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Type 2 Inflammation in Upper and Lower Airway Diseases
Type 2 Inflammation in Upper and Lower Airway Diseases
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Type 2 Inflammation

Declaration of sponsorship Sanofi and Regeneron
Last updated:12th May 2022
Published:12th May 2022

What is Type 2 Inflammation?

Type 2 inflammation is a common driver for underlying pathophysiology across multiple inflammatory diseases, including asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP)1

Involving both the adaptive and innate arms of the immune system, type 2 inflammation is characterized by key cytokines, particularly interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, and IL-5 (FIGURE 1).1,2‚Äč

Slide1.jpg

FIGURE 1: Type 2 Inflammation Is Driven by Both the Adaptive and Innate Arms of the Immune System.1,3-8 *Downstream from Th2 cells, innate cells (such as mast cells and basophils) can also play a role in adaptive immunity given their activation by antigen-bound IgE. Crosslinking of IgE on these cells leads to release of several inflammatory mediators (including IL-4 and IL-13), thus amplifying the type 2 inflammatory response.1 IgE, immunoglobulin E; ILC2, type 2 innate lymphoid cell; Th2, T helper type 2.

Underlying type 2 inflammation plays a role across multiple diseases in a range of organ systems (FIGURE 2).1,9-18

Slide2.jpg

FIGURE 2: Type 2 Inflammation Plays a Role Across Multiple Diseases.1,9-18 AERD, aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; NSAID-ERD, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-exacerbated respiratory disease.

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