were treated with hydromorphone hydrochloride from Gestation Day 6 to Lactation Day 21 via oral gavage doses of 1.75, 3.5, or 7 mg/kg/day (0.5, 1.1, or 2.1 times the HDD of 32 mg/day based on body surface area, respectively). Reduced pup weights were noted at 1.1 and 2.1 times the human daily dose of 32 mg/day and increased pup deaths, delayed ear opening, reduced auditory startle reflex, and reduced open-field activity were also noted at 2.1 times the HDD. Maternal toxicity was noted in all treatment groups (reduced food consumption and body weights in all groups) and decreased maternal care in the high dose group.

Use In Specific Populations

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS • Pregnancy : May cause fetal harm. ( 8.1 ) • Lactation : Not recommended. ( 8.2 ) • Severe Hepatic Impairment : Use not recommended. ( 8.6 ) • Severe Renal Impairment : Consider an alternate analgesic. ( 8.7 ) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Use of opioid analgesics for an extended period of time during pregnancy may cause neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )]. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Based on animal data, advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. In animal reproduction studies, reduced postnatal survival of pups, developmental delays, and altered behavioral responses were noted following oral treatment of pregnant rats with hydromorphone during gestation and through lactation at doses 2.1 times the human daily dose of 32 mg/day (HDD), respectively. In published studies, neural tube defects were noted following subcutaneous injection of hydromorphone to pregnant hamsters at doses 4.8 times the HDD and soft tissue and skeletal abnormalities were noted following subcutaneous continuous infusion of 2.3 times the HDD to pregnant mice. No malformations were noted at 2.1 or 17 times the HDD in pregnant rats or rabbits, respectively [see Data] . Based on animal data, advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions Use of opioid analgesics for an extended period of time during pregnancy for medical or nonmedical purposes can result in physical dependence in the neonate and neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome shortly after birth. Neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome presents as irritability, hyperactivity and abnormal sleep pattern, high pitched cry, tremor, vomiting, diarrhea, and failure to gain weight. The onset, duration, and severity of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome vary based on the specific opioid used, duration of use, timing and amount of last maternal use, and rate of elimination of the drug by the newborn. Observe newborns for symptoms of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, and manage accordingly [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )] . Labor or Delivery Opioids cross the placenta and may produce respiratory depression and psycho-physiologic effects in neonates. An opioid antagonist, such as naloxone, must be available for reversal of opioid-induced respiratory depression in the neonate. Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are not recommended for use in pregnant women during or immediately prior to labor, when use of shorter-acting analgesics or other analgesic techniques are more appropriate. Opioid analgesics, including hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets can prolong labor through actions which temporarily reduce the strength, duration, and frequency of uterine contractions. However, this effect is not consistent and may be offset by an increased rate of cervical dilation, which tends to shorten labor. Monitor neonates exposed to opioid analgesics during labor for signs of excess sedation and respiratory depression. Data Animal Data Pregnant rats were treated with hydromorphone hydrochloride from Gestation Day 6 to 17 via oral gavage doses of 1.75, 3.5, or 7 mg/kg/day (0.5, 1.1, or 2.1 times the HDD of 32 mg/day based on body surface area, respectively). Maternal toxicity was noted in all treatment groups (reduced food consumption and body weights in the two highest dose groups). There was no evidence of malformations or embryotoxicity reported. Pregnant rabbits were treated with hydromorphone hydrochloride from Gestation Day 6 to 20 via oral gavage doses of 10, 25, or 50 mg/kg/day (4.3, 8.5, or 17 times the HDD of 32 mg/day based on body surface area, respectively). Maternal toxicity was noted in the highest dose group (reduced food consumption and body weights). There was no evidence of malformations or embryotoxicity reported. In a published study, neural tube defects (exencephaly and cranioschisis) were noted following subcutaneous administration of hydromorphone hydrochloride (19 to 258 mg/kg) on Gestation Day 8 to pregnant hamsters (4.8 to 65.4 times the HDD of 32 mg/day based on body surface area). The findings cannot be clearly attributed to maternal toxicity. No neural tube defects were noted at 14 mg/kg (3.5 times the human daily dose of 32 mg/day). In a published study, CF-1 mice were treated subcutaneously with continuous infusion of 7.5, 15, or 30 mg/kg/day hydromorphone hydrochloride (1.1, 2.3, or 4.6 times the human daily dose of 32 mg based on body surface area) via implanted osmotic pumps during organogenesis (Gestation Days 7 to 10). Soft tissue malformations (cryptorchidism, cleft palate, malformed ventricles and retina), and skeletal variations (split supraoccipital, checkerboard and split sternebrae, delayed ossification of the paws and ectopic ossification sites) were observed at doses 2.3 times the human dose of 32 mg/day based on body surface area. The findings cannot be clearly attributed to maternal toxicity. Pregnant rats were treated with hydromorphone hydrochloride from Gestation Day 6 to Lactation Day 21 via oral gavage doses of 1.75, 3.5, or 7 mg/kg/day (0.5, 1.1, or 2.1 times the HDD of 32 mg/day based on body surface area, respectively). Reduced pup weights were noted at 1.1 and 2.1 times the human daily dose of 32 mg/day and increased pup deaths, delayed ear opening, reduced auditory startle reflex, and reduced open-field activity were also noted at 2.1 times the HDD. Maternal toxicity was noted in all treatment groups (reduced food consumption and body weights in all groups) and decreased maternal care in the high dose group. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including excess sedation and respiratory depression in a breastfed infant, advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Low concentrations of hydromorphone have been detected in human milk in clinical trials. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfeeding infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped. Nursing should not be undertaken while a patient is receiving hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets since hydromorphone is excreted in the milk. Clinical Considerations Monitor infants exposed to hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets through breast milk for excess sedation and respiratory depression. Withdrawal symptoms can occur in breastfed infants when maternal administration of an opioid analgesic is stopped, or when breast-feeding is stopped. 8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential Infertility Use of opioids for an extended period of time may cause reduced fertility in females and males of reproductive potential. It is not known whether these effects on fertility are reversible [see Adverse Reactions ( 6.2 ), Nonclinical Toxicology ( 13.1 )] . 8.4 Pediatric Use The safety and effectiveness of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets in patients 17 years of age and younger have not been established. 8.5 Geriatric Use Elderly patients (aged 65 years or older) may have increased sensitivity to hydromorphone. In general, use caution when selecting a dosage for an elderly patient, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy. Respiratory depression is the chief risk for elderly patients treated with opioids and has occurred after large initial doses were administered to patients who were not opioid-tolerant or when opioids were co-administered with other agents that depress respiration. Titrate the dosage of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets slowly in geriatric patients and frequently reevaluate the patient for signs of central nervous system and respiratory depression [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] . Hydromorphone is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. 8.6 Hepatic Impairment In a study that used a single 4 mg oral dose of immediate-release hydromorphone tablets, four-fold increases in plasma levels of hydromorphone (C max and AUC 0-∞ ) were observed in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Group B). Start patients with moderate hepatic impairment on 25% of the hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose that would be used in patients with normal hepatic function. Closely monitor patients with moderate hepatic impairment for respiratory and central nervous system depression during initiation of therapy with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and during dose titration. The pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone in severe hepatic impairment patients have not been studied. As further increases in C max and AUC 0-∞ of hydromorphone in this group are expected, use of alternate analgesics is recommended [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.6 )] . 8.7 Renal Impairment Administration of a single 4 mg dose of immediate-release hydromorphone tablets resulted in two-fold and four-fold increases in plasma levels of hydromorphone (C max and AUC 0-48h ) in moderate (CLcr = 40 to 60 mL/min) and severe (CLcr < 30 mL/min) impairment, respectively. In addition, in patients with severe renal impairment hydromorphone appeared to be more slowly eliminated with longer terminal elimination half-life. Start patients with moderate renal impairment on 50% and patients with severe renal impairment on 25% of the hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets dose that would be prescribed for patients with normal renal function. Closely monitor patients with renal impairment for respiratory and central nervous system depression during initiation of therapy with hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and during dose titration. As hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are only intended for once daily administration, consider use of an alternate analgesic that may permit more flexibility with the dosing interval in patients with severe renal impairment [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.7 )] .

How Supplied

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablet Strengths Strength Color Tablet Description Bottle Count NDC 8 mg Dark Beige Round, biconvex, imprinted with “P293” over “8” on one side 100 0574-0293-01 12 mg White Round, biconvex, imprinted with “P294” over “12” on one side 100 0574-0294-01 16 mg Light Beige Round, biconvex, imprinted with “P295” over “16” on one side 100 0574-0295-01 32 mg Pink Round, biconvex, imprinted with “P297” over “32” on one side 100 0574-0297-01 Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Store hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets securely and dispose of properly [see Patient Counseling Information ( 17 )] .

How Supplied Table

Hydromorphone Hydrochloride Extended-Release Tablet Strengths

Strength

Color

Tablet Description

Bottle Count

NDC

8 mg

Dark Beige

Round, biconvex, imprinted with “P293” over “8” on one side

100

0574-0293-01

12 mg

White

Round, biconvex, imprinted with “P294” over “12” on one side

100

0574-0294-01

16 mg

Light Beige

Round, biconvex, imprinted with “P295” over “16” on one side

100

0574-0295-01

32 mg

Pink

Round, biconvex, imprinted with “P297” over “32” on one side

100

0574-0297-01

Boxed Warning

WARNING: SERIOUS AND LIFE-THREATENING RISKS FROM USE OF HYDROMORPHONE HYDROCHLORIDE EXTENDED-RELEASE TABLETS Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse Because the use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets exposes patients and other users to the risks of opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death, assess each patient’s risk prior to prescribing and reassess all patients regularly for the development of these behaviors and conditions [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1 )] . Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, especially during initiation or following a dose increase. To reduce the risk of respiratory depression, proper dosing and titration of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets are essential. Instruct patients to swallow hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets whole; crushing, chewing, or dissolving hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets can cause rapid release and absorption of a potentially fatal dose of hydromorphone [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] . Accidental Ingestion Accidental ingestion of even one dose of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, especially by children, can result in a fatal overdose of hydromorphone [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] . Risks From Concomitant Use With Benzodiazepines Or Other CNS Depressants Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Reserve concomitant prescribing of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3 ), Drug Interactions ( 7 )] . Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome (NOWS) If opioid use is required for an extended period of time in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of NOWS, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated. Ensure that management by neonatology experts will be available at delivery [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4 )] . Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) Healthcare providers are strongly encouraged to complete a REMS-compliant education program, and to counsel patients and caregivers on serious risks, safe use, and the importance of reading the Medication Guide with each prescription [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5 )] . WARNING: SERIOUS AND LIFE-THREATENING RISKS FROM USE OF HYDROMORPHONE HYDROCHLORIDE EXTENDED-RELEASE TABLETS See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. • Hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets expose users to risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Assess patient’s risk before prescribing, and monitor regularly for these behaviors and conditions. ( 5.1 ) • Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur. Monitor closely, especially upon initiation or following a dose increase. Instruct patients to swallow hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets whole to avoid exposure to a potentially fatal dose of hydromorphone. ( 5.2 ) • Accidental ingestion of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, especially by children, can result in fatal overdose of hydromorphone. ( 5.2 ) • Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Reserve concomitant prescribing for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate; limit dosages and durations to the minimum required; and follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. ( 5.3 , 7 ) • Prolonged use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated. If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available. ( 5.4 ) • To ensure that the benefits of opioid analgesics outweigh the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for these products. ( 5.5 ) Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur. Monitor closely, especially upon initiation or following a dose increase. Instruct patients to swallow hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets whole to avoid exposure to a potentially fatal dose of hydromorphone. ( 5.2 ) Accidental ingestion of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets, especially by children, can result in fatal overdose of hydromorphone. ( 5.2 ) Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Reserve concomitant prescribing for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate; limit dosages and durations to the minimum required; and follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. ( 5.3 , 7 ) Prolonged use of hydromorphone hydrochloride extended-release tablets during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated. If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available. ( 5.4 ) To ensure that the benefits of opioid analgesics outweigh the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) for these products. ( 5.5 )

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