The rapid worldwide spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has led to the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
In the absence of a vaccine or approved therapy, the pandemic has had a considerable impact on the number of hospitalisations, ICU admissions and deaths worldwide. Those who are particularly vulnerable to severe COVID-19 appear to be those who are older and those with underlying health conditions such as hypertension and diabetes (Phua et al., 2020).
Local guidelines from regions around the world are changing continuously as the COVID-19 pandemic progresses.
In the USA, the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Disease Community of Practice has revealed new recommendations regarding organ donor testing, which is subject to change as more information becomes available (United Network for Organ Sharing, 2020).
The beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic saw a significant reduction in the number of transplantation procedures being carried out. The halting was mainly related to the lack of pathways, guidance and resources (for example, PCR tests for detecting SARS-CoV-2) for infection risk avoidance.
Globally, guidelines are now constantly emerging and changing as new data becomes available, mainly related to the mitigation of SARS-CoV-2 infection risks for living donors, transplant recipients and healthcare workers.
Managing existing transplant recipients
Existing solid organ transplant patients who are not infected with COVID-19 are not treated any differently in terms of immunosuppressant treatments; however, there have been significant changes in the management of these patients.
These changes relate mainly to reducing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This primarily involves patient management using telemedicine, which reduces the need for patients to travel, and their chances of exposure to SARS-CoV-2.
SARS-CoV-2 infected transplant recipients
The management of COVID-19 infected patients is dependent on COVID-19 severity. Limited observational studies indicate that solid organ transplantation patients admitted to hospital are generally more likely to die in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection; however, the reason for this is currently unclear (Alberici et al., 2020).
Akalin E, Azzi Y, Bartash R, Seethamraju H, Parides M, Hemmige V, et al. Covid-19 and Kidney Transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2020. doi:10.1056/nejmc2011117.
Alberici F, Delbarba E, Manenti C, Econimo L, Valerio F, Pola A, et al. Management Of Patients On Dialysis And With Kidney Transplant During SARS-COV-2 (COVID-19) Pandemic In Brescia, Italy. Kidney Int Reports. 2020. doi:10.1016/j.ekir.2020.04.001.
Aslam S, Mehra MR. COVID-19: Yet another coronavirus challenge in transplantation. J Hear Lung Transplant. 2020. doi:10.1016/j.healun.2020.03.007.
Association of Organ Procurement Organisations (AOPO). https://www.aopo.org/information-about-covid-19-coronavirus-is-being-released-rapidly-we-will-post-updates-as-we-receive-them/. Accessed 10 June 2020.
Cascella M, Rajnik M, Cuomo A, Dulebohn SC, Di Napoli R. Features, Evaluation and Treatment Coronavirus (COVID-19). 2020. StatPearls Publishing http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32150360. Accessed 9 June 2020.
ERA-EDTA Registry, COVID-19: Information on Registry Initiatives. https://www.era-edta-reg.org/index.jsp?p=covid19. Accessed 10 June 2020.
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