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FDA Drug information

Cefixime

Read time: 3 mins
Marketing start date: 22 Jul 2024

Summary of product characteristics


Adverse Reactions

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS Most common adverse reactions are gastrointestinal such as diarrhea (16%), nausea (7%), loose stools (6%), abdominal pain (3%), dyspepsia (3%), and vomiting. (6) To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Aurobindo Pharma USA, Inc. at 1-866-850-2876 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/m edwatch. 6.1 Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The most commonly seen adverse reactions in U.S. trials of the tablet formulation were gastrointestinal events, which were reported in 30% of adult patients on either the twice daily or the once daily regimen. Five percent (5%) of patients in the U.S. clinical trials discontinued therapy because of drug-related adverse reactions. Individual adverse reactions included diarrhea 16%, loose or frequent stools 6%, abdominal pain 3%, nausea 7%, dyspepsia 3%, and flatulence 4%. The incidence of gastrointestinal adverse reactions, including diarrhea and loose stools, in pediatric patients receiving the suspension was comparable to the incidence seen in adult patients receiving tablets. 6.2 Post-marketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been reported following the post-approval use of cefixime. Incidence rates were less than 1 in 50 (less than 2%). Gastrointestinal Several cases of documented pseudomembranous colitis were identified in clinical trials. The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after therapy. Hypersensitivity Reactions Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions (including shock and fatalities), skin rashes, urticaria, drug fever, pruritus, angioedema, and facial edema. Erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and serum sickness-like reactions have been reported. Hepatic Transient elevations in SGPT, SGOT, alkaline phosphatase, hepatitis, jaundice. Renal Transient elevations in BUN or creatinine, acute renal failure. Central Nervous System Headaches, dizziness, seizures. Hemic and Lymphatic System Transient thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, neutropenia, prolongation in prothrombin time, elevated LDH, pancytopenia, agranulocytosis, and eosinophilia. Abnormal Laboratory Tests Hyperbilirubinemia. Other Adverse Reactions Genital pruritus, vaginitis, candidiasis, toxic epidermal necrolysis. Adverse Reactions Reported for Cephalosporin-class Drugs Allergic reactions, superinfection, renal dysfunction, toxic nephropathy, hepatic dysfunction including cholestasis, aplastic anemia, hemolytic anemia, hemorrhage, and colitis. Several cephalosporins have been implicated in triggering seizures, particularly in patients with renal impairment when the dosage was not reduced [see Dosage and Administration (2) and Overdosage (10) ] . If seizures associated with drug therapy occur, the drug should be discontinued. Anticonvulsant therapy can be given if clinically indicated.

Contraindications

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS Cefixime for oral suspension is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to cefixime or other cephalosporins. Contraindicated in patients with known allergy to cefixime or other cephalosporins. (4)

Description

11 DESCRIPTION Cefixime is a semisynthetic, cephalosporin antibacterial for oral administration. Chemically, it is ( 6R,7R )-7-[2-(2-Amino-4-thiazolyl)glyoxylamido]-8-oxo-3-vinyl-5-thia-1-azabicyclo [4.2.0] oct-2-­ene-2-carboxylic acid, 7 2 -( Z )-[ O -(carboxy methyl) oxime] trihydrate. Molecular weight = 507.50 as the trihydrate. Chemical Formula is C 16 H 15 N 5 O 7 S 2 .3H 2 O. The structural formula for cefixime is: Inactive ingredients contained in cefixime powder for oral suspension USP are: colloidal silicon dioxide, strawberry guarana flavor, sucrose, and xanthan gum. Chemical Structure

Dosage And Administration

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Adults: 400 mg daily (2.1) Pediatric patients (6 months and older): 8 mg/kg/day (2.2) 2.1 Adults The recommended dose of cefixime is 400 mg daily. This may be given as a 400 mg tablet or capsule daily or the 400 mg tablet may be split and given as one half tablet every 12 hours. For the treatment of uncomplicated cervical/urethral gonococcal infections, a single oral dose of 400 mg is recommended. The capsule and tablet may be administered without regard to food. In the treatment of infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes , a therapeutic dosage of cefixime should be administered for at least 10 days. 2.2 Pediatric Patients (6 months or older) The recommended dose is 8 mg/kg/day of the suspension. This may be administered as a single daily dose or may be given in two divided doses, as 4 mg/kg every 12 hours. Note: A suggested dose has been determined for each pediatric weight range. Refer to Table 1. Ensure all orders that specify a dose in milliliters include a concentration, because cefixime for oral suspension is available in three different concentrations (100 mg/5 mL, 200 mg/5 mL, and 500 mg/5 mL). Table 1. Suggested doses for pediatric patients * The preferred concentrations of oral suspension to use are 100 mg/5 mL or 200 mg/5 mL for pediatric patients in these weight ranges. PEDIATRIC DOSAGE CHART Doses are suggested for each weight range and rounded for ease of administration Cefixime for oral suspension Cefixime chewable tablet 100 mg/5 mL 200 mg/5 mL 500 mg/5 mL Patient Weight (kg) Dose/Day (mg) Dose/Day (mL) Dose/Day (mL) Dose/Day (mL) Dose 5 to 7.5* 50 2.5 -- -- -- 7.6 to 10* 80 4 2 -- -- 10.1 to 12.5 100 5 2.5 1 1 tablet of 100 mg 12.6 to 20.5 150 7.5 4 1.5 1 tablet of 150 mg 20.6 to 28 200 10 5 2 1 tablet of 200 mg 28.1 to 33 250 12.5 6 2.5 1 tablet of 100 mg and 1 tablet of 150 mg 33.1 to 40 300 15 7.5 3 2 tablets of 150 mg 40.1 to 45 350 17.5 9 3.5 1 tablet of 150 mg and 1 tablet of 200 mg 45.1 or greater 400 20 10 4 2 tablets of 200 mg Children weighing more than 45 kg or older than 12 years should be treated with the recommended adult dose. Cefixime chewable tablets must be chewed or crushed before swallowing. Otitis media should be treated with the chewable tablets or suspension. Clinical trials of otitis media were conducted with the chewable tablets or suspension, and the chewable tablets or suspension results in higher peak blood levels than the tablet when administered at the same dose. Therefore, the tablet or capsule should not be substituted for the chewable tablets or suspension in the treatment of otitis media [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ]. In the treatment of infections due to Streptococcus pyogenes , a therapeutic dosage of cefixime should be administered for at least 10 days. 2.3 Renal Impairment Cefixime for oral suspension may be administered in the presence of impaired renal function. Normal dose and schedule may be employed in patients with creatinine clearances of 60 mL/min or greater. Refer to Table 2 for dose adjustments for adults with renal impairment. Neither hemodialysis nor peritoneal dialysis removes significant amounts of drug from the body. Table 2. Doses for Adults with Renal Impairment * The preferred concentrations of oral suspension to use are 200 mg/5 mL or 500 mg/5 mL for patients with this renal dysfunction Renal Dysfunction Cefixime for oral suspension Tablet Chewable Tablet Creatinine Clearance (mL/min) 100 mg/5 mL 200 mg/5 mL 500 mg/5 mL 400 mg 200 mg Dose/Day (mL) Dose/Day (mL) Dose/Day (mL) Dose/Day Dose/Day 60 or greater Normal dose Normal dose Normal dose Normal dose Normal dose 21 to 59* OR renal hemodialysis* 13 6.5 2.6 Not Appropriate Not Appropriate 20 or less OR continuous peritoneal dialysis 8.6 4.4 1.8 0.5 tablet 1 tablet 2.4 Reconstitution Directions for Oral Suspension Strength Bottle Size Reconstitution Directions 100 mg/5 mL 100 mL To reconstitute, suspend with 70 mL water . Method: Tap the bottle several times to loosen powder contents prior to reconstitution. Add approximately half the total amount of water for reconstitution and shake well. Add the remainder of water and shake well. 200 mg/5 mL 75 mL To reconstitute, suspend with 52.5 mL water . Method: Tap the bottle several times to loosen powder contents prior to reconstitution. Add approximately half the total amount of water for reconstitution and shake well. Add the remainder of water and shake well. 100 mg/5 mL and 200 mg/5 mL 50 mL To reconstitute, suspend with 35 mL water . Method: Tap the bottle several times to loosen powder contents prior to reconstitution. Add approximately half the total amount of water for reconstitution and shake well. Add the remainder of water and shake well. After reconstitution, the suspension may be kept for 14 days either at room temperature, or under refrigeration, without significant loss of potency. Keep tightly closed. Shake well before using. Discard unused portion after 14 days.

Indications And Usage

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE Cefixime for oral suspension is a cephalosporin antibacterial drug indicated in the treatment of adults and pediatric patients six months and older with the following infections: Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections (1.1) Otitis Media (1.2) Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis (1.3) Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis (1.4) Uncomplicated Gonorrhea (cervical/urethral) (1.5) To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of cefixime for oral suspension and other antibacterial drugs, cefixime for oral suspension should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria. (1.6) 1.1 Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections Cefixime for oral suspension is indicated in the treatment of adults and pediatric patients six months of age or older with uncomplicated urinary tract infections caused by susceptible isolates of Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis . 1.2 Otitis Media Cefixime for oral suspension is indicated in the treatment of adults and pediatric patients six months of age or older with otitis media caused by susceptible isolates of Haemophilus influenzae , Moraxella catarrhalis , and Streptococcus pyogenes. (Efficacy for Streptococcus pyogenes in this organ system was studied in fewer than 10 infections.) Note: For patients with otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae , overall response was approximately 10% lower for cefixime than for the comparator [see Clinical Studies (14) ]. 1.3 Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis Cefixime for oral suspension is indicated in the treatment of adults and pediatric patients six months of age or older with pharyngitis and tonsillitis caused by susceptible isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes. (Note: Penicillin is the usual drug of choice in the treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections. Cefixime for oral suspension is generally effective in the eradication of Streptococcus pyogenes from the nasopharynx; however, data establishing the efficacy of cefixime for oral suspension in the subsequent prevention of rheumatic fever is not available.) 1.4 Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Bronchitis Cefixime for oral suspension is indicated in the treatment of adults and pediatric patients six months of age or older with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis caused by susceptible isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. 1.5 Uncomplicated Gonorrhea (cervical/urethral) Cefixime for oral suspension is indicated in the treatment of adults and pediatric patients six months of age or older with uncomplicated gonorrhea (cervical/urethral) caused by susceptible isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (penicillinase-and non-penicillinase-producing isolates). 1.6 Usage To reduce the development of drug resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of cefixime for oral suspension and other antibacterial drugs, cefixime for oral suspension should be used only to treat infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antimicrobial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Overdosage

10 OVERDOSAGE Gastric lavage may be indicated; otherwise, no specific antidote exists. Cefixime is not removed in significant quantities from the circulation by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Adverse reactions in small numbers of healthy adult volunteers receiving single doses up to 2 g of cefixime did not differ from the profile seen in patients treated at the recommended doses.

Drug Interactions

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS Elevated carbamazepine levels have been reported in postmarketing experience when cefixime is administered concomitantly. (7.1) Increased prothrombin time, with or without clinical bleeding, has been reported when cefixime is administered concomitantly with warfarin and anticoagulants. (7.2) 7.1 Carbamazepine Elevated carbamazepine levels have been reported in postmarketing experience when cefixime is administered concomitantly. Drug monitoring may be of assistance in detecting alterations in carbamazepine plasma concentrations. 7.2 Warfarin and Anticoagulants Increased prothrombin time, with or without clinical bleeding, has been reported when cefixime is administered concomitantly. 7.3 Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions A false-positive reaction for ketones in the urine may occur with tests using nitroprusside but not with those using nitroferricyanide. The administration of cefixime may result in a false-positive reaction for glucose in the urine using Clinitest ®** , Benedict’s solution, or Fehling’s solution. It is recommended that glucose tests based on enzymatic glucose oxidase reactions (such as Clinistix ®** or TesTape ®** ) be used. A false-positive direct Coombs test has been reported during treatment with other cephalosporins; therefore, it should be recognized that a positive Coombs test may be due to the drug. ** Clinitest ® and Clinistix ® are registered trademarks of Ames Division, Miles Laboratories, Inc. Tes-Tape ® is a registered trademark of Eli Lilly and Company.

Clinical Pharmacology

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY 12.1 Mechanism of Action Cefixime is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibacterial drug [see Microbiology (12.4) ]. 12.3 Pharmacokinetics Cefixime chewable tablets are bioequivalent to oral suspension. Cefixime tablets and suspension, given orally, are about 40% to 50% absorbed whether administered with or without food; however, time to maximal absorption is increased approximately 0.8 hours when administered with food. A single 200 mg tablet of cefixime produces an average peak serum concentration of approximately 2 mcg/mL (range 1 to 4 mcg/mL); a single 400 mg tablet produces an average peak concentration of approximately 3.7 mcg/mL (range 1.3 to 7.7 mcg/mL). The oral suspension produces average peak concentrations approximately 25% to 50% higher than the tablets, when tested in normal adult volunteers. Two hundred and 400 mg doses of oral suspension produce average peak concentrations of 3 mcg/mL (range 1 to 4.5 mcg/mL) and 4.6 mcg/mL (range 1.9 to 7.7 mcg/mL), respectively, when tested in normal adult volunteers. The area under the time versus concentration curve (AUC) is greater by approximately 10% to 25% with the oral suspension than with the tablet after doses of 100 to 400 mg, when tested in normal adult volunteers. This increased absorption should be taken into consideration if the oral suspension is to be substituted for the tablet. Because of the lack of bioequivalence, tablets should not be substituted for oral suspension in the treatment of otitis media [see Dosage and Administration (2) ]. Cross-over studies of tablet versus suspension have not been performed in children. The 400 mg capsule is bioequivalent to the 400 mg tablet under fasting conditions. However, food reduces the absorption following administration of the capsule by approximately 15% based on AUC and 25% based on C max . Peak serum concentrations occur between 2 and 6 hours following oral administration of a single 200 mg tablet, a single 400 mg tablet or 400 mg of cefixime suspension. Peak serum concentrations occur between 2 and 5 hours following a single administration of 200 mg of suspension. Peak serum concentrations occur between 3 and 8 hours following oral administration of a single 400 mg capsule. Distribution Serum protein binding is concentration independent with a bound fraction of approximately 65%. In a multiple dose study conducted with a research formulation which is less bioavailable than the tablet or suspension, there was little accumulation of drug in serum or urine after dosing for 14 days. Adequate data on CSF levels of cefixime are not available. Metabolism and Excretion There is no evidence of metabolism of cefixime in vivo. Approximately 50% of the absorbed dose is excreted unchanged in the urine in 24 hours. In animal studies, it was noted that cefixime is also excreted in the bile in excess of 10% of the administered dose. The serum half-life of cefixime in healthy subjects is independent of dosage form and averages 3 to 4 hours but may range up to 9 hours in some normal volunteers. Special Populations Geriatrics : Average AUCs at steady state in elderly patients are approximately 40% higher than average AUCs in other healthy adults. Differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters between 12 young and 12 elderly subjects who received 400 mg of cefixime once daily for 5 days are summarized as follows: * Difference between age groups was significant. (p<0.05) Pharmacokinetic Parameters (mean ± SD) for Cefixime in Both Young & Elderly Subjects Pharmacokinetic parameter Young Elderly C max (mg/L) 4.74 ± 1.43 5.68 ± 1.83 T max (h)* 3.9 ± 0.3 4.3 ± 0.6 AUC (mg.h/L)* 34.9 ± 12.2 49.5 ± 19.1 T ½ (h)* 3.5 ± 0.6 4.2 ± 0.4 C ave (mg/L)* 1.42 ± 0.5 1.99 ± 0.75 However, these increases were not clinically significant [see Dosage and Administration (2) ]. Renal Impairment: In subjects with moderate impairment of renal function (20 to 40 mL/min creatinine clearance), the average serum half-life of cefixime is prolonged to 6.4 hours. In severe renal impairment (5 to 20 mL/min creatinine clearance), the half-life increased to an average of 11.5 hours. The drug is not cleared significantly from the blood by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. However, a study indicated that with doses of 400 mg, patients undergoing hemodialysis have similar blood profiles as subjects with creatinine clearances of 21 to 60 mL/min. 12.4 Microbiology Mechanism of Action As with other cephalosporins, the bactericidal action of cefixime results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Cefixime is stable in the presence of certain beta-lactamase enzymes. As a result, certain organisms resistant to penicillins and some cephalosporins due to the presence of beta-lactamases may be susceptible to cefixime. Resistance Resistance to cefixime in isolates of Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria gonorrhoeae is most often associated with alterations in penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). Cefixime may have limited activity against Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). Pseudomonas species, Enterococcus species, strains of Group D streptococci, Listeria monocytogenes, most strains of staphylococci (including methicillin-resistant strains), most strains of Enterobacter species, most strains of Bacteroides fragilis, and most strains of Clostridium species are resistant to cefixime. Antimicrobial Activity Cefixime has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections [see Indications and Usage (1) ]. Gram-positive Bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae Streptococcus pyogenes Gram-negative Bacteria Escherichia coli Haemophilus influenzae Moraxella catarrhalis Neisseria gonorrhoeae Proteus mirabilis The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown. At least 90 percent of the following bacteria exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for cefixime against isolates of similar genus or organism group. However, the efficacy of cefixime in treating clinical infections caused by these bacteria has not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials. Gram-positive Bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae Gram-negative Bacteria Citrobacter amalonaticus Citrobacter diversus Haemophilus parainfluenzae Klebsiella oxytoca Klebsiella pneumoniae Pasteurella multocida Proteus vulgaris Providencia species Salmonella species Serratia marcescens Shigella species Susceptibility Testing For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.

Clinical Pharmacology Table

* Difference between age groups was significant. (p<0.05)
Pharmacokinetic Parameters (mean ± SD) for Cefixime in Both Young & Elderly Subjects
Pharmacokinetic parameter Young Elderly
Cmax (mg/L) 4.74 ± 1.43 5.68 ± 1.83
Tmax (h)* 3.9 ± 0.3 4.3 ± 0.6
AUC (mg.h/L)* 34.9 ± 12.2 49.5 ± 19.1
T½ (h)* 3.5 ± 0.6 4.2 ± 0.4
Cave (mg/L)* 1.42 ± 0.5 1.99 ± 0.75

Mechanism Of Action

12.1 Mechanism of Action Cefixime is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibacterial drug [see Microbiology (12.4) ].

Pharmacokinetics

12.3 Pharmacokinetics Cefixime chewable tablets are bioequivalent to oral suspension. Cefixime tablets and suspension, given orally, are about 40% to 50% absorbed whether administered with or without food; however, time to maximal absorption is increased approximately 0.8 hours when administered with food. A single 200 mg tablet of cefixime produces an average peak serum concentration of approximately 2 mcg/mL (range 1 to 4 mcg/mL); a single 400 mg tablet produces an average peak concentration of approximately 3.7 mcg/mL (range 1.3 to 7.7 mcg/mL). The oral suspension produces average peak concentrations approximately 25% to 50% higher than the tablets, when tested in normal adult volunteers. Two hundred and 400 mg doses of oral suspension produce average peak concentrations of 3 mcg/mL (range 1 to 4.5 mcg/mL) and 4.6 mcg/mL (range 1.9 to 7.7 mcg/mL), respectively, when tested in normal adult volunteers. The area under the time versus concentration curve (AUC) is greater by approximately 10% to 25% with the oral suspension than with the tablet after doses of 100 to 400 mg, when tested in normal adult volunteers. This increased absorption should be taken into consideration if the oral suspension is to be substituted for the tablet. Because of the lack of bioequivalence, tablets should not be substituted for oral suspension in the treatment of otitis media [see Dosage and Administration (2) ]. Cross-over studies of tablet versus suspension have not been performed in children. The 400 mg capsule is bioequivalent to the 400 mg tablet under fasting conditions. However, food reduces the absorption following administration of the capsule by approximately 15% based on AUC and 25% based on C max . Peak serum concentrations occur between 2 and 6 hours following oral administration of a single 200 mg tablet, a single 400 mg tablet or 400 mg of cefixime suspension. Peak serum concentrations occur between 2 and 5 hours following a single administration of 200 mg of suspension. Peak serum concentrations occur between 3 and 8 hours following oral administration of a single 400 mg capsule. Distribution Serum protein binding is concentration independent with a bound fraction of approximately 65%. In a multiple dose study conducted with a research formulation which is less bioavailable than the tablet or suspension, there was little accumulation of drug in serum or urine after dosing for 14 days. Adequate data on CSF levels of cefixime are not available. Metabolism and Excretion There is no evidence of metabolism of cefixime in vivo. Approximately 50% of the absorbed dose is excreted unchanged in the urine in 24 hours. In animal studies, it was noted that cefixime is also excreted in the bile in excess of 10% of the administered dose. The serum half-life of cefixime in healthy subjects is independent of dosage form and averages 3 to 4 hours but may range up to 9 hours in some normal volunteers. Special Populations Geriatrics : Average AUCs at steady state in elderly patients are approximately 40% higher than average AUCs in other healthy adults. Differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters between 12 young and 12 elderly subjects who received 400 mg of cefixime once daily for 5 days are summarized as follows: * Difference between age groups was significant. (p<0.05) Pharmacokinetic Parameters (mean ± SD) for Cefixime in Both Young & Elderly Subjects Pharmacokinetic parameter Young Elderly C max (mg/L) 4.74 ± 1.43 5.68 ± 1.83 T max (h)* 3.9 ± 0.3 4.3 ± 0.6 AUC (mg.h/L)* 34.9 ± 12.2 49.5 ± 19.1 T ½ (h)* 3.5 ± 0.6 4.2 ± 0.4 C ave (mg/L)* 1.42 ± 0.5 1.99 ± 0.75 However, these increases were not clinically significant [see Dosage and Administration (2) ]. Renal Impairment: In subjects with moderate impairment of renal function (20 to 40 mL/min creatinine clearance), the average serum half-life of cefixime is prolonged to 6.4 hours. In severe renal impairment (5 to 20 mL/min creatinine clearance), the half-life increased to an average of 11.5 hours. The drug is not cleared significantly from the blood by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. However, a study indicated that with doses of 400 mg, patients undergoing hemodialysis have similar blood profiles as subjects with creatinine clearances of 21 to 60 mL/min.

Pharmacokinetics Table

* Difference between age groups was significant. (p<0.05)
Pharmacokinetic Parameters (mean ± SD) for Cefixime in Both Young & Elderly Subjects
Pharmacokinetic parameter Young Elderly
Cmax (mg/L) 4.74 ± 1.43 5.68 ± 1.83
Tmax (h)* 3.9 ± 0.3 4.3 ± 0.6
AUC (mg.h/L)* 34.9 ± 12.2 49.5 ± 19.1
T½ (h)* 3.5 ± 0.6 4.2 ± 0.4
Cave (mg/L)* 1.42 ± 0.5 1.99 ± 0.75

Effective Time

20211027

Version

8

Dosage And Administration Table

Table 1. Suggested doses for pediatric patients
* The preferred concentrations of oral suspension to use are 100 mg/5 mL or 200 mg/5 mL for pediatric patients in these weight ranges.
PEDIATRIC DOSAGE CHART Doses are suggested for each weight range and rounded for ease of administration
Cefixime for oral suspension Cefixime chewable tablet
100 mg/5 mL 200 mg/5 mL 500 mg/5 mL
Patient Weight (kg) Dose/Day (mg) Dose/Day (mL) Dose/Day (mL) Dose/Day (mL) Dose
5 to 7.5* 50 2.5 -- -- --
7.6 to 10* 80 4 2 -- --
10.1 to 12.5 100 5 2.5 1 1 tablet of 100 mg
12.6 to 20.5 150 7.5 4 1.5 1 tablet of 150 mg
20.6 to 28 200 10 5 2 1 tablet of 200 mg
28.1 to 33 250 12.5 6 2.5 1 tablet of 100 mg and 1 tablet of 150 mg
33.1 to 40 300 15 7.5 3 2 tablets of 150 mg
40.1 to 45 350 17.5 9 3.5 1 tablet of 150 mg and 1 tablet of 200 mg
45.1 or greater 400 20 10 4 2 tablets of 200 mg

Dosage Forms And Strengths

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS Cefixime is available for oral administration in the following strengths: Powder for oral suspension, when reconstituted, provides either 100 mg/5 mL or 200 mg/5 mL of cefixime as trihydrate. The powder has an off-white to pale yellow color and is strawberry flavored. Oral Suspension: 100 mg/5 mL and 200 mg/5 mL (3)

Spl Product Data Elements

Cefixime cefixime CEFIXIME CEFIXIME ANHYDROUS SILICON DIOXIDE STRAWBERRY SUCROSE XANTHAN GUM Off-white to pale yellow Cefixime cefixime CEFIXIME CEFIXIME ANHYDROUS SILICON DIOXIDE STRAWBERRY SUCROSE XANTHAN GUM Off-white to pale yellow

Carcinogenesis And Mutagenesis And Impairment Of Fertility

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Lifetime studies in animals to evaluate carcinogenic potential have not been conducted. Cefixime did not cause point mutations in bacteria or mammalian cells, DNA damage, or chromosome damage in vitro and did not exhibit clastogenic potential in vivo in the mouse micronucleus test. In the fertility and reproductive performance study in rats, no difference between control and drug-treated animals was detected in mating behavior, pregnancy rate, or litter parameters (determined at sacrifice on day 13 of pregnancy) at oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day (25 times the adult therapeutic dose) administered to males (for 68 days prior to pairing and during the cohabitation period) and females (for 14 days before pairing to weaning).

Nonclinical Toxicology

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY 13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Lifetime studies in animals to evaluate carcinogenic potential have not been conducted. Cefixime did not cause point mutations in bacteria or mammalian cells, DNA damage, or chromosome damage in vitro and did not exhibit clastogenic potential in vivo in the mouse micronucleus test. In the fertility and reproductive performance study in rats, no difference between control and drug-treated animals was detected in mating behavior, pregnancy rate, or litter parameters (determined at sacrifice on day 13 of pregnancy) at oral doses up to 1000 mg/kg/day (25 times the adult therapeutic dose) administered to males (for 68 days prior to pairing and during the cohabitation period) and females (for 14 days before pairing to weaning).

Application Number

ANDA204835

Brand Name

Cefixime

Generic Name

cefixime

Product Ndc

65862-751

Product Type

HUMAN PRESCRIPTION DRUG

Route

ORAL

Package Label Principal Display Panel

PACKAGE LABEL-PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 100 mg/5 mL (50 mL Bottle) NDC 65862-751-50 Rx only Cefixime for Oral Suspension, USP 100 mg/5 mL when reconstituted FOR ORAL USE ONLY SHAKE WELL BEFORE USING AUROBINDO 50 mL (when reconstituted) PACKAGE LABEL-PRINCIPAL DISPLAY PANEL - 100 mg/5 mL (50 mL Bottle)

Information For Patients

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION Drug Resistance Patients should be counseled that antibacterial drugs, including cefixime, should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold). When cefixime is prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may: (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by cefixime for oral suspension or other antibacterial drugs in the future. Diarrhea Advise patients that diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibacterial drugs which usually ends when the antibacterial drug is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibacterial drugs, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibacterial drug. If this occurs, patients should contact their physician as soon as possible. Distributed by: Aurobindo Pharma USA, Inc . 279 Princeton-Hightstown Road East Windsor, NJ 08520 Manufactured by: Aurobindo Pharma Limited Hyderabad-500 032, India Revised: 10/2021

Clinical Studies

14 CLINICAL STUDIES Comparative clinical trials of otitis media were conducted in nearly 400 children between the ages of 6 months to 10 years. Streptococcus pneumoniae was isolated from 47% of the patients, Haemophilus influenzae from 34%, Moraxella catarrhalis from 15% and S. pyogenes from 4%. The overall response rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae to cefixime was approximately 10% lower and that of Haemophilus influenzae or Moraxella catarrhalis approximately 7% higher (12% when beta-lactamase positive isolates of H. influenzae are included) than the response rates of these organisms to the active control drugs. In these studies, patients were randomized and treated with either cefixime at dose regimens of 4 mg/kg twice a day or 8 mg/kg once a day, or with a comparator. Sixty-nine to 70% of the patients in each group had resolution of signs and symptoms of otitis media when evaluated 2 to 4 weeks post-treatment, but persistent effusion was found in 15% of the patients. When evaluated at the completion of therapy, 17% of patients receiving cefixime and 14% of patients receiving effective comparative drugs (18% including those patients who had Haemophilus influenzae resistant to the control drug and who received the control antibacterial drug) were considered to be treatment failures. By the 2 to 4 week follow-up, a total of 30% to 31% of patients had evidence of either treatment failure or recurrent disease. (a) Number eradicated/number isolated. (b) An additional 20 beta-lactamase positive isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were isolated, but were excluded from this analysis because they were resistant to the control antibacterial drug. In nineteen of these, the clinical course could be assessed and a favorable outcome occurred in 10. When these cases are included in the overall bacteriological evaluation of therapy with the control drugs, 140/185 (76%) of pathogens were considered to be eradicated. Bacteriological Outcome of Otitis Media at Two to Four Weeks Post-Therapy Based on Repeat Middle Ear Fluid Culture or Extrapolation from Clinical Outcome Organism Cefixime(a) 4 mg/kg BID Cefixime(a) 8 mg/kg QD Control(a) drugs Streptococcus pneumoniae 48/70 (69%) 18/22 (82%) 82/100 (82%) Haemophilus influenzae beta-lactamase negative 24/34 (71%) 13/17 (76%) 23/34 (68%) Haemophilus influenzae beta-lactamase positive 17/22 (77%) 9/12 (75%) 1/1 (b) Moraxella catarrhalis 26/31 (84%) 5/5 18/24 (75%) S. pyogenes 5/5 3/3 6/7 All Isolates 120/162 (74%) 48/59 (81%) 130/166 (78%)

Clinical Studies Table

(a) Number eradicated/number isolated. (b) An additional 20 beta-lactamase positive isolates of Haemophilus influenzae were isolated, but were excluded from this analysis because they were resistant to the control antibacterial drug. In nineteen of these, the clinical course could be assessed and a favorable outcome occurred in 10. When these cases are included in the overall bacteriological evaluation of therapy with the control drugs, 140/185 (76%) of pathogens were considered to be eradicated.
Bacteriological Outcome of Otitis Media at Two to Four Weeks Post-Therapy Based on Repeat Middle Ear Fluid Culture or Extrapolation from Clinical Outcome
Organism Cefixime(a) 4 mg/kg BID Cefixime(a) 8 mg/kg QD Control(a) drugs
Streptococcus pneumoniae 48/70 (69%) 18/22 (82%) 82/100 (82%)
Haemophilus influenzae beta-lactamase negative 24/34 (71%) 13/17 (76%) 23/34 (68%)
Haemophilus influenzae beta-lactamase positive 17/22 (77%) 9/12 (75%) 1/1 (b)
Moraxella catarrhalis 26/31 (84%) 5/5 18/24 (75%)
S. pyogenes 5/5 3/3 6/7
All Isolates 120/162 (74%) 48/59 (81%) 130/166 (78%)

References

15 REFERENCES Halperin-Walega, E. Batra VK, Tonelli AP, Barr A, Yacobi A. ‘Disposition of Cefixime in the Pregnant and Lactating Rat. Transfer to the Fetus and Nursing Pup’. Drug Metabolism and Disposition . 1988:16(1):pp130–134.

Geriatric Use

8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical studies did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and older to determine whether they respond differently than younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. A pharmacokinetic study in the elderly detected differences in pharmacokinetic parameters [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . These differences were small and do not indicate a need for dosage adjustment of the drug in the elderly.

Labor And Delivery

8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There are no available data on the presence of cefixime in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Cefixime is present in animal milk (see Data) . When a drug is present in animal milk, it is likely the drug will be present in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for cefixime and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from cefixime or from the mother’s underlying condition. Data In a study on disposition of cefixime in pregnant and lactating rats, continuous intra-peritoneal infusion of 2.54 mg/kg/day of 14 C-cefixime from days 10 to 14 postpartum resulted in steady state plasma concentrations of radioactivity in the dams that were 70 times greater than in their nursing pups. After 102 hours of drug infusion, total radioactivity in the body of the pups, including the stomach and intestinal contents, was 1.5% of the 14 C-cefixime estimated to be in the mother's body at steady state. 1

Pediatric Use

8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of cefixime in pediatric patients younger than 6 months of age have not been established. The incidence of gastrointestinal adverse reactions, including diarrhea and loose stools, in the pediatric patients receiving the suspension, was comparable to the incidence seen in adult patients receiving tablets.

Pregnancy

8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Available data from published observational studies, case series, and case reports over several decades with cephalosporin use, including cefixime, in pregnant women have not established drug-associated risks of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes (see Data) . Reproduction studies have been performed in mice and rats at doses equivalent to 40 and 80 times, respectively, the adult human recommended dose and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to cefixime (see Data ). The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risks of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk Maternal gonorrhea may be associated with preterm birth, low neonatal birth weight, chorioamnionitis, intrauterine growth restriction, small for gestational age and premature rupture of membranes. Perinatal transmission of gonorrhea to the offspring can result in infant blindness, joint infections, and bloodstream infections. Data Human Data While available studies cannot definitively establish the absence of risk, published data from prospective cohort studies, case series, and case reports over several decades have not identified a consistent association with cephalosporin use, including cefixime, during pregnancy, and major birth defects, miscarriage, or other adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Available studies have methodological limitations, including small sample size, retrospective data collection, and inconsistent comparator groups. Animal data The results of embryo-fetal development studies in mice and rats show that cefixime, at doses up to 3200 mg/kg/day administered during the period of organogenesis did not adversely affect development. In these studies, in mice and rats, cefixime did not affect postnatal development or reproductive capacity of the F 1 generation or fetal development of the F 2 generation. In an embryo-fetal development study in rabbits, cefixime at doses of 3.2, 10 or 32 mg/kg given daily during the period of organogenesis (gestation days 6 through 18) resulted in abortions and/or maternal deaths at doses > 10 mg/kg (typically associated with the administration of antibiotics in this species), but no malformations were reported at lower doses. A pre- and post-natal development study of cefixime at oral doses up to 3200 mg/kg/day in rats demonstrated no effect on the duration of pregnancy, process of parturition, development and viability of offspring, or reproductive capacity of the F 1 generation and development of their fetuses (F 2 ).

Use In Specific Populations

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS Pediatric Use: Efficacy and safety in infants younger than 6 months of age have not been established. ( 8.4 ) Geriatric Use: Clinical studies did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and older to determine whether they respond differently than younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. ( 8.5 ) Renal Impairment: Cefixime may be administered in the presence of impaired renal function. Dose adjustment is required in patients whose creatinine clearance is less than 60 mL/min. ( 8.6 ) 8.1 Pregnancy Risk Summary Available data from published observational studies, case series, and case reports over several decades with cephalosporin use, including cefixime, in pregnant women have not established drug-associated risks of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes (see Data) . Reproduction studies have been performed in mice and rats at doses equivalent to 40 and 80 times, respectively, the adult human recommended dose and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to cefixime (see Data ). The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risks of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. Clinical Considerations Disease-Associated Maternal and/or Embryo/Fetal Risk Maternal gonorrhea may be associated with preterm birth, low neonatal birth weight, chorioamnionitis, intrauterine growth restriction, small for gestational age and premature rupture of membranes. Perinatal transmission of gonorrhea to the offspring can result in infant blindness, joint infections, and bloodstream infections. Data Human Data While available studies cannot definitively establish the absence of risk, published data from prospective cohort studies, case series, and case reports over several decades have not identified a consistent association with cephalosporin use, including cefixime, during pregnancy, and major birth defects, miscarriage, or other adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Available studies have methodological limitations, including small sample size, retrospective data collection, and inconsistent comparator groups. Animal data The results of embryo-fetal development studies in mice and rats show that cefixime, at doses up to 3200 mg/kg/day administered during the period of organogenesis did not adversely affect development. In these studies, in mice and rats, cefixime did not affect postnatal development or reproductive capacity of the F 1 generation or fetal development of the F 2 generation. In an embryo-fetal development study in rabbits, cefixime at doses of 3.2, 10 or 32 mg/kg given daily during the period of organogenesis (gestation days 6 through 18) resulted in abortions and/or maternal deaths at doses > 10 mg/kg (typically associated with the administration of antibiotics in this species), but no malformations were reported at lower doses. A pre- and post-natal development study of cefixime at oral doses up to 3200 mg/kg/day in rats demonstrated no effect on the duration of pregnancy, process of parturition, development and viability of offspring, or reproductive capacity of the F 1 generation and development of their fetuses (F 2 ). 8.2 Lactation Risk Summary There are no available data on the presence of cefixime in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Cefixime is present in animal milk (see Data) . When a drug is present in animal milk, it is likely the drug will be present in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for cefixime and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from cefixime or from the mother’s underlying condition. Data In a study on disposition of cefixime in pregnant and lactating rats, continuous intra-peritoneal infusion of 2.54 mg/kg/day of 14 C-cefixime from days 10 to 14 postpartum resulted in steady state plasma concentrations of radioactivity in the dams that were 70 times greater than in their nursing pups. After 102 hours of drug infusion, total radioactivity in the body of the pups, including the stomach and intestinal contents, was 1.5% of the 14 C-cefixime estimated to be in the mother's body at steady state. 1 8.4 Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness of cefixime in pediatric patients younger than 6 months of age have not been established. The incidence of gastrointestinal adverse reactions, including diarrhea and loose stools, in the pediatric patients receiving the suspension, was comparable to the incidence seen in adult patients receiving tablets. 8.5 Geriatric Use Clinical studies did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and older to determine whether they respond differently than younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. A pharmacokinetic study in the elderly detected differences in pharmacokinetic parameters [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ] . These differences were small and do not indicate a need for dosage adjustment of the drug in the elderly. 8.6 Renal Impairment The dose of cefixime should be adjusted in patients with renal impairment as well as those undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and hemodialysis (HD). Patients on dialysis should be monitored carefully [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) ].

How Supplied

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING Cefixime for oral suspension USP 100 mg/5 mL is off-white to pale yellow colored powder - Each 5 mL of reconstituted off-white to pale yellow, strawberry flavored suspension contains cefixime trihydrate equivalent to 100 mg cefixime. 50 mL Bottles NDC 65862-751-50 100 mL Bottles NDC 65862-751-01 Cefixime for oral suspension USP 200 mg/5 mL is off-white to pale yellow colored powder - Each 5 mL of reconstituted off-white to pale yellow, strawberry flavored suspension contains cefixime trihydrate equivalent to 200 mg cefixime. 50 mL Bottles NDC 65862-752-50 75 mL Bottles NDC 65862-752-75 Storage Prior to Reconstitution : Store drug powder at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]. After Reconstitution : Store at room temperature or under refrigeration. Shake well before using. Discard unused portion after 14 days. Keep tightly closed.

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