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  • CELEBREX CELECOXIB 100 mg/1 Pfizer Laboratories Div Pfizer Inc
FDA Drug information

CELEBREX

Read time: 2 mins
Marketing start date: 18 Jun 2024

Summary of product characteristics


Adverse Reactions

6. ADVERSE REACTIONS The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling: • Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ] • GI Bleeding, Ulceration and Perforation [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] • Hepatotoxicity [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) ] • Hypertension [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ] • Heart Failure and Edema [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ] • Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ] • Anaphylactic Reactions [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ] • Serious Skin Reactions [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.9) ] • Hematologic Toxicity [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.12) ] Most common adverse reactions in arthritis trials (>2% and >placebo) are: abdominal pain, diarrhea, dyspepsia, flatulence, peripheral edema, accidental injury, dizziness, pharyngitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, upper respiratory tract infection, rash. ( 6.1 ) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Pfizer Inc. at 1-800-438-1985 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The adverse reaction information from clinical trials does, however, provide a basis for identifying the adverse events that appear to be related to drug use and for approximating rates. Of the CELEBREX-treated patients in the pre-marketing controlled clinical trials, approximately 4,250 were patients with OA, approximately 2,100 were patients with RA, and approximately 1,050 were patients with post-surgical pain. More than 8,500 patients received a total daily dose of CELEBREX of 200 mg (100 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily) or more, including more than 400 treated at 800 mg (400 mg twice daily). Approximately 3,900 patients received CELEBREX at these doses for 6 months or more; approximately 2,300 of these have received it for 1 year or more and 124 of these have received it for 2 years or more. Pre-marketing Controlled Arthritis Trials Table 1 lists all adverse events, regardless of causality, occurring in ≥2% of patients receiving CELEBREX from 12 controlled studies conducted in patients with OA or RA that included a placebo and/or a positive control group. Since these 12 trials were of different durations, and patients in the trials may not have been exposed for the same duration of time, these percentages do not capture cumulative rates of occurrence. Table 1: Adverse Events Occurring in ≥2% of CELEBREX Patients from Pre-marketing Controlled Arthritis Trials CBX N=4146 Placebo N=1864 NAP N=1366 DCF N=387 IBU N=345 CBX = CELEBREX 100 mg to 200 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily; NAP = Naproxen 500 mg twice daily; DCF = Diclofenac 75 mg twice daily; IBU = Ibuprofen 800 mg three times daily. Gastrointestinal Abdominal Pain 4.1% 2.8% 7.7% 9.0% 9.0% Diarrhea 5.6% 3.8% 5.3% 9.3% 5.8% Dyspepsia 8.8% 6.2% 12.2% 10.9% 12.8% Flatulence 2.2% 1.0% 3.6% 4.1% 3.5% Nausea 3.5% 4.2% 6.0% 3.4% 6.7% Body as a whole Back Pain 2.8% 3.6% 2.2% 2.6% 0.9% Peripheral Edema 2.1% 1.1% 2.1% 1.0% 3.5% Injury-Accidental 2.9% 2.3% 3.0% 2.6% 3.2% Central, Peripheral Nervous system Dizziness 2.0% 1.7% 2.6% 1.3% 2.3% Headache 15.8% 20.2% 14.5% 15.5% 15.4% Psychiatric Insomnia 2.3% 2.3% 2.9% 1.3% 1.4% Respiratory Pharyngitis 2.3% 1.1% 1.7% 1.6% 2.6% Rhinitis 2.0% 1.3% 2.4% 2.3% 0.6% Sinusitis 5.0% 4.3% 4.0% 5.4% 5.8% Upper Respiratory Infection 8.1% 6.7% 9.9% 9.8% 9.9% Skin Rash 2.2% 2.1% 2.1% 1.3% 1.2% In placebo- or active-controlled clinical trials, the discontinuation rate due to adverse events was 7.1% for patients receiving CELEBREX and 6.1% for patients receiving placebo. Among the most common reasons for discontinuation due to adverse events in the CELEBREX treatment groups were dyspepsia and abdominal pain (cited as reasons for discontinuation in 0.8% and 0.7% of CELEBREX patients, respectively). Among patients receiving placebo, 0.6% discontinued due to dyspepsia and 0.6% withdrew due to abdominal pain. The following adverse reactions occurred in 0.1% to 1.9% of patients treated with CELEBREX (100 mg to 200 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily) : Gastrointestinal: Constipation, diverticulitis, dysphagia, eructation, esophagitis, gastritis, gastroenteritis, gastroesophageal reflux, hemorrhoids, hiatal hernia, melena, dry mouth, stomatitis, tenesmus, vomiting Cardiovascular: Aggravated hypertension, angina pectoris, coronary artery disorder, myocardial infarction General: Hypersensitivity, allergic reaction, chest pain, cyst NOS, edema generalized, face edema, fatigue, fever, hot flushes, influenza-like symptoms, pain, peripheral pain Central, peripheral nervous system: Leg cramps, hypertonia, hypoesthesia, migraine, paresthesia, vertigo Hearing and vestibular: Deafness, tinnitus Heart rate and rhythm: Palpitation, tachycardia Liver and biliary: Hepatic enzyme increased (including SGOT increased, SGPT increased) Metabolic and nutritional: blood urea nitrogen (BUN) increased, creatine phosphokinase (CPK) increased, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, NPN increased, creatinine increased, alkaline phosphatase increased, weight increased Musculoskeletal: Arthralgia, arthrosis, myalgia, synovitis, tendinitis Platelets (bleeding or clotting): Ecchymosis, epistaxis, thrombocythemia, Psychiatric: Anorexia, anxiety, appetite increased, depression, nervousness, somnolence Hemic: Anemia Respiratory: Bronchitis, bronchospasm, bronchospasm aggravated, cough, dyspnea, laryngitis, pneumonia Skin and appendages: Alopecia, dermatitis, photosensitivity reaction, pruritus, rash erythematous, rash maculopapular, skin disorder, skin dry, sweating increased, urticaria Application site disorders: Cellulitis, dermatitis contact Urinary: Albuminuria, cystitis, dysuria, hematuria, micturition frequency, renal calculus The following serious adverse events (causality not evaluated) occurred in <0.1% of patients : Cardiovascular: Syncope, congestive heart failure, ventricular fibrillation, pulmonary embolism, cerebrovascular accident, peripheral gangrene, thrombophlebitis Gastrointestinal: I ntestinal obstruction, intestinal perforation, gastrointestinal bleeding, colitis with bleeding, esophageal perforation, pancreatitis, ileus General: Sepsis, sudden death Liver and biliary: Cholelithiasis Hemic and lymphatic: Thrombocytopenia Nervous: Ataxia, suicide [see Drug Interactions (7) ] Renal: Acute renal failure The Celecoxib Long-Term Arthritis Safety Study [ see Clinical Studies (14.7) ] Hematological Events: The incidence of clinically significant decreases in hemoglobin (>2 g/dL) was lower in patients on CELEBREX 400 mg twice daily (0.5%) compared to patients on either diclofenac 75 mg twice daily (1.3%) or ibuprofen 800 mg three times daily 1.9%. The lower incidence of events with CELEBREX was maintained with or without aspirin use [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2) ]. Withdrawals/Serious Adverse Events: Kaplan-Meier cumulative rates at 9 months for withdrawals due to adverse events for CELEBREX, diclofenac and ibuprofen were 24%, 29%, and 26%, respectively. Rates for serious adverse events (i.e., causing hospitalization or felt to be life-threatening or otherwise medically significant), regardless of causality, were not different across treatment groups (8%, 7%, and 8%, respectively). Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis Study In a 12-week, double-blind, active-controlled study, 242 JRA patients 2 years to 17 years of age were treated with celecoxib or naproxen; 77 JRA patients were treated with celecoxib 3 mg/kg twice daily, 82 patients were treated with celecoxib 6 mg/kg twice daily, and 83 patients were treated with naproxen 7.5 mg/kg twice daily. The most commonly occurring (≥5%) adverse events in celecoxib treated patients were headache, fever (pyrexia), upper abdominal pain, cough, nasopharyngitis, abdominal pain, nausea, arthralgia, diarrhea, and vomiting. The most commonly occurring (≥5%) adverse experiences for naproxen-treated patients were headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, upper abdominal pain, diarrhea, cough, abdominal pain, and dizziness (Table 2). Compared with naproxen, celecoxib at doses of 3 and 6 mg/kg twice daily had no observable deleterious effect on growth and development during the course of the 12-week double-blind study. There was no substantial difference in the number of clinical exacerbations of uveitis or systemic features of JRA among treatment groups. In a 12-week, open-label extension of the double-blind study described above, 202 JRA patients were treated with celecoxib 6 mg/kg twice daily. The incidence of adverse events was similar to that observed during the double-blind study; no unexpected adverse events of clinical importance emerged. Table 2: Adverse Events Occurring in ≥5% of JRA Patients in Any Treatment Group, by System Organ Class (% of patients with events) All Doses Twice Daily System Organ Class Preferred Term Celecoxib 3 mg/kg N=77 Celecoxib 6 mg/kg N=82 Naproxen 7.5 mg/kg N=83 Any Event 64 70 72 Eye Disorders 5 5 5 Gastrointestinal 26 24 36 Abdominal pain NOS 4 7 7 Abdominal pain upper 8 6 10 Vomiting NOS 3 6 11 Diarrhea NOS 5 4 8 Nausea 7 4 11 General 13 11 18 Pyrexia 8 9 11 Infections 25 20 27 Nasopharyngitis 5 6 5 Injury and Poisoning 4 6 5 Investigations Abnormal laboratory tests, which include: Prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, Bacteriuria NOS present, Blood creatine phosphokinase increased, Blood culture positive, Blood glucose increased, Blood pressure increased, Blood uric acid increased, Hematocrit decreased, Hematuria present, Hemoglobin decreased, Liver function tests NOS abnormal, Proteinuria present, Transaminase NOS increased, Urine analysis abnormal NOS 3 11 7 Musculoskeletal 8 10 17 Arthralgia 3 7 4 Nervous System 17 11 21 Headache NOS 13 10 16 Dizziness (excl vertigo) 1 1 7 Respiratory 8 15 15 Cough 7 7 8 Skin & Subcutaneous 10 7 18 Other Pre-Approval Studies Adverse Events from Ankylosing Spondylitis Studies: A total of 378 patients were treated with CELEBREX in placebo- and active-controlled AS studies. Doses up to 400 mg once daily were studied. The types of adverse events reported in the AS studies were similar to those reported in the OA/RA studies. Adverse Events from Analgesia and Dysmenorrhea Studies: Approximately 1,700 patients were treated with CELEBREX in analgesia and dysmenorrhea studies. All patients in post-oral surgery pain studies received a single dose of study medication. Doses up to 600 mg/day of CELEBREX were studied in primary dysmenorrhea and post-orthopedic surgery pain studies. The types of adverse events in the analgesia and dysmenorrhea studies were similar to those reported in arthritis studies. The only additional adverse event reported was post-dental extraction alveolar osteitis (dry socket) in the post-oral surgery pain studies. The APC and PreSAP Trials Adverse reactions from long-term, placebo-controlled polyp prevention studies : Exposure to CELEBREX in the APC and PreSAP trials was 400 mg to 800 mg daily for up to 3 years [ see Clinical Studies (14.7) ]. Some adverse reactions occurred in higher percentages of patients than in the arthritis pre-marketing trials (treatment durations up to 12 weeks; see Adverse events from CELEBREX pre-marketing controlled arthritis trials , above). The adverse reactions for which these differences in patients treated with CELEBREX were greater as compared to the arthritis pre-marketing trials were as follows: CELEBREX (400 to 800 mg daily) N = 2285 Placebo N=1303 Diarrhea 10.5% 7.0% Gastroesophageal reflux disease 4.7% 3.1% Nausea 6.8% 5.3% Vomiting 3.2% 2.1% Dyspnea 2.8% 1.6% Hypertension 12.5% 9.8% Nephrolithiasis 2.1% 0.8% The following additional adverse reactions occurred in ≥0.1% and <1% of patients taking CELEBREX, at an incidence greater than placebo in the long-term polyp prevention studies, and were either not reported during the controlled arthritis pre-marketing trials or occurred with greater frequency in the long-term, placebo-controlled polyp prevention studies: Nervous system disorders: Cerebral infarction Eye disorders: Vitreous floaters, conjunctival hemorrhage Ear and labyrinth: Labyrinthitis Cardiac disorders: Angina unstable, aortic valve incompetence, coronary artery atherosclerosis, sinus bradycardia, ventricular hypertrophy Vascular disorders: Deep vein thrombosis Reproductive system and breast disorders: Ovarian cyst Investigations: Blood potassium increased, blood sodium increased, blood testosterone decreased Injury, poisoning, and procedural complications: Epicondylitis, tendon rupture 6.2 Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of CELEBREX. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure Cardiovascular: Vasculitis, deep venous thrombosis General: Anaphylactoid reaction, angioedema Liver and biliary: Liver necrosis, hepatitis, jaundice, hepatic failure Hemic and lymphatic : Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, pancytopenia, leucopenia Metabolic: Hypoglycemia, hyponatremia Nervous: Aseptic meningitis, ageusia, anosmia, fatal intracranial hemorrhage Renal: Interstitial nephritis

Contraindications

4. CONTRAINDICATIONS CELEBREX is contraindicated in the following patients: • Known hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylactic reactions and serious skin reactions) to celecoxib, any components of the drug product [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.7 , 5.9) ]. • History of asthma, urticaria, or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, sometimes fatal, anaphylactic reactions to NSAIDs, have been reported in such patients [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.7 , 5.8) ]. • In the setting of CABG surgery [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. • In patients who have demonstrated allergic-type reactions to sulfonamides [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ]. • Known hypersensitivity to celecoxib, or any components of the drug product or sulfonamides. ( 4 ) • History of asthma, urticaria, or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. ( 4 ) • In the setting of CABG surgery. ( 4 )

Description

11. DESCRIPTION CELEBREX (celecoxib) capsule is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, available as capsules containing 50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg and 400 mg celecoxib for oral administration. The chemical name is 4-[5-(4-methylphenyl)- 3-(trifluoromethyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl] benzenesulfonamide and is a diaryl-substituted pyrazole. The molecular weight is 381.38. Its molecular formula is C 17 H 14 F 3 N 3 O 2 S, and it has the following chemical structure: Celecoxib is a white to off-white powder with a pKa of 11.1 (sulfonamide moiety). Celecoxib is hydrophobic (log P is 3.5) and is practically insoluble in aqueous media at physiological pH range. The inactive ingredients in CELEBREX include: croscarmellose sodium, edible inks, gelatin, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, povidone and sodium lauryl sulfate. Chemical Structure

Dosage And Administration

2. DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION • Use the lowest effective dosage for shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals. ( 2.1 ) • OA: 200 mg once daily or 100 mg twice daily. ( 2.2 , 14.1 ) • RA: 100 mg to 200 mg twice daily. ( 2.3 , 14.2 ) • JRA: 50 mg twice daily in patients 10 kg to 25 kg. 100 mg twice daily in patients more than 25 kg. ( 2.4 , 14.3 ) • AS: 200 mg once daily single dose or 100 mg twice daily. If no effect is observed after 6 weeks, a trial of 400 mg (single or divided doses) may be of benefit. ( 2.5 , 14.4 ) • AP and PD: 400 mg initially, followed by 200 mg dose if needed on first day. On subsequent days, 200 mg twice daily as needed. ( 2.6 , 14.5 ) Hepatic Impairment: Reduce daily dose by 50% in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B). ( 2.7 , 8.6 , 12.3 ) Poor Metabolizers of CYP2C9 Substrates: Consider a dose reduction by 50% (or alternative management for JRA) in patients who are known or suspected to be CYP2C9 poor metabolizers. ( 2.7 , 8.8 , 12.3 ). 2.1 General Dosing Instructions Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of CELEBREX and other treatment options before deciding to use CELEBREX. Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals [ see Warnings and Precautions (5) ]. These doses can be given without regard to timing of meals. 2.2 Osteoarthritis For OA, the dosage is 200 mg per day administered as a single dose or as 100 mg twice daily. 2.3 Rheumatoid Arthritis For RA, the dosage is 100 mg to 200 mg twice daily. 2.4 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis For JRA, the dosage for pediatric patients (age 2 years and older) is based on weight. For patients ≥10 kg to ≤25 kg the recommended dose is 50 mg twice daily. For patients >25 kg the recommended dose is 100 mg twice daily. For patients who have difficulty swallowing capsules, the contents of a CELEBREX capsule can be added to applesauce. The entire capsule contents are carefully emptied onto a level teaspoon of cool or room temperature applesauce and ingested immediately with water. The sprinkled capsule contents on applesauce are stable for up to 6 hours under refrigerated conditions (2°C to 8°C/35°F to 45°F). 2.5 Ankylosing Spondylitis For AS, the dosage of CELEBREX is 200 mg daily in single (once per day) or divided (twice per day) doses. If no effect is observed after 6 weeks, a trial of 400 mg daily may be worthwhile. If no effect is observed after 6 weeks on 400 mg daily, a response is not likely and consideration should be given to alternate treatment options. 2.6 Management of Acute Pain and Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea For management of Acute Pain and Treatment of Primary Dysmenorrhea, the dosage is 400 mg initially, followed by an additional 200 mg dose if needed on the first day. On subsequent days, the recommended dose is 200 mg twice daily as needed. 2.7 Special Populations Hepatic Impairment In patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B), reduce the dose by 50%. The use of CELEBREX in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) , Use in Specific Populations (8.6) , and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . Poor Metabolizers of CYP2C9 Substrates In adult patients who are known or suspected to be poor CYP2C9 metabolizers based on genotype or previous history/experience with other CYP2C9 substrates (such as warfarin, phenytoin), initiate treatment with half of the lowest recommended dose. In patients with JRA who are known or suspected to be poor CYP2C9 metabolizers, consider using alternative treatments [ see Use in Specific populations (8.8) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.5) ].

Indications And Usage

1. INDICATIONS AND USAGE CELEBREX is indicated CELEBREX is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug indicated for: • Osteoarthritis (OA) ( 1.1 ) • Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) ( 1.2 ) • Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) in patients 2 years and older ( 1.3 ) • Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) ( 1.4 ) • Acute Pain (AP) ( 1.5 ) • Primary Dysmenorrhea (PD) ( 1.6 ) 1.1 Osteoarthritis (OA) For the management of the signs and symptoms of OA [ see Clinical Studies (14.1) ]. 1.2 Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) For the management of the signs and symptoms of RA [ see Clinical Studies (14.2) ]. 1.3 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA) For the management of the signs and symptoms of JRA in patients 2 years and older [ see Clinical Studies (14.3) ]. 1.4 Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS) For the management of the signs and symptoms of AS [ see Clinical Studies (14.4) ]. 1.5 Acute Pain For the management of acute pain in adults [ see Clinical Studies (14.5) ]. 1.6 Primary Dysmenorrhea For the management of primary dysmenorrhea [ see Clinical Studies (14.5) ].

Overdosage

10. OVERDOSAGE Symptoms following acute NSAID overdosages have been typically limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which have been generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding has occurred. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression, and coma have occurred, but were rare [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2 , 5.4 , 5.6) ]. No overdoses of CELEBREX were reported during clinical trials. Doses up to 2400 mg/day for up to 10 days in 12 patients did not result in serious toxicity. No information is available regarding the removal of celecoxib by hemodialysis, but based on its high degree of plasma protein binding (>97%) dialysis is unlikely to be useful in overdose. Manage patients with symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdosage. There are no specific antidotes. Consider emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 to 100 grams in adults, 1 to 2 grams per kg of body weight in pediatric patients) and/or osmotic cathartic in symptomatic patients seen within four hours of ingestion or in patients with a large overdosage (5 to 10 times the recommended dosage). Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding. For additional information about overdosage treatment contact a poison control center (1-800-222-1222).

Adverse Reactions Table

Table 1: Adverse Events Occurring in ≥2% of CELEBREX Patients from Pre-marketing Controlled Arthritis Trials
CBX N=4146Placebo N=1864NAP N=1366DCF N=387IBU N=345
CBX = CELEBREX 100 mg to 200 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily; NAP = Naproxen 500 mg twice daily;
DCF = Diclofenac 75 mg twice daily;
IBU = Ibuprofen 800 mg three times daily.

Gastrointestinal

Abdominal Pain

4.1%

2.8%

7.7%

9.0%

9.0%

Diarrhea

5.6%

3.8%

5.3%

9.3%

5.8%

Dyspepsia

8.8%

6.2%

12.2%

10.9%

12.8%

Flatulence

2.2%

1.0%

3.6%

4.1%

3.5%

Nausea

3.5%

4.2%

6.0%

3.4%

6.7%

Body as a whole

Back Pain

2.8%

3.6%

2.2%

2.6%

0.9%

Peripheral Edema

2.1%

1.1%

2.1%

1.0%

3.5%

Injury-Accidental

2.9%

2.3%

3.0%

2.6%

3.2%

Central, Peripheral Nervous system

Dizziness

2.0%

1.7%

2.6%

1.3%

2.3%

Headache

15.8%

20.2%

14.5%

15.5%

15.4%

Psychiatric

Insomnia

2.3%

2.3%

2.9%

1.3%

1.4%

Respiratory

Pharyngitis

2.3%

1.1%

1.7%

1.6%

2.6%

Rhinitis

2.0%

1.3%

2.4%

2.3%

0.6%

Sinusitis

5.0%

4.3%

4.0%

5.4%

5.8%

Upper Respiratory Infection

8.1%

6.7%

9.9%

9.8%

9.9%

Skin

Rash

2.2%

2.1%

2.1%

1.3%

1.2%

Drug Interactions

7. DRUG INTERACTIONS See Table 3 for clinically significant drug interactions with celecoxib. Table 3: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Celecoxib Drugs That Interfere with Hemostasis Clinical Impact: • Celecoxib and anticoagulants such as warfarin have a synergistic effect on bleeding. The concomitant use of Celecoxib and anticoagulants have an increased risk of serious bleeding compared to the use of either drug alone. • Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Case-control and cohort epidemiological studies showed that concomitant use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and an NSAID may potentiate the risk of bleeding more than an NSAID alone. Intervention: Monitor patients with concomitant use of CELEBREX with anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin), antiplatelet drugs (e.g., aspirin), SSRIs, and SNRIs for signs of bleeding [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.12) ]. Aspirin Clinical Impact: Controlled clinical studies showed that the concomitant use of NSAIDs and analgesic doses of aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of NSAIDs alone. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of an NSAID and aspirin was associated with a significantly increased incidence of GI adverse reactions as compared to use of the NSAID alone [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ]. In two studies in healthy volunteers, and in patients with osteoarthritis and established heart disease respectively, celecoxib (200 mg to 400 mg daily) has demonstrated a lack of interference with the cardioprotective antiplatelet effect of aspirin (100 mg to 325 mg). Intervention: Concomitant use of CELEBREX and analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended because of the increased risk of bleeding [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.12) ]. CELEBREX is not a substitute for low dose aspirin for cardiovascular protection. ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Beta-Blockers Clinical Impact: • NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors, ARBs, or beta-blockers (including propranolol). • In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or have renal impairment, co-administration of an NSAID with ACE inhibitors or ARBs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible. Intervention: • During concomitant use of CELEBREX and ACE inhibitors, ARBs, or beta-blockers, monitor blood pressure to ensure that the desired blood pressure is obtained. • During concomitant use of CELEBREX and ACE inhibitors or ARBs in patients who are elderly, volume-depleted, or have impaired renal function, monitor for signs of worsening renal function [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ] . • When these drugs are administered concomitantly, patients should be adequately hydrated. Assess renal function at the beginning of the concomitant treatment and periodically thereafter. Diuretics Clinical Impact: Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, showed that NSAIDs reduced the natriuretic effect of loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics in some patients. This effect has been attributed to the NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. Intervention: During concomitant use of CELEBREX with diuretics, observe patients for signs of worsening renal function, in addition to assuring diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ]. Digoxin Clinical Impact: The concomitant use of Celecoxib with digoxin has been reported to increase the serum concentration and prolong the half-life of digoxin. Intervention: During concomitant use of CELEBREX and digoxin, monitor serum digoxin levels. Lithium Clinical Impact: NSAIDs have produced elevations in plasma lithium levels and reductions in renal lithium clearance . The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20%. This effect has been attributed to NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. Intervention: During concomitant use of CELEBREX and lithium, monitor patients for signs of lithium toxicity. Methotrexate Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of NSAIDs and methotrexate may increase the risk for methotrexate toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction). Celebrex has no effect on methotrexate pharmacokinetics. Intervention: During concomitant use of CELEBREX and methotrexate, monitor patients for methotrexate toxicity. Cyclosporine Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of CELEBREX and cyclosporine may increase cyclosporine's nephrotoxicity. Intervention: During concomitant use of CELEBREX and cyclosporine, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function. NSAIDs and Salicylates Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of Celecoxib with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) increases the risk of GI toxicity, with little or no increase in efficacy [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] . Intervention: The concomitant use of Celecoxib with other NSAIDs or salicylates is not recommended. Pemetrexed Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of CELEBREX and pemetrexed may increase the risk of pemetrexed-associated myelosuppression, renal, and GI toxicity (see the pemetrexed prescribing information). Intervention: During concomitant use of CELEBREX and pemetrexed, in patients with renal impairment whose creatinine clearance ranges from 45 to 79 mL/min, monitor for myelosuppression, renal and GI toxicity. NSAIDs with short elimination half-lives (e.g., diclofenac, indomethacin) should be avoided for a period of two days before, the day of, and two days following administration of pemetrexed. In the absence of data regarding potential interaction between pemetrexed and NSAIDs with longer half-lives (e.g., meloxicam, nabumetone), patients taking these NSAIDs should interrupt dosing for at least five days before, the day of, and two days following pemetrexed administration. CYP2C9 Inhibitors or inducers Clinical Impact: Celecoxib metabolism is predominantly mediated via cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 in the liver. Co-administration of celecoxib with drugs that are known to inhibit CYP2C9 (e.g., fluconazole) may enhance the exposure and toxicity of celecoxib whereas co-administration with CYP2C9 inducers (e.g., rifampin) may lead to compromised efficacy of celecoxib. Intervention Evaluate each patient's medical history when consideration is given to prescribing celecoxib. A dosage adjustment may be warranted when celecoxib is administered with CYP2C9 inhibitors or inducers [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. CYP2D6 substrates Clinical Impact: In vitro studies indicate that celecoxib, although not a substrate, is an inhibitor of CYP2D6. Therefore, there is a potential for an in vivo drug interaction with drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 (e.g., atomoxetine), and celecoxib may enhance the exposure and toxicity of these drugs. Intervention Evaluate each patient's medical history when consideration is given to prescribing celecoxib. A dosage adjustment may be warranted when celecoxib is administered with CYP2D6 substrates [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. Corticosteroids Clinical Impact: Concomitant use of corticosteroids with CELEBREX may increase the risk of GI ulceration or bleeding. Intervention Monitor patients with concomitant use of CELEBREX with corticosteroids for signs of bleeding [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ] . • Drugs that Interfere with Hemostasis (e.g., warfarin, aspirin, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs]/serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors [SNRIs]) : Monitor patients for bleeding who are concomitantly taking CELEBREX with drugs that interfere with hemostasis. Concomitant use of CELEBREX and analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended. ( 7 ) • Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB), or Beta-Blockers : Concomitant use with CELEBREX may diminish the antihypertensive effect of these drugs. Monitor blood pressure. ( 7 ) • ACE Inhibitors and ARBs : Concomitant use with CELEBREX in elderly, volume depleted, or those with renal impairment may result in deterioration of renal function. In such high risk patients, monitor for signs of worsening renal function. ( 7 ) • Diuretics : NSAIDs can reduce natriuretic effect of furosemide and thiazide diuretics. Monitor patients to assure diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects. ( 7 ) • Digoxin : Concomitant use with CELEBREX can increase serum concentration and prolong half-life of digoxin. Monitor serum digoxin levels. ( 7 )

Drug Interactions Table

Table 3: Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Celecoxib

Drugs That Interfere with Hemostasis

Clinical Impact:

  • Celecoxib and anticoagulants such as warfarin have a synergistic effect on bleeding. The concomitant use of Celecoxib and anticoagulants have an increased risk of serious bleeding compared to the use of either drug alone.
  • Serotonin release by platelets plays an important role in hemostasis. Case-control and cohort epidemiological studies showed that concomitant use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and an NSAID may potentiate the risk of bleeding more than an NSAID alone.
  • Intervention:

    Monitor patients with concomitant use of CELEBREX with anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin), antiplatelet drugs (e.g., aspirin), SSRIs, and SNRIs for signs of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)].

    Aspirin

    Clinical Impact:

    Controlled clinical studies showed that the concomitant use of NSAIDs and analgesic doses of aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of NSAIDs alone. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of an NSAID and aspirin was associated with a significantly increased incidence of GI adverse reactions as compared to use of the NSAID alone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. In two studies in healthy volunteers, and in patients with osteoarthritis and established heart disease respectively, celecoxib (200 mg to 400 mg daily) has demonstrated a lack of interference with the cardioprotective antiplatelet effect of aspirin (100 mg to 325 mg).

    Intervention:

    Concomitant use of CELEBREX and analgesic doses of aspirin is not generally recommended because of the increased risk of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]. CELEBREX is not a substitute for low dose aspirin for cardiovascular protection.

    ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Beta-Blockers

    Clinical Impact:

  • NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors, ARBs, or beta-blockers (including propranolol).
  • In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or have renal impairment, co-administration of an NSAID with ACE inhibitors or ARBs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
  • Intervention:

  • During concomitant use of CELEBREX and ACE inhibitors, ARBs, or beta-blockers, monitor blood pressure to ensure that the desired blood pressure is obtained.
  • During concomitant use of CELEBREX and ACE inhibitors or ARBs in patients who are elderly, volume-depleted, or have impaired renal function, monitor for signs of worsening renal function [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
  • When these drugs are administered concomitantly, patients should be adequately hydrated. Assess renal function at the beginning of the concomitant treatment and periodically thereafter.
  • Diuretics

    Clinical Impact:

    Clinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, showed that NSAIDs reduced the natriuretic effect of loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics in some patients. This effect has been attributed to the NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.

    Intervention:

    During concomitant use of CELEBREX with diuretics, observe patients for signs of worsening renal function, in addition to assuring diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

    Digoxin

    Clinical Impact:

    The concomitant use of Celecoxib with digoxin has been reported to increase the serum concentration and prolong the half-life of digoxin.

    Intervention:

    During concomitant use of CELEBREX and digoxin, monitor serum digoxin levels.

    Lithium

    Clinical Impact:

    NSAIDs have produced elevations in plasma lithium levels and reductions in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20%. This effect has been attributed to NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.

    Intervention:

    During concomitant use of CELEBREX and lithium, monitor patients for signs of lithium toxicity.

    Methotrexate

    Clinical Impact:

    Concomitant use of NSAIDs and methotrexate may increase the risk for methotrexate toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction). Celebrex has no effect on methotrexate pharmacokinetics.

    Intervention:

    During concomitant use of CELEBREX and methotrexate, monitor patients for methotrexate toxicity.

    Cyclosporine

    Clinical Impact:

    Concomitant use of CELEBREX and cyclosporine may increase cyclosporine's nephrotoxicity.

    Intervention:

    During concomitant use of CELEBREX and cyclosporine, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.

    NSAIDs and Salicylates

    Clinical Impact:

    Concomitant use of Celecoxib with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) increases the risk of GI toxicity, with little or no increase in efficacy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

    Intervention:

    The concomitant use of Celecoxib with other NSAIDs or salicylates is not recommended.

    Pemetrexed

    Clinical Impact:

    Concomitant use of CELEBREX and pemetrexed may increase the risk of pemetrexed-associated myelosuppression, renal, and GI toxicity (see the pemetrexed prescribing information).

    Intervention:

    During concomitant use of CELEBREX and pemetrexed, in patients with renal impairment whose creatinine clearance ranges from 45 to 79 mL/min, monitor for myelosuppression, renal and GI toxicity. NSAIDs with short elimination half-lives (e.g., diclofenac, indomethacin) should be avoided for a period of two days before, the day of, and two days following administration of pemetrexed. In the absence of data regarding potential interaction between pemetrexed and NSAIDs with longer half-lives (e.g., meloxicam, nabumetone), patients taking these NSAIDs should interrupt dosing for at least five days before, the day of, and two days following pemetrexed administration.

    CYP2C9 Inhibitors or inducers

    Clinical Impact:

    Celecoxib metabolism is predominantly mediated via cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 in the liver. Co-administration of celecoxib with drugs that are known to inhibit CYP2C9 (e.g., fluconazole) may enhance the exposure and toxicity of celecoxib whereas co-administration with CYP2C9 inducers (e.g., rifampin) may lead to compromised efficacy of celecoxib.

    Intervention

    Evaluate each patient's medical history when consideration is given to prescribing celecoxib. A dosage adjustment may be warranted when celecoxib is administered with CYP2C9 inhibitors or inducers [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    CYP2D6 substrates

    Clinical Impact:

    In vitro studies indicate that celecoxib, although not a substrate, is an inhibitor of CYP2D6. Therefore, there is a potential for an in vivo drug interaction with drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 (e.g., atomoxetine), and celecoxib may enhance the exposure and toxicity of these drugs.

    Intervention

    Evaluate each patient's medical history when consideration is given to prescribing celecoxib. A dosage adjustment may be warranted when celecoxib is administered with CYP2D6 substrates [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

    Corticosteroids

    Clinical Impact:

    Concomitant use of corticosteroids with CELEBREX may increase the risk of GI ulceration or bleeding.

    Intervention

    Monitor patients with concomitant use of CELEBREX with corticosteroids for signs of bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].

    Clinical Pharmacology

    12. CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 12.1 Mechanism of Action Celecoxib has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. The mechanism of action of CELEBREX is believed to be due to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, primarily via inhibition of COX-2. Celecoxib is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis in vitro . Celecoxib concentrations reached during therapy have produced in vivo effects. Prostaglandins sensitize afferent nerves and potentiate the action of bradykinin in inducing pain in animal models. Prostaglandins are mediators of inflammation. Since celecoxib is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, its mode of action may be due to a decrease of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues. 12.2 Pharmacodynamics Platelets In clinical trials using normal volunteers, CELEBREX at single doses up to 800 mg and multiple doses of 600 mg twice daily for up to 7 days duration (higher than recommended therapeutic doses) had no effect on reduction of platelet aggregation or increase in bleeding time. Because of its lack of platelet effects, CELEBREX is not a substitute for aspirin for cardiovascular prophylaxis. It is not known if there are any effects of CELEBREX on platelets that may contribute to the increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic adverse events associated with the use of CELEBREX. Fluid Retention Inhibition of PGE2 synthesis may lead to sodium and water retention through increased reabsorption in the renal medullary thick ascending loop of Henle and perhaps other segments of the distal nephron. In the collecting ducts, PGE2 appears to inhibit water reabsorption by counteracting the action of antidiuretic hormone. 12.3 Pharmacokinetics Celecoxib exhibits dose-proportional increase in exposure after oral administration up to 200 mg twice daily and less than proportional increase at higher doses. It has extensive distribution and high protein binding. It is primarily metabolized by CYP2C9 with a half-life of approximately 11 hours. Absorption Peak plasma levels of celecoxib occur approximately 3 hours after an oral dose. Under fasting conditions, both peak plasma levels (C max ) and area under the curve (AUC) are roughly dose-proportional up to 200 mg twice daily; at higher doses there are less than proportional increases in C max and AUC ( see Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. ). Absolute bioavailability studies have not been conducted. With multiple dosing, steady-state conditions are reached on or before Day 5. The pharmacokinetic parameters of celecoxib in a group of healthy subjects are shown in Table 4. Table 4. Summary of Single Dose (200 mg) Disposition Kinetics of Celecoxib in Healthy Subjects Subjects under fasting conditions (n=36, 19–52 yrs.) Mean (%CV) PK Parameter Values C max , ng/mL T max , hr Effective t 1/2 , hr V ss /F, L CL/F, L/hr 705 (38) 2.8 (37) 11.2 (31) 429 (34) 27.7 (28) Food Effects When CELEBREX capsules were taken with a high fat meal, peak plasma levels were delayed for about 1 to 2 hours with an increase in total absorption (AUC) of 10% to 20%. Under fasting conditions, at doses above 200 mg, there is less than a proportional increase in C max and AUC, which is thought to be due to the low solubility of the drug in aqueous media. Coadministration of CELEBREX with an aluminum- and magnesium-containing antacids resulted in a reduction in plasma celecoxib concentrations with a decrease of 37% in C max and 10% in AUC. CELEBREX, at doses up to 200 mg twice daily, can be administered without regard to timing of meals. Higher doses (400 mg twice daily) should be administered with food to improve absorption. In healthy adult volunteers, the overall systemic exposure (AUC) of celecoxib was equivalent when celecoxib was administered as intact capsule or capsule contents sprinkled on applesauce. There were no significant alterations in C max , T max or t 1/2 after administration of capsule contents on applesauce [ see Dosage and Administration (2) ]. Distribution In healthy subjects, celecoxib is highly protein bound (~97%) within the clinical dose range. In vitro studies indicate that celecoxib binds primarily to albumin and, to a lesser extent, α 1 -acid glycoprotein. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state (V ss /F) is approximately 400 L, suggesting extensive distribution into the tissues. Celecoxib is not preferentially bound to red blood cells. Elimination Metabolism Celecoxib metabolism is primarily mediated via CYP2C9. Three metabolites, a primary alcohol, the corresponding carboxylic acid and its glucuronide conjugate, have been identified in human plasma. These metabolites are inactive as COX-1 or COX-2 inhibitors. Excretion Celecoxib is eliminated predominantly by hepatic metabolism with little (<3%) unchanged drug recovered in the urine and feces. Following a single oral dose of radiolabeled drug, approximately 57% of the dose was excreted in the feces and 27% was excreted into the urine. The primary metabolite in both urine and feces was the carboxylic acid metabolite (73% of dose) with low amounts of the glucuronide also appearing in the urine. It appears that the low solubility of the drug prolongs the absorption process making terminal half-life (t 1/2 ) determinations more variable. The effective half-life is approximately 11 hours under fasted conditions. The apparent plasma clearance (CL/F) is about 500 mL/min. Specific Populations Geriatric At steady state, elderly subjects (over 65 years old) had a 40% higher C max and a 50% higher AUC compared to the young subjects. In elderly females, celecoxib C max and AUC are higher than those for elderly males, but these increases are predominantly due to lower body weight in elderly females. Dose adjustment in the elderly is not generally necessary. However, for patients of less than 50 kg in body weight, initiate therapy at the lowest recommended dose [ see Use in Specific Populations (8.5) ]. Pediatric The steady state pharmacokinetics of celecoxib administered as an investigational oral suspension was evaluated in 152 JRA patients 2 years to 17 years of age weighing ≥10 kg with pauciarticular or polyarticular course JRA and in patients with systemic onset JRA. Population pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the oral clearance (unadjusted for body weight) of celecoxib increases less than proportionally to increasing weight, with 10 kg and 25 kg patients predicted to have 40% and 24% lower clearance, respectively, compared with a 70 kg adult RA patient. Twice-daily administration of 50 mg capsules to JRA patients weighing ≥12 to ≤25 kg and 100 mg capsules to JRA patients weighing >25 kg should achieve plasma concentrations similar to those observed in a clinical trial that demonstrated the non-inferiority of celecoxib to naproxen 7.5 mg/kg twice daily [ see Dosage and Administration (2.4) ]. Celecoxib has not been studied in JRA patients under the age of 2 years, in patients with body weight less than 10 kg (22 lbs), or beyond 24 weeks. Race Meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic studies has suggested an approximately 40% higher AUC of celecoxib in Blacks compared to Caucasians. The cause and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. Hepatic Impairment A pharmacokinetic study in subjects with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) and moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment has shown that steady-state celecoxib AUC is increased about 40% and 180%, respectively, above that seen in healthy control subjects. Therefore, the daily recommended dose of CELEBREX capsules should be reduced by approximately 50% in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment. Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) have not been studied. The use of CELEBREX in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended [ see Dosage and Administration (2.7) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6) ]. Renal Impairment In a cross-study comparison, celecoxib AUC was approximately 40% lower in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (GFR 35–60 mL/min) than that seen in subjects with normal renal function. No significant relationship was found between GFR and celecoxib clearance. Patients with severe renal insufficiency have not been studied. Similar to other NSAIDs, CELEBREX is not recommended in patients with severe renal insufficiency [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ]. Drug Interaction Studies In vitro studies indicate that celecoxib is not an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2C9, 2C19 or 3A4. In vivo studies have shown the following : Aspirin When NSAIDs were administered with aspirin, the protein binding of NSAIDs were reduced, although the clearance of free NSAID was not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known. See Table 3 for clinically significant drug interactions of NSAIDs with aspirin [ see Drug Interactions (7) ] . Lithium In a study conducted in healthy subjects, mean steady-state lithium plasma levels increased approximately 17% in subjects receiving lithium 450 mg twice daily with CELEBREX 200 mg twice daily as compared to subjects receiving lithium alone [ see Drug Interactions (7) ]. Fluconazole Concomitant administration of fluconazole at 200 mg once daily resulted in a two-fold increase in celecoxib plasma concentration. This increase is due to the inhibition of celecoxib metabolism via P450 2C9 by fluconazole [ see Drug Interactions (7) ]. Other Drugs The effects of celecoxib on the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of glyburide, ketoconazole, [ see Drug Interactions (7) ], phenytoin, and tolbutamide have been studied in vivo and clinically important interactions have not been found. 12.5 Pharmacogenomics CYP2C9 activity is reduced in individuals with genetic polymorphisms that lead to reduced enzyme activity, such as those homozygous for the CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms. Limited data from 4 published reports that included a total of 8 subjects with the homozygous CYP2C9*3/*3 genotype showed celecoxib systemic levels that were 3- to 7-fold higher in these subjects compared to subjects with CYP2C9*1/*1 or *I/*3 genotypes. The pharmacokinetics of celecoxib have not been evaluated in subjects with other CYP2C9 polymorphisms, such as *2, *5, *6, *9 and *11. It is estimated that the frequency of the homozygous *3/*3 genotype is 0.3% to 1.0% in various ethnic groups [ see Dosage and Administration (2.7) , Use in Specific Populations (8.8) ].

    Clinical Pharmacology Table

    Table 4. Summary of Single Dose (200 mg) Disposition Kinetics of Celecoxib in Healthy SubjectsSubjects under fasting conditions (n=36, 19–52 yrs.)
    Mean (%CV) PK Parameter Values
    Cmax, ng/mLTmax, hrEffective t1/2, hrVss/F, LCL/F, L/hr

    705 (38)

    2.8 (37)

    11.2 (31)

    429 (34)

    27.7 (28)

    Mechanism Of Action

    12.1 Mechanism of Action Celecoxib has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. The mechanism of action of CELEBREX is believed to be due to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis, primarily via inhibition of COX-2. Celecoxib is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis in vitro . Celecoxib concentrations reached during therapy have produced in vivo effects. Prostaglandins sensitize afferent nerves and potentiate the action of bradykinin in inducing pain in animal models. Prostaglandins are mediators of inflammation. Since celecoxib is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, its mode of action may be due to a decrease of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues.

    Pharmacodynamics

    12.2 Pharmacodynamics Platelets In clinical trials using normal volunteers, CELEBREX at single doses up to 800 mg and multiple doses of 600 mg twice daily for up to 7 days duration (higher than recommended therapeutic doses) had no effect on reduction of platelet aggregation or increase in bleeding time. Because of its lack of platelet effects, CELEBREX is not a substitute for aspirin for cardiovascular prophylaxis. It is not known if there are any effects of CELEBREX on platelets that may contribute to the increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic adverse events associated with the use of CELEBREX. Fluid Retention Inhibition of PGE2 synthesis may lead to sodium and water retention through increased reabsorption in the renal medullary thick ascending loop of Henle and perhaps other segments of the distal nephron. In the collecting ducts, PGE2 appears to inhibit water reabsorption by counteracting the action of antidiuretic hormone.

    Pharmacokinetics

    12.3 Pharmacokinetics Celecoxib exhibits dose-proportional increase in exposure after oral administration up to 200 mg twice daily and less than proportional increase at higher doses. It has extensive distribution and high protein binding. It is primarily metabolized by CYP2C9 with a half-life of approximately 11 hours. Absorption Peak plasma levels of celecoxib occur approximately 3 hours after an oral dose. Under fasting conditions, both peak plasma levels (C max ) and area under the curve (AUC) are roughly dose-proportional up to 200 mg twice daily; at higher doses there are less than proportional increases in C max and AUC ( see Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. ). Absolute bioavailability studies have not been conducted. With multiple dosing, steady-state conditions are reached on or before Day 5. The pharmacokinetic parameters of celecoxib in a group of healthy subjects are shown in Table 4. Table 4. Summary of Single Dose (200 mg) Disposition Kinetics of Celecoxib in Healthy Subjects Subjects under fasting conditions (n=36, 19–52 yrs.) Mean (%CV) PK Parameter Values C max , ng/mL T max , hr Effective t 1/2 , hr V ss /F, L CL/F, L/hr 705 (38) 2.8 (37) 11.2 (31) 429 (34) 27.7 (28) Food Effects When CELEBREX capsules were taken with a high fat meal, peak plasma levels were delayed for about 1 to 2 hours with an increase in total absorption (AUC) of 10% to 20%. Under fasting conditions, at doses above 200 mg, there is less than a proportional increase in C max and AUC, which is thought to be due to the low solubility of the drug in aqueous media. Coadministration of CELEBREX with an aluminum- and magnesium-containing antacids resulted in a reduction in plasma celecoxib concentrations with a decrease of 37% in C max and 10% in AUC. CELEBREX, at doses up to 200 mg twice daily, can be administered without regard to timing of meals. Higher doses (400 mg twice daily) should be administered with food to improve absorption. In healthy adult volunteers, the overall systemic exposure (AUC) of celecoxib was equivalent when celecoxib was administered as intact capsule or capsule contents sprinkled on applesauce. There were no significant alterations in C max , T max or t 1/2 after administration of capsule contents on applesauce [ see Dosage and Administration (2) ]. Distribution In healthy subjects, celecoxib is highly protein bound (~97%) within the clinical dose range. In vitro studies indicate that celecoxib binds primarily to albumin and, to a lesser extent, α 1 -acid glycoprotein. The apparent volume of distribution at steady state (V ss /F) is approximately 400 L, suggesting extensive distribution into the tissues. Celecoxib is not preferentially bound to red blood cells. Elimination Metabolism Celecoxib metabolism is primarily mediated via CYP2C9. Three metabolites, a primary alcohol, the corresponding carboxylic acid and its glucuronide conjugate, have been identified in human plasma. These metabolites are inactive as COX-1 or COX-2 inhibitors. Excretion Celecoxib is eliminated predominantly by hepatic metabolism with little (<3%) unchanged drug recovered in the urine and feces. Following a single oral dose of radiolabeled drug, approximately 57% of the dose was excreted in the feces and 27% was excreted into the urine. The primary metabolite in both urine and feces was the carboxylic acid metabolite (73% of dose) with low amounts of the glucuronide also appearing in the urine. It appears that the low solubility of the drug prolongs the absorption process making terminal half-life (t 1/2 ) determinations more variable. The effective half-life is approximately 11 hours under fasted conditions. The apparent plasma clearance (CL/F) is about 500 mL/min. Specific Populations Geriatric At steady state, elderly subjects (over 65 years old) had a 40% higher C max and a 50% higher AUC compared to the young subjects. In elderly females, celecoxib C max and AUC are higher than those for elderly males, but these increases are predominantly due to lower body weight in elderly females. Dose adjustment in the elderly is not generally necessary. However, for patients of less than 50 kg in body weight, initiate therapy at the lowest recommended dose [ see Use in Specific Populations (8.5) ]. Pediatric The steady state pharmacokinetics of celecoxib administered as an investigational oral suspension was evaluated in 152 JRA patients 2 years to 17 years of age weighing ≥10 kg with pauciarticular or polyarticular course JRA and in patients with systemic onset JRA. Population pharmacokinetic analysis indicated that the oral clearance (unadjusted for body weight) of celecoxib increases less than proportionally to increasing weight, with 10 kg and 25 kg patients predicted to have 40% and 24% lower clearance, respectively, compared with a 70 kg adult RA patient. Twice-daily administration of 50 mg capsules to JRA patients weighing ≥12 to ≤25 kg and 100 mg capsules to JRA patients weighing >25 kg should achieve plasma concentrations similar to those observed in a clinical trial that demonstrated the non-inferiority of celecoxib to naproxen 7.5 mg/kg twice daily [ see Dosage and Administration (2.4) ]. Celecoxib has not been studied in JRA patients under the age of 2 years, in patients with body weight less than 10 kg (22 lbs), or beyond 24 weeks. Race Meta-analysis of pharmacokinetic studies has suggested an approximately 40% higher AUC of celecoxib in Blacks compared to Caucasians. The cause and clinical significance of this finding is unknown. Hepatic Impairment A pharmacokinetic study in subjects with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) and moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment has shown that steady-state celecoxib AUC is increased about 40% and 180%, respectively, above that seen in healthy control subjects. Therefore, the daily recommended dose of CELEBREX capsules should be reduced by approximately 50% in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment. Patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) have not been studied. The use of CELEBREX in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended [ see Dosage and Administration (2.7) and Use in Specific Populations (8.6) ]. Renal Impairment In a cross-study comparison, celecoxib AUC was approximately 40% lower in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (GFR 35–60 mL/min) than that seen in subjects with normal renal function. No significant relationship was found between GFR and celecoxib clearance. Patients with severe renal insufficiency have not been studied. Similar to other NSAIDs, CELEBREX is not recommended in patients with severe renal insufficiency [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) ]. Drug Interaction Studies In vitro studies indicate that celecoxib is not an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2C9, 2C19 or 3A4. In vivo studies have shown the following : Aspirin When NSAIDs were administered with aspirin, the protein binding of NSAIDs were reduced, although the clearance of free NSAID was not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known. See Table 3 for clinically significant drug interactions of NSAIDs with aspirin [ see Drug Interactions (7) ] . Lithium In a study conducted in healthy subjects, mean steady-state lithium plasma levels increased approximately 17% in subjects receiving lithium 450 mg twice daily with CELEBREX 200 mg twice daily as compared to subjects receiving lithium alone [ see Drug Interactions (7) ]. Fluconazole Concomitant administration of fluconazole at 200 mg once daily resulted in a two-fold increase in celecoxib plasma concentration. This increase is due to the inhibition of celecoxib metabolism via P450 2C9 by fluconazole [ see Drug Interactions (7) ]. Other Drugs The effects of celecoxib on the pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics of glyburide, ketoconazole, [ see Drug Interactions (7) ], phenytoin, and tolbutamide have been studied in vivo and clinically important interactions have not been found.

    Pharmacokinetics Table

    Table 4. Summary of Single Dose (200 mg) Disposition Kinetics of Celecoxib in Healthy SubjectsSubjects under fasting conditions (n=36, 19–52 yrs.)
    Mean (%CV) PK Parameter Values
    Cmax, ng/mLTmax, hrEffective t1/2, hrVss/F, LCL/F, L/hr

    705 (38)

    2.8 (37)

    11.2 (31)

    429 (34)

    27.7 (28)

    Effective Time

    20210415

    Version

    30

    Dosage Forms And Strengths

    3. DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS CELEBREX (celecoxib) capsules: 50 mg white, with reverse printed white on red band of body and cap with markings of 7767 on the cap and 50 on the body. 100 mg white, with reverse printed white on blue band of body and cap with markings of 7767 on the cap and 100 on the body. 200 mg white, with reverse printed white on gold band with markings of 7767 on the cap and 200 on the body. 400 mg white, with reverse printed white on green band with markings of 7767 on the cap and 400 on the body. CELEBREX (celecoxib) capsules: 50 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, and 400 mg ( 3 )

    Spl Product Data Elements

    CELEBREX Celecoxib CELECOXIB CELECOXIB CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM GELATIN, UNSPECIFIED LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE MAGNESIUM STEARATE POVIDONE, UNSPECIFIED SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE 7767;50 CELEBREX Celecoxib CELECOXIB CELECOXIB CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM GELATIN, UNSPECIFIED LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE MAGNESIUM STEARATE POVIDONE, UNSPECIFIED SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE 7767;100 CELEBREX Celecoxib CELECOXIB CELECOXIB CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM GELATIN, UNSPECIFIED LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE MAGNESIUM STEARATE POVIDONE, UNSPECIFIED SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE 7767;200 CELEBREX Celecoxib CELECOXIB CELECOXIB CROSCARMELLOSE SODIUM GELATIN, UNSPECIFIED LACTOSE MONOHYDRATE MAGNESIUM STEARATE POVIDONE, UNSPECIFIED SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE 7767;400

    Animal Pharmacology And Or Toxicology

    13.2 Animal Toxicology An increase in the incidence of background findings of spermatocele with or without secondary changes such as epididymal hypospermia as well as minimal to slight dilation of the seminiferous tubules was seen in the juvenile rat. These reproductive findings while apparently treatment-related did not increase in incidence or severity with dose and may indicate an exacerbation of a spontaneous condition. Similar reproductive findings were not observed in studies of juvenile or adult dogs or in adult rats treated with celecoxib. The clinical significance of this observation is unknown.

    Carcinogenesis And Mutagenesis And Impairment Of Fertility

    13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenesis Celecoxib was not carcinogenic in Sprague-Dawley rats given oral doses up to 200 mg/kg for males and 10 mg/kg for females (approximately 2-to 4-times the human exposure as measured by the AUC 0–24 at 200 mg twice daily) or in mice given oral doses up to 25 mg/kg for males and 50 mg/kg for females (approximately equal to human exposure as measured by the AUC 0–24 at 200 mg twice daily) for two years. Mutagenesis Celecoxib was not mutagenic in an Ames test and a mutation assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, nor clastogenic in a chromosome aberration assay in CHO cells and an in vivo micronucleus test in rat bone marrow. Impairment of Fertility Celecoxib had no effect on male or female fertility or male reproductive function in rats at oral doses up to 600 mg/kg/day (approximately 11-times human exposure at 200 mg twice daily based on the AUC 0–24 ). At ≥50 mg/kg/day (approximately 6-times human exposure based on the AUC 0–24 at 200 mg twice daily) there was increased preimplantation loss.

    Nonclinical Toxicology

    13. NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY 13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Carcinogenesis Celecoxib was not carcinogenic in Sprague-Dawley rats given oral doses up to 200 mg/kg for males and 10 mg/kg for females (approximately 2-to 4-times the human exposure as measured by the AUC 0–24 at 200 mg twice daily) or in mice given oral doses up to 25 mg/kg for males and 50 mg/kg for females (approximately equal to human exposure as measured by the AUC 0–24 at 200 mg twice daily) for two years. Mutagenesis Celecoxib was not mutagenic in an Ames test and a mutation assay in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, nor clastogenic in a chromosome aberration assay in CHO cells and an in vivo micronucleus test in rat bone marrow. Impairment of Fertility Celecoxib had no effect on male or female fertility or male reproductive function in rats at oral doses up to 600 mg/kg/day (approximately 11-times human exposure at 200 mg twice daily based on the AUC 0–24 ). At ≥50 mg/kg/day (approximately 6-times human exposure based on the AUC 0–24 at 200 mg twice daily) there was increased preimplantation loss. 13.2 Animal Toxicology An increase in the incidence of background findings of spermatocele with or without secondary changes such as epididymal hypospermia as well as minimal to slight dilation of the seminiferous tubules was seen in the juvenile rat. These reproductive findings while apparently treatment-related did not increase in incidence or severity with dose and may indicate an exacerbation of a spontaneous condition. Similar reproductive findings were not observed in studies of juvenile or adult dogs or in adult rats treated with celecoxib. The clinical significance of this observation is unknown.

    Application Number

    NDA020998

    Brand Name

    CELEBREX

    Generic Name

    Celecoxib

    Product Ndc

    0025-1520

    Product Type

    HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG

    Route

    ORAL

    Package Label Principal Display Panel

    PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 50 mg Bottle Label ALWAYS DISPENSE WITH MEDICATION GUIDE NDC 0025-1515-01 Pfizer Celebrex ® celecoxib capsules 50 mg 60 Capsules Rx only PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 50 mg Bottle Label

    Recent Major Changes

    Warnings and Precautions ( 5.10 ) 04/2021 Warnings and Precautions ( 5.11 ) 04/2021

    Recent Major Changes Table

    Warnings and Precautions (5.10)

    04/2021

    Warnings and Precautions (5.11)

    04/2021

    Spl Unclassified Section

    This product's labeling may have been updated. For the most recent prescribing information, please visit www.pfizer.com. LAB-0036-20.0 Logo

    Information For Patients

    17. PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide) that accompanies each prescription dispensed. Inform patients, families, or their caregivers of the following information before initiating therapy with CELEBREX and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy. Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of cardiovascular thrombotic events, including chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, or slurring of speech, and to report any of these symptoms to their health care provider immediately [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation Advise patients to report symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis to their health care provider. In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, inform patients of the increased risk for and the signs and symptoms of GI bleeding [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ]. Hepatotoxicity Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, diarrhea jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and "flu-like" symptoms). If these occur, instruct patients to stop CELEBREX and seek immediate medical therapy [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.3) , Use in Specific Populations (8.6) ]. Heart Failure and Edema Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of congestive heart failure including shortness of breath, unexplained weight gain, or edema and to contact their healthcare provider if such symptoms occur [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) ]. Anaphylactic Reactions Inform patients of the signs of an anaphylactic reaction (e.g., difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). Instruct patients to seek immediate emergency help if these occur [ see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.7) ]. Serious Skin Reactions, including DRESS Advise patients to stop taking CELEBREX immediately if they develop any type of rash or fever and to contact their healthcare provider as soon as possible [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.9 , 5.10) ]. Female Fertility Advise females of reproductive potential who desire pregnancy that NSAIDs, including CELEBREX, may be associated with a reversible delay in ovulation [ see Use in Specific Populations (8.3) ]. Fetal Toxicity Inform pregnant women to avoid use of CELEBREX and other NSAIDs starting at 30 weeks of gestation because of the risk of the premature closing of the fetal ductus arteriosus. If treatment with CELEBREX is needed for a pregnant woman between about 20 to 30 weeks gestation, advise her that she may need to be monitored for oligohydramnios, if treatment continues for longer than 48 hours [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.11) and Use in Specific Populations (8.1) ]. Avoid Concomitant Use of NSAIDs Inform patients that the concomitant use of CELEBREX with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) is not recommended due to the increased risk of gastrointestinal toxicity, and little or no increase in efficacy [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Drug Interactions (7) ]. Alert patients that NSAIDs may be present in "over the counter" medications for treatment of colds, fever, or insomnia. Use of NSAIDS and Low-Dose Aspirin Inform patients not to use low-dose aspirin concomitantly with CELEBREX until they talk to their healthcare provider [ see Drug Interactions (7) ].

    Spl Medguide

    This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Revised April 2021 Medication Guide for Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)? NSAIDs can cause serious side effects, including: • Increased risk of a heart attack or stroke that can lead to death. This risk may happen early in treatment and may increase: • with increasing doses of NSAIDs • with longer use of NSAIDs Do not take NSAIDs right before or after a heart surgery called a "coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)." Avoid taking NSAIDs after a recent heart attack, unless your healthcare provider tells you to. You may have an increased risk of another heart attack if you take NSAIDs after a recent heart attack. • Increased risk of bleeding, ulcers, and tears (perforation) of the esophagus (tube leading from the mouth to the stomach), stomach and intestines: • anytime during use • without warning symptoms • that may cause death • The risk of getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with: • past history of stomach ulcers, or stomach or intestinal bleeding with use of NSAIDs • taking medicines called "corticosteroids", "antiplatelet drugs", "anticoagulants", "SSRIs" or "SNRIs" • increasing doses of NSAIDs • longer use of NSAIDs • smoking • drinking alcohol • older age • poor health • advanced liver disease • bleeding problems • NSAIDs should only be used: • exactly as prescribed • at the lowest dose possible for your treatment • for the shortest time needed What are NSAIDs? NSAIDs are used to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as different types of arthritis, menstrual cramps, and other types of short-term pain. Who should not take NSAIDs? Do not take NSAIDs: • if you have had an asthma attack, hives, or other allergic reaction with aspirin or any other NSAIDs. • right before or after heart bypass surgery. Before taking NSAIDS, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you: • have liver or kidney problems • have high blood pressure • have asthma • are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Taking NSAIDs at about 20 weeks of pregnancy or later may harm your unborn baby. If you need to take NSAIDs for more than 2 days when you are between 20 and 30 weeks of pregnancy, your healthcare provider may need to monitor the amount of fluid in your womb around your baby. You should not take NSAIDs after about 30 weeks of pregnancy • are breastfeeding or plan to breast feed . Tell your healthcare provider about all of the medicines you take, including prescription or over-the-counter medicines, vitamins or herbal supplements. NSAIDs and some other medicines can interact with each other and cause serious side effects. Do not start taking any new medicine without talking to your healthcare provider first. What are the possible side effects of NSAIDs? NSAIDs can cause serious side effects, including: See "Error! Hyperlink reference not valid.? • new or worse high blood pressure • heart failure • liver problems including liver failure • kidney problems including kidney failure • low red blood cells (anemia) • life-threatening skin reactions • life-threatening allergic reactions • Other side effects of NSAIDs include: stomach pain, constipation, diarrhea, gas, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness. Get emergency help right away if you get any of the following symptoms: • shortness of breath or trouble breathing • chest pain • weakness in one part or side of your body • slurred speech • swelling of the face or throat Stop taking your NSAID and call your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following symptoms: • nausea • more tired or weaker than usual • diarrhea • itching • your skin or eyes look yellow • indigestion or stomach pain • flu-like symptoms • vomit blood • there is blood in your bowel movement or it is black and sticky like tar • unusual weight gain • skin rash or blisters with fever • swelling of the arms, legs, hands and feet If you take too much of your NSAID, call your healthcare provider or get medical help right away. These are not all the possible side effects of NSAIDs. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist about NSAIDs. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. Other information about NSAIDs • Aspirin is an NSAID but it does not increase the chance of a heart attack. Aspirin can cause bleeding in the brain, stomach, and intestines. Aspirin can also cause ulcers in the stomach and intestines. • Some NSAIDs are sold in lower doses without a prescription (over-the counter). Talk to your healthcare provider before using over-the-counter NSAIDs for more than 10 days. General information about the safe and effective use of NSAIDs Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use NSAIDs for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give NSAIDs to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them. If you would like more information about NSAIDs, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about NSAIDs that is written for health professionals. This product's label may have been updated. For current full prescribing information, please visit www.pfizer.com. LAB-0792-3.0 Logo

    Spl Medguide Table

    This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
    Revised April 2021

    Medication Guide for Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

    What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)? NSAIDs can cause serious side effects, including:

  • Increased risk of a heart attack or stroke that can lead to death. This risk may happen early in treatment and may increase:
  • with increasing doses of NSAIDs
  • with longer use of NSAIDs
  • Do not take NSAIDs right before or after a heart surgery called a "coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)." Avoid taking NSAIDs after a recent heart attack, unless your healthcare provider tells you to. You may have an increased risk of another heart attack if you take NSAIDs after a recent heart attack.

  • Increased risk of bleeding, ulcers, and tears (perforation) of the esophagus (tube leading from the mouth to the stomach), stomach and intestines:
  • anytime during use
  • without warning symptoms
  • that may cause death
  • The risk of getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with:
  • past history of stomach ulcers, or stomach or intestinal bleeding with use of NSAIDs
  • taking medicines called "corticosteroids", "antiplatelet drugs", "anticoagulants", "SSRIs" or "SNRIs"
  • increasing doses of NSAIDs
  • longer use of NSAIDs
  • smoking
  • drinking alcohol
  • older age
  • poor health
  • advanced liver disease
  • bleeding problems
  • NSAIDs should only be used:
  • exactly as prescribed
  • at the lowest dose possible for your treatment
  • for the shortest time needed
  • What are NSAIDs? NSAIDs are used to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as different types of arthritis, menstrual cramps, and other types of short-term pain.

    Who should not take NSAIDs? Do not take NSAIDs:

  • if you have had an asthma attack, hives, or other allergic reaction with aspirin or any other NSAIDs.
  • right before or after heart bypass surgery.
  • Before taking NSAIDS, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:

  • have liver or kidney problems
  • have high blood pressure
  • have asthma
  • are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Taking NSAIDs at about 20 weeks of pregnancy or later may harm your unborn baby. If you need to take NSAIDs for more than 2 days when you are between 20 and 30 weeks of pregnancy, your healthcare provider may need to monitor the amount of fluid in your womb around your baby. You should not take NSAIDs after about 30 weeks of pregnancy
  • are breastfeeding or plan to breast feed.
  • Tell your healthcare provider about all of the medicines you take, including prescription or over-the-counter medicines, vitamins or herbal supplements. NSAIDs and some other medicines can interact with each other and cause serious side effects. Do not start taking any new medicine without talking to your healthcare provider first.

    What are the possible side effects of NSAIDs? NSAIDs can cause serious side effects, including: See "Error! Hyperlink reference not valid.?

  • new or worse high blood pressure
  • heart failure
  • liver problems including liver failure
  • kidney problems including kidney failure
  • low red blood cells (anemia)
  • life-threatening skin reactions
  • life-threatening allergic reactions
  • Other side effects of NSAIDs include: stomach pain, constipation, diarrhea, gas, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness.
  • Get emergency help right away if you get any of the following symptoms:

  • shortness of breath or trouble breathing
  • chest pain
  • weakness in one part or side of your body
  • slurred speech
  • swelling of the face or throat
  • Stop taking your NSAID and call your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following symptoms:

  • nausea
  • more tired or weaker than usual
  • diarrhea
  • itching
  • your skin or eyes look yellow
  • indigestion or stomach pain
  • flu-like symptoms
  • vomit blood
  • there is blood in your bowel movement or it is black and sticky like tar
  • unusual weight gain
  • skin rash or blisters with fever
  • swelling of the arms, legs, hands and feet
  • If you take too much of your NSAID, call your healthcare provider or get medical help right away. These are not all the possible side effects of NSAIDs. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist about NSAIDs. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

    Other information about NSAIDs

  • Aspirin is an NSAID but it does not increase the chance of a heart attack. Aspirin can cause bleeding in the brain, stomach, and intestines. Aspirin can also cause ulcers in the stomach and intestines.
  • Some NSAIDs are sold in lower doses without a prescription (over-the counter). Talk to your healthcare provider before using over-the-counter NSAIDs for more than 10 days.
  • General information about the safe and effective use of NSAIDs Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use NSAIDs for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give NSAIDs to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them. If you would like more information about NSAIDs, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about NSAIDs that is written for health professionals. This product's label may have been updated. For current full prescribing information, please visit www.pfizer.com.

    LAB-0792-3.0

    Clinical Studies

    14. CLINICAL STUDIES 14.1 Osteoarthritis CELEBREX has demonstrated significant reduction in joint pain compared to placebo. CELEBREX was evaluated for treatment of the signs and the symptoms of OA of the knee and hip in placebo- and active-controlled clinical trials of up to 12 weeks duration. In patients with OA, treatment with CELEBREX 100 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily resulted in improvement in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities) osteoarthritis index, a composite of pain, stiffness, and functional measures in OA. In three 12-week studies of pain accompanying OA flare, CELEBREX doses of 100 mg twice daily and 200 mg twice daily provided significant reduction of pain within 24 to 48 hours of initiation of dosing. At doses of 100 mg twice daily or 200 mg twice daily the effectiveness of CELEBREX was shown to be similar to that of naproxen 500 mg twice daily. Doses of 200 mg twice daily provided no additional benefit above that seen with 100 mg twice daily. A total daily dose of 200 mg has been shown to be equally effective whether administered as 100 mg twice daily or 200 mg once daily. 14.2 Rheumatoid Arthritis CELEBREX has demonstrated significant reduction in joint tenderness/pain and joint swelling compared to placebo. CELEBREX was evaluated for treatment of the signs and symptoms of RA in placebo- and active-controlled clinical trials of up to 24 weeks in duration. CELEBREX was shown to be superior to placebo in these studies, using the ACR20 Responder Index, a composite of clinical, laboratory, and functional measures in RA. CELEBREX doses of 100 mg twice daily and 200 mg twice daily were similar in effectiveness and both were comparable to naproxen 500 mg twice daily. Although CELEBREX 100 mg twice daily and 200 mg twice daily provided similar overall effectiveness, some patients derived additional benefit from the 200 mg twice daily dose. Doses of 400 mg twice daily provided no additional benefit above that seen with 100 mg to 200 mg twice daily . 14.3 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (NCT00652925) In a 12-week, randomized, double-blind active-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter, non-inferiority study, patients from 2 years to 17 years of age with pauciarticular, polyarticular course JRA or systemic onset JRA (with currently inactive systemic features), received one of the following treatments: celecoxib 3 mg/kg (to a maximum of 150 mg) twice daily; celecoxib 6 mg/kg (to a maximum of 300 mg) twice daily; or naproxen 7.5 mg/kg (to a maximum of 500 mg) twice daily. The response rates were based upon the JRA Definition of Improvement greater than or equal to 30% (JRA DOI 30) criterion, which is a composite of clinical, laboratory, and functional measures of JRA. The JRA DOI 30 response rates at week 12 were 69%, 80% and 67% in the celecoxib 3 mg/kg twice daily, celecoxib 6 mg/kg twice daily, and naproxen 7.5 mg/kg twice daily treatment groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of CELEBREX for JRA have not been studied beyond six months. The long-term cardiovascular toxicity in children exposed to CELEBREX has not been evaluated and it is unknown if the long-term risk may be similar to that seen in adults exposed to CELEBREX or other COX-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs [ see Boxed Warning , Warnings and Precautions (5.1 , 5.15) ]. 14.4 Ankylosing Spondylitis CELEBREX was evaluated in AS patients in two placebo- and active-controlled clinical trials of 6 and 12 weeks duration. CELEBREX at doses of 100 mg twice daily, 200 mg once daily and 400 mg once daily was shown to be statistically superior to placebo in these studies for all three co-primary efficacy measures assessing global pain intensity (Visual Analogue Scale), global disease activity (Visual Analogue Scale) and functional impairment (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index). In the 12-week study, there was no difference in the extent of improvement between the 200 mg and 400 mg CELEBREX doses in a comparison of mean change from baseline, but there was a greater percentage of patients who responded to CELEBREX 400 mg, 53%, than to CELEBREX 200 mg, 44%, using the Assessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis response criteria (ASAS 20). The ASAS 20 defines a responder as improvement from baseline of at least 20% and an absolute improvement of at least 10 mm, on a 0 mm to 100 mm scale, in at least three of the four following domains: patient global pain, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, and inflammation. The responder analysis also demonstrated no change in the responder rates beyond 6 weeks. 14.5 Analgesia, including Primary Dysmenorrhea In acute analgesic models of post-oral surgery pain, post-orthopedic surgical pain, and primary dysmenorrhea, CELEBREX relieved pain that was rated by patients as moderate to severe. Single doses [ see Dosage and Administration (2.6) ] of CELEBREX provided pain relief within 60 minutes. 14.6 Cardiovascular Outcomes Trial: Prospective Randomized Evaluation of Celecoxib Integrated Safety vs. Ibuprofen Or Naproxen (PRECISION; NCT00346216) Design The PRECISION trial was a double-blind randomized controlled trial of cardiovascular safety in OA and RA patients with or at high risk for cardiovascular disease comparing celecoxib with naproxen and ibuprofen. Patients were randomized to a starting dose of 100 mg twice daily of celecoxib, 600 mg three times daily of ibuprofen, or 375 mg twice daily of naproxen, with the option of escalating the dose as needed for pain management. Based on labeled doses, OA patients randomized to celecoxib could not dose escalate. The primary endpoint, the Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration (APTC) composite, was an independently adjudicated composite of cardiovascular death (including hemorrhagic death), non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke with 80% power to evaluate non-inferiority. All patients were prescribed open-label esomeprazole (20–40 mg) for gastroprotection. Treatment randomization was stratified by baseline low-dose aspirin use. Additionally, there was a 4-month substudy assessing the effects of the three drugs on blood pressure as measured by ambulatory monitoring. Results Among subjects with OA, only 0.2% (17/7259) escalated celecoxib to the 200 mg twice daily dose, whereas 54.7% (3946/7208) escalated ibuprofen to 800 mg three times daily, and 54.8% (3937/7178) escalated naproxen to the 500 mg twice daily dose. Among subjects with RA, 55.7% (453/813) escalated celecoxib to the 200 mg twice daily dose, 56.5% (470/832) escalated ibuprofen to 800 mg three times daily, and 54.6% (432/791) escalated naproxen to the 500 mg twice daily dose; however, the RA population accounted for only 10% of the trial population. Because relatively few celecoxib patients overall (5.8% [470/8072]) dose-escalated to 200 mg twice daily, the results of the PRECISION trial are not suitable for determining the relative CV safety of celecoxib at 200 mg twice daily compared to ibuprofen and naproxen at the doses taken. Primary Endpoint The trial had two prespecified analysis populations: • Intent-to-treat population (ITT): Comprised of all randomized subjects followed for a maximum of 30 months • Modified Intent-to-treat population (mITT): Comprised of all randomized subjects who received at least one dose of study medication and had at least one post-baseline visit followed until the earlier of treatment discontinuation plus 30 days, or 43 months Celecoxib, at the 100 mg twice daily dose, as compared with either naproxen or ibuprofen at the doses taken, met all four prespecified non-inferiority criteria (p<0.001 for non-inferiority in both comparisons) for the APTC endpoint, a composite of cardiovascular death (including hemorrhagic death), non-fatal myocardial infarction, and non-fatal stroke [ see Table 5 ]. Non-inferiority was prespecified as a hazard ratio (HR) of ≤1.12 in both ITT and mITT analyses, and upper 95% CI of ≤1.33 for ITT analysis and ≤1.40 for mITT analysis. The primary analysis results for ITT and mITT are described in Table 5. Table 5. Primary Analysis of the Adjudicated APTC Composite Endpoint Intent-To-Treat Analysis (ITT, through month 30) Celecoxib Ibuprofen Naproxen N 8,072 8,040 7,969 Subjects with Events 188 (2.3%) 218 (2.7%) 201 (2.5%) Pairwise Comparison Celecoxib vs. Naproxen Celecoxib vs. Ibuprofen Ibuprofen vs. Naproxen HR (95% CI) 0.93 (0.76, 1.13) 0.86 (0.70, 1.04) 1.08 (0.89, 1.31) Modified Intent-To-Treat Analysis (mITT, on treatment plus 30 days, through month 43) Celecoxib Ibuprofen Naproxen N 8,030 7,990 7,933 Subjects with Events 134 (1.7%) 155 (1.9%) 144 (1.8%) Pairwise Comparison Celecoxib vs. Naproxen Celecoxib vs. Ibuprofen Ibuprofen vs. Naproxen HR (95% CI) 0.90 (0.72, 1.14) 0.81 (0.64, 1.02) 1.12 (0.89, 1.40) Table 6. Summary of the Adjudicated APTC Components A patient may have experienced more than one component; therefore, the sum of the components is larger than the number of patients who experienced the composite outcome Intent-To-Treat Analysis (ITT, through month 30) Celecoxib Ibuprofen Naproxen N 8,072 8,040 7,969 CV Death 68 (0.8%) 80 (1.0%) 86 (1.1%) Non-Fatal MI 76 (0.9%) 92 (1.1%) 66 (0.8%) Non-Fatal Stroke 51 (0.6%) 53 (0.7%) 57 (0.7%) Modified Intent-To-Treat Analysis (mITT, on treatment plus 30 days, through month 43) N 8,030 7,990 7,933 CV Death 35 (0.4%) 51 (0.6%) 49 (0.6%) Non-fatal MI 58 (0.7%) 76 (1.0%) 53 (0.7%) Non-fatal Stroke 43 (0.5%) 32 (0.4%) 45 (0.6%) In the ITT analysis population through 30 months, all-cause mortality was 1.6% in the celecoxib group, 1.8% in the ibuprofen group, and 2.0% in the naproxen group. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM) Substudy In the PRECISION-ABPM substudy, among the total of 444 analyzable patients at Month 4, celecoxib dosed at 100 mg twice daily decreased mean 24-hour systolic blood pressure (SBP) by 0.3 mmHg, whereas ibuprofen and naproxen at the doses taken increased mean 24-hour SBP by 3.7 and 1.6 mmHg, respectively. These changes resulted in a statistically significant and clinically meaningful difference of 3.9 mmHg (p=0.0009) between celecoxib and ibuprofen and a non-statistically significant difference of 1.8 (p=0.119) mmHg between celecoxib and naproxen. 14.7 Special Studies Adenomatous Polyp Prevention Studies (NCT00005094 and NCT00141193) Cardiovascular safety was evaluated in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-year studies involving patients with Sporadic Adenomatous Polyps treated with CELEBREX: the APC trial (Adenoma Prevention with Celecoxib) and the PreSAP trial (Prevention of Spontaneous Adenomatous Polyps). In the APC trial, there was a dose-related increase in the composite endpoint (adjudicated) of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke with celecoxib compared to placebo over 3 years of treatment. The PreSAP trial did not demonstrate a statistically significant increased risk for the same composite endpoint (adjudicated): • In the APC trial, the hazard ratios compared to placebo for a composite endpoint (adjudicated) of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke were 3.4 (95% CI 1.4 – 8.5) with celecoxib 400 mg twice daily and 2.8 (95% CI 1.1 – 7.2) with celecoxib 200 mg twice daily. Cumulative rates for this composite endpoint over 3 years were 3.0% (20/671 subjects) and 2.5% (17/685 subjects), respectively, compared to 0.9% (6/679 subjects) with placebo treatment. The increases in both celecoxib dose groups versus placebo-treated patients were mainly due to an increased incidence of myocardial infarction. • In the PreSAP trial, the hazard ratio for this same composite endpoint (adjudicated) was 1.2 (95% CI 0.6 – 2.4) with celecoxib 400 mg once daily compared to placebo. Cumulative rates for this composite endpoint over 3 years were 2.3% (21/933 subjects) and 1.9% (12/628 subjects), respectively. Clinical trials of other COX-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs of up to three-years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. As a result, all NSAIDs are considered potentially associated with this risk. Celecoxib Long-Term Arthritis Safety Study (CLASS) This was a prospective, long-term, safety outcome study conducted post-marketing in approximately 5,800 OA patients and 2,200 RA patients. Patients received CELEBREX 400 mg twice daily (4-fold and 2-fold the recommended OA and RA doses, respectively), ibuprofen 800 mg three times daily or diclofenac 75 mg twice daily (common therapeutic doses). Median exposures for CELEBREX (n = 3,987) and diclofenac (n = 1,996) were 9 months while ibuprofen (n = 1,985) was 6 months. The primary endpoint of this outcome study was the incidence of complicated ulcers (gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation, or obstruction). Patients were allowed to take concomitant low-dose (≤ 325 mg/day) aspirin (ASA) for cardiovascular prophylaxis (ASA subgroups: CELEBREX, n = 882; diclofenac, n = 445; ibuprofen, n = 412). Differences in the incidence of complicated ulcers between CELEBREX and the combined group of ibuprofen and diclofenac were not statistically significant. Patients on CELEBREX and concomitant low-dose ASA (N=882) experienced 4-fold higher rates of complicated ulcers compared to those not on ASA (N=3105). The Kaplan-Meier rate for complicated ulcers at 9 months was 1.12% versus 0.32% for those on low-dose ASA and those not on ASA, respectively [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ]. The estimated cumulative rates at 9 months of complicated and symptomatic ulcers for patients treated with CELEBREX 400 mg twice daily are described in Table 7. Table 7 also displays results for patients less than or greater than 65 years of age. The difference in rates between CELEBREX alone and CELEBREX with ASA groups may be due to the higher risk for GI events in ASA users. Table 7: Complicated and Symptomatic Ulcer Rates in Patients Taking CELEBREX 400 mg Twice Daily (Kaplan-Meier Rates at 9 months [%]) Based on Risk Factors All Patients CELEBREX alone (n=3105) 0.78 CELEBREX with ASA (n=882) 2.19 Patients <65 Years CELEBREX alone (n=2025) 0.47 CELEBREX with ASA (n=403) 1.26 Patients ≥65 Years CELEBREX alone (n=1080) 1.40 CELEBREX with ASA (n=479) 3.06 In a small number of patients with a history of ulcer disease, the complicated and symptomatic ulcer rates in patients taking CELEBREX alone or CELEBREX with ASA were, respectively, 2.56% (n=243) and 6.85% (n=91) at 48 weeks. These results are to be expected in patients with a prior history of ulcer disease [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Adverse Reactions (6.1) ]. Cardiovascular safety outcomes were also evaluated in the CLASS trial. Kaplan-Meier cumulative rates for investigator-reported serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (including MI, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, unstable angina, transient ischemic attacks, and ischemic cerebrovascular accidents) demonstrated no differences between the CELEBREX, diclofenac, or ibuprofen treatment groups. The cumulative rates in all patients at nine months for CELEBREX, diclofenac, and ibuprofen were 1.2%, 1.4%, and 1.1%, respectively. The cumulative rates in non-ASA users at nine months in each of the three treatment groups were less than 1%. The cumulative rates for myocardial infarction in non-ASA users at nine months in each of the three treatment groups were less than 0.2%. There was no placebo group in the CLASS trial, which limits the ability to determine whether the three drugs tested had no increased risk of CV events or if they all increased the risk to a similar degree. In the CLASS study, the Kaplan-Meier cumulative rates at 9 months of peripheral edema in patients on CELEBREX 400 mg twice daily (4-fold and 2-fold the recommended OA and RA doses, respectively), ibuprofen 800 mg three times daily and diclofenac 75 mg twice daily were 4.5%, 6.9% and 4.7%, respectively. The rates of hypertension from the CLASS trial in the CELEBREX, ibuprofen and diclofenac-treated patients were 2.4%, 4.2% and 2.5%, respectively. Endoscopic Studies The correlation between findings of short-term endoscopic studies with CELEBREX and the relative incidence of clinically significant serious upper GI events with long-term use has not been established. Serious clinically significant upper GI bleeding has been observed in patients receiving CELEBREX in controlled and open-labeled trials [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Clinical Studies (14.7) ]. A randomized, double-blind study in 430 RA patients was conducted in which an endoscopic examination was performed at 6 months. The incidence of endoscopic ulcers in patients taking CELEBREX 200 mg twice daily was 4% vs. 15% for patients taking diclofenac SR 75 mg twice daily. However, CELEBREX was not statistically different than diclofenac for clinically relevant GI outcomes in the CLASS trial [ see Clinical Studies (14.7) ]. The incidence of endoscopic ulcers was studied in two 12-week, placebo-controlled studies in 2157 OA and RA patients in whom baseline endoscopies revealed no ulcers. There was no dose relationship for the incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers and the dose of CELEBREX (50 mg to 400 mg twice daily). The incidence for naproxen 500 mg twice daily was 16.2% and 17.6% in the two studies, for placebo was 2.0% and 2.3%, and for all doses of CELEBREX the incidence ranged between 2.7%–5.9%. There have been no large, clinical outcome studies to compare clinically relevant GI outcomes with CELEBREX and naproxen. In the endoscopic studies, approximately 11% of patients were taking aspirin (≤ 325 mg/day). In the CELEBREX groups, the endoscopic ulcer rate appeared to be higher in aspirin users than in non-users. However, the increased rate of ulcers in these aspirin users was less than the endoscopic ulcer rates observed in the active comparator groups, with or without aspirin.

    Clinical Studies Table

    Table 5. Primary Analysis of the Adjudicated APTC Composite Endpoint

    Intent-To-Treat Analysis (ITT, through month 30)

    Celecoxib

    Ibuprofen

    Naproxen

    N

    8,072

    8,040

    7,969

    Subjects with Events

    188 (2.3%)

    218 (2.7%)

    201 (2.5%)

    Pairwise Comparison

    Celecoxib vs. Naproxen

    Celecoxib vs. Ibuprofen

    Ibuprofen vs. Naproxen

    HR (95% CI)

    0.93 (0.76, 1.13)

    0.86 (0.70, 1.04)

    1.08 (0.89, 1.31)

    Modified Intent-To-Treat Analysis (mITT, on treatment plus 30 days, through month 43)

    Celecoxib

    Ibuprofen

    Naproxen

    N

    8,030

    7,990

    7,933

    Subjects with Events

    134 (1.7%)

    155 (1.9%)

    144 (1.8%)

    Pairwise Comparison

    Celecoxib vs. Naproxen

    Celecoxib vs. Ibuprofen

    Ibuprofen vs. Naproxen

    HR (95% CI)

    0.90 (0.72, 1.14)

    0.81 (0.64, 1.02)

    1.12 (0.89, 1.40)

    Geriatric Use

    8.5 Geriatric Use Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. If the anticipated benefit for the elderly patient outweighs these potential risks, start dosing at the low end of the dosing range, and monitor patients for adverse effects [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1 , 5.2 , 5.3 , 5.6 , 5.14) ]. Of the total number of patients who received CELEBREX in pre-approval clinical trials, more than 3,300 were 65–74 years of age, while approximately 1,300 additional patients were 75 years and over. No substantial differences in effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. In clinical studies comparing renal function as measured by the GFR, BUN and creatinine, and platelet function as measured by bleeding time and platelet aggregation, the results were not different between elderly and young volunteers. However, as with other NSAIDs, including those that selectively inhibit COX-2, there have been more spontaneous post-marketing reports of fatal GI events and acute renal failure in the elderly than in younger patients [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2 , 5.6) ].

    Pediatric Use

    8.4 Pediatric Use CELEBREX is approved for relief of the signs and symptoms of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis in patients 2 years and older. Safety and efficacy have not been studied beyond six months in children. The long-term cardiovascular toxicity in children exposed to CELEBREX has not been evaluated and it is unknown if long-term risks may be similar to that seen in adults exposed to CELEBREX or other COX-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs [ see Boxed Warning , Warnings and Precautions (5.5) , and Clinical Studies (14.3) ]. The use of celecoxib in patients 2 years to 17 years of age with pauciarticular, polyarticular course JRA or in patients with systemic onset JRA was studied in a 12-week, double-blind, active controlled, pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy study, with a 12-week open-label extension. Celecoxib has not been studied in patients under the age of 2 years, in patients with body weight less than 10 kg (22 lbs), and in patients with active systemic features. Patients with systemic onset JRA (without active systemic features) appear to be at risk for the development of abnormal coagulation laboratory tests. In some patients with systemic onset JRA, both celecoxib and naproxen were associated with mild prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) but not prothrombin time (PT). When NSAIDs including celecoxib are used in patients with systemic onset JRA, monitor patients for signs and symptoms of abnormal clotting or bleeding, due to the risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Patients with systemic onset JRA should be monitored for the development of abnormal coagulation tests [ see Dosage and Administration (2.4) , Warnings and Precautions (5.15) , Adverse Reactions (6.1) , Animal Toxicology (13.2) , Clinical Studies (14.3) ] . Alternative therapies for treatment of JRA should be considered in pediatric patients identified to be CYP2C9 poor metabolizers [ see Poor Metabolizers of CYP2C9 substrates (8.8) ].

    Pregnancy

    8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Use of NSAIDs, including CELEBREX, can cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus and fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios and, in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. Because of these risks, limit dose and duration of CELEBREX use between about 20 and 30 weeks of gestation and avoid CELEBREX use at about 30 weeks of gestation and later in pregnancy ( see Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. , Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. ). Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus Use of NSAIDs, including CELEBREX, at about 30 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment Use of NSAIDs at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy has been associated with cases of fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. Data from observational studies regarding other potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use in women in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive. In animal reproduction studies, embryo-fetal deaths and an increase in diaphragmatic hernias were observed in rats administered celecoxib daily during the period of organogenesis at oral doses approximately 6 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 200 mg twice daily. In addition, structural abnormalities (e.g., septal defects, ribs fused, sternebrae fused and sternebrae misshapen) were observed in rabbits given daily oral doses of celecoxib during the period of organogenesis at approximately 2 times the MRHD ( see Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. ). Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as celecoxib, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss. Prostaglandins also have been shown to have an important role in fetal kidney development. In published animal studies, prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors have been reported to impair kidney development when administered at clinically relevant doses. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus: Avoid use of NSAIDs in women at about 30 weeks gestation and later in pregnancy, because NSAIDs, including CELEBREX, can cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus ( see Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. ). Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment: If an NSAID is necessary at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy, limit the use to the lowest effective dose and shortest duration possible. If CELEBREX treatment extends beyond 48 hours, consider monitoring with ultrasound for oligohydramnios. If oligohydramnios occurs, discontinue CELEBREX and follow up according to clinical practice ( see Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. ). Labor or Delivery There are no studies on the effects of CELEBREX during labor or delivery. In animal studies, NSAIDs, including celecoxib, inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, cause delayed parturition, and increase the incidence of stillbirth. Data Human Data The available data do not establish the presence or absence of developmental toxicity related to the use of CELEBREX. Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus: Published literature reports that the use of NSAIDs at about 30 weeks of gestation and later in pregnancy may cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment: Published studies and postmarketing reports describe maternal NSAID use at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy associated with fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. These adverse outcomes are seen, on average, after days to weeks of treatment, although oligohydramnios has been infrequently reported as soon as 48 hours after NSAID initiation. In many cases, but not all, the decrease in amniotic fluid was transient and reversible with cessation of the drug. There have been a limited number of case reports of maternal NSAID use and neonatal renal dysfunction without oligohydramnios, some of which were irreversible. Some cases of neonatal renal dysfunction required treatment with invasive procedures, such as exchange transfusion or dialysis. Methodological limitations of these postmarketing studies and reports include lack of a control group; limited information regarding dose, duration, and timing of drug exposure; and concomitant use of other medications. These limitations preclude establishing a reliable estimate of the risk of adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes with maternal NSAID use. Because the published safety data on neonatal outcomes involved mostly preterm infants, the generalizability of certain reported risks to the full-term infant exposed to NSAIDs through maternal use is uncertain. Animal data Celecoxib at oral doses ≥150 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times the human exposure at 200 mg twice daily as measured by AUC 0–24 ), caused an increased incidence of ventricular septal defects, a rare event, and fetal alterations, such as ribs fused, sternebrae fused and sternebrae misshapen when rabbits were treated throughout organogenesis. A dose-dependent increase in diaphragmatic hernias was observed when rats were given celecoxib at oral doses ≥30 mg/kg/day (approximately 6 times human exposure based on the AUC 0–24 at 200 mg twice daily for RA) throughout organogenesis. In rats, exposure to celecoxib during early embryonic development resulted in pre-implantation and post-implantation losses at oral doses ≥50 mg/kg/day (approximately 6 times human exposure based on the AUC 0–24 at 200 mg twice daily for RA). Celecoxib produced no evidence of delayed labor or parturition at oral doses up to 100 mg/kg in rats (approximately 7-fold human exposure as measured by the AUC 0–24 at 200 mg twice daily). The effects of CELEBREX on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.

    Use In Specific Populations

    8. USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Infertility : NSAIDs are associated with reversible infertility. Consider withdrawal of CELEBREX in women who have difficulties conceiving. ( 8.3 ) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Use of NSAIDs, including CELEBREX, can cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus and fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios and, in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. Because of these risks, limit dose and duration of CELEBREX use between about 20 and 30 weeks of gestation and avoid CELEBREX use at about 30 weeks of gestation and later in pregnancy ( see Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. , Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. ). Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus Use of NSAIDs, including CELEBREX, at about 30 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment Use of NSAIDs at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy has been associated with cases of fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. Data from observational studies regarding other potential embryofetal risks of NSAID use in women in the first or second trimesters of pregnancy are inconclusive. In animal reproduction studies, embryo-fetal deaths and an increase in diaphragmatic hernias were observed in rats administered celecoxib daily during the period of organogenesis at oral doses approximately 6 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 200 mg twice daily. In addition, structural abnormalities (e.g., septal defects, ribs fused, sternebrae fused and sternebrae misshapen) were observed in rabbits given daily oral doses of celecoxib during the period of organogenesis at approximately 2 times the MRHD ( see Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. ). Based on animal data, prostaglandins have been shown to have an important role in endometrial vascular permeability, blastocyst implantation, and decidualization. In animal studies, administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors such as celecoxib, resulted in increased pre- and post-implantation loss. Prostaglandins also have been shown to have an important role in fetal kidney development. In published animal studies, prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors have been reported to impair kidney development when administered at clinically relevant doses. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus: Avoid use of NSAIDs in women at about 30 weeks gestation and later in pregnancy, because NSAIDs, including CELEBREX, can cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus ( see Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. ). Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment: If an NSAID is necessary at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy, limit the use to the lowest effective dose and shortest duration possible. If CELEBREX treatment extends beyond 48 hours, consider monitoring with ultrasound for oligohydramnios. If oligohydramnios occurs, discontinue CELEBREX and follow up according to clinical practice ( see Error! Hyperlink reference not valid. ). Labor or Delivery There are no studies on the effects of CELEBREX during labor or delivery. In animal studies, NSAIDs, including celecoxib, inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, cause delayed parturition, and increase the incidence of stillbirth. Data Human Data The available data do not establish the presence or absence of developmental toxicity related to the use of CELEBREX. Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus: Published literature reports that the use of NSAIDs at about 30 weeks of gestation and later in pregnancy may cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus. Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment: Published studies and postmarketing reports describe maternal NSAID use at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy associated with fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. These adverse outcomes are seen, on average, after days to weeks of treatment, although oligohydramnios has been infrequently reported as soon as 48 hours after NSAID initiation. In many cases, but not all, the decrease in amniotic fluid was transient and reversible with cessation of the drug. There have been a limited number of case reports of maternal NSAID use and neonatal renal dysfunction without oligohydramnios, some of which were irreversible. Some cases of neonatal renal dysfunction required treatment with invasive procedures, such as exchange transfusion or dialysis. Methodological limitations of these postmarketing studies and reports include lack of a control group; limited information regarding dose, duration, and timing of drug exposure; and concomitant use of other medications. These limitations preclude establishing a reliable estimate of the risk of adverse fetal and neonatal outcomes with maternal NSAID use. Because the published safety data on neonatal outcomes involved mostly preterm infants, the generalizability of certain reported risks to the full-term infant exposed to NSAIDs through maternal use is uncertain. Animal data Celecoxib at oral doses ≥150 mg/kg/day (approximately 2 times the human exposure at 200 mg twice daily as measured by AUC 0–24 ), caused an increased incidence of ventricular septal defects, a rare event, and fetal alterations, such as ribs fused, sternebrae fused and sternebrae misshapen when rabbits were treated throughout organogenesis. A dose-dependent increase in diaphragmatic hernias was observed when rats were given celecoxib at oral doses ≥30 mg/kg/day (approximately 6 times human exposure based on the AUC 0–24 at 200 mg twice daily for RA) throughout organogenesis. In rats, exposure to celecoxib during early embryonic development resulted in pre-implantation and post-implantation losses at oral doses ≥50 mg/kg/day (approximately 6 times human exposure based on the AUC 0–24 at 200 mg twice daily for RA). Celecoxib produced no evidence of delayed labor or parturition at oral doses up to 100 mg/kg in rats (approximately 7-fold human exposure as measured by the AUC 0–24 at 200 mg twice daily). The effects of CELEBREX on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown. 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary Limited data from 3 published reports that included a total of 12 breastfeeding women showed low levels of CELEBREX in breast milk. The calculated average daily infant dose was 10 to 40 mcg/kg/day, less than 1% of the weight-based therapeutic dose for a two-year old-child. A report of two breastfed infants 17 and 22 months of age did not show any adverse events. Caution should be exercised when CELEBREX is administered to a nursing woman. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for CELEBREX and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from the CELEBREX or from the underlying maternal condition. 8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential Infertility Females Based on the mechanism of action, the use of prostaglandin-mediated NSAIDs, including CELEBREX, may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women. Published animal studies have shown that administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors has the potential to disrupt prostaglandin mediated follicular rupture required for ovulation. Small studies in women treated with NSAIDs have also shown a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs, including CELEBREX, in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility. 8.4 Pediatric Use CELEBREX is approved for relief of the signs and symptoms of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis in patients 2 years and older. Safety and efficacy have not been studied beyond six months in children. The long-term cardiovascular toxicity in children exposed to CELEBREX has not been evaluated and it is unknown if long-term risks may be similar to that seen in adults exposed to CELEBREX or other COX-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs [ see Boxed Warning , Warnings and Precautions (5.5) , and Clinical Studies (14.3) ]. The use of celecoxib in patients 2 years to 17 years of age with pauciarticular, polyarticular course JRA or in patients with systemic onset JRA was studied in a 12-week, double-blind, active controlled, pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy study, with a 12-week open-label extension. Celecoxib has not been studied in patients under the age of 2 years, in patients with body weight less than 10 kg (22 lbs), and in patients with active systemic features. Patients with systemic onset JRA (without active systemic features) appear to be at risk for the development of abnormal coagulation laboratory tests. In some patients with systemic onset JRA, both celecoxib and naproxen were associated with mild prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) but not prothrombin time (PT). When NSAIDs including celecoxib are used in patients with systemic onset JRA, monitor patients for signs and symptoms of abnormal clotting or bleeding, due to the risk of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Patients with systemic onset JRA should be monitored for the development of abnormal coagulation tests [ see Dosage and Administration (2.4) , Warnings and Precautions (5.15) , Adverse Reactions (6.1) , Animal Toxicology (13.2) , Clinical Studies (14.3) ] . Alternative therapies for treatment of JRA should be considered in pediatric patients identified to be CYP2C9 poor metabolizers [ see Poor Metabolizers of CYP2C9 substrates (8.8) ]. 8.5 Geriatric Use Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. If the anticipated benefit for the elderly patient outweighs these potential risks, start dosing at the low end of the dosing range, and monitor patients for adverse effects [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1 , 5.2 , 5.3 , 5.6 , 5.14) ]. Of the total number of patients who received CELEBREX in pre-approval clinical trials, more than 3,300 were 65–74 years of age, while approximately 1,300 additional patients were 75 years and over. No substantial differences in effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. In clinical studies comparing renal function as measured by the GFR, BUN and creatinine, and platelet function as measured by bleeding time and platelet aggregation, the results were not different between elderly and young volunteers. However, as with other NSAIDs, including those that selectively inhibit COX-2, there have been more spontaneous post-marketing reports of fatal GI events and acute renal failure in the elderly than in younger patients [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2 , 5.6) ]. 8.6 Hepatic Impairment The daily recommended dose of CELEBREX capsules in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B) should be reduced by 50%. The use of CELEBREX in patients with severe hepatic impairment is not recommended [ see Dosage and Administration (2.7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. 8.7 Renal Impairment CELEBREX is not recommended in patients with severe renal insufficiency [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. 8.8 Poor Metabolizers of CYP2C9 Substrates In patients who are known or suspected to be poor CYP2C9 metabolizers (i.e., CYP2C9*3/*3), based on genotype or previous history/experience with other CYP2C9 substrates (such as warfarin, phenytoin) administer CELEBREX starting with half the lowest recommended dose. Alternative management should be considered in JRA patients identified to be CYP2C9 poor metabolizers [ see Dosage and Administration (2.7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.5) ].

    How Supplied

    16. HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING CELEBREX (celecoxib) 50 mg capsules are white, with reverse printed white on red band of body and cap with markings of 7767 on the cap and 50 on the body, supplied as: NDC Number Size 0025-1515-01 bottle of 60 CELEBREX (celecoxib) 100 mg capsules are white, with reverse printed white on blue band of body and cap with markings of 7767 on the cap and 100 on the body, supplied as: NDC Number Size 0025-1520-31 bottle of 100 0025-1520-51 bottle of 500 0025-1520-34 carton of 100 unit dose CELEBREX (celecoxib) 200 mg capsules are white, with reverse printed white on gold band with markings of 7767 on the cap and 200 on the body, supplied as: NDC Number Size 0025-1525-31 bottle of 100 0025-1525-51 bottle of 500 0025-1525-34 carton of 100 unit dose CELEBREX (celecoxib) 400 mg capsules are white, with reverse printed white on green band with markings of 7767 on the cap and 400 on the body, supplied as: NDC Number Size 0025-1530-02 bottle of 60 0025-1530-01 carton of 100 unit dose Storage Store at room temperature 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

    How Supplied Table

    NDC NumberSize

    0025-1515-01

    bottle of 60

    Storage And Handling

    Storage Store at room temperature 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted between 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].

    Boxed Warning

    WARNING: RISK OF SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR AND GASTROINTESTINAL EVENTS WARNING: RISK OF SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR AND GASTROINTESTINAL EVENTS See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning. • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may occur early in the treatment and may increase with duration of use. ( 5.1 ) • CELEBREX is contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. ( 4 , 5.1 ) • NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which can be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients and patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding are at greater risk for serious GI events. ( 5.2 ) Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events 1. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. This risk may occur early in the treatment and may increase with duration of use [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. 2. CELEBREX is contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery [ see Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation 1. NSAIDs cause an increased risk of serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach or intestines, which c an be fatal. These events can occur at any time during use and without warning symptoms. Elderly patients and patients with a prior history of peptic ulcer disease and/or GI bleeding are at greater risk for serious GI events [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) ].

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