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Type 2 Inflammation in Upper and Lower Airway Diseases
Declaration of sponsorship Sanofi and Regeneron

References

Declaration of sponsorship Sanofi and Regeneron
Last updated:9th May 2024
Published:9th May 2024

Adult Asthma

  1. Gandhi NA, Bennett BL, Graham NMH, Pirozzi G, Stahl N, Yancopoulos GD. Targeting key proximal drivers of type 2 inflammation in disease. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016;15(1):35-50.
  2. Israel E, Reddel HK. Severe and difficult-to-treat asthma in adults. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(10):965-976.
  3. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. Updated July 2023. Accessed 1 March 2024. https://ginasthma.org/reports/
  4. Tran TN, Zeiger RS, Peters SP, et al. Overlap of atopic, eosinophilic, and TH2-high asthma phenotypes in a general population with current asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2016;116(1):37-42.
  5. Buhl R, Korn S, Menzies-Gow A, et al. Prospective, single-arm, longitudinal study of biomarkers in real-world patients with severe asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2020;8(8):2630-2639.e6.
  6. Heaney LG, Perez de Llano L, Al-Ahmad M, et al. Eosinophilic and noneosinophilic asthma: an expert consensus framework to characterize phenotypes in a global real-life severe asthma cohort. Chest. 2021;160(3):814-830.
  7. Fahy JV. Type 2 inflammation in asthma—present in most, absent in many. Nat Rev Immunol. 2015;15(1):57-65.
  8. Kaur D, Hollins F, Woodman L, et al. Mast cells express IL-13Rα1: IL-13 promotes human lung mast cell proliferation and FcɛRI expression. Allergy. 2006;61(9):1047-1053.
  9. Chung KF. Targeting the interleukin pathway in the treatment of asthma. Lancet. 2015;386(9998):1086-1096.
  10. Alving K, Malinovschi A. Basic aspects of exhaled nitric oxide. In: Horvath I, de Jongste JC, eds. Exhaled Biomarker. European Respiratory Society; 2010:1-31. European Respiratory Monograph No. 49.
  11. Robinson D, et al. Revisiting Type 2-high and Type 2-low airway inflammation in asthma: current knowledge and therapeutic implications. Clin Exp Allergy. 2017;47(2):161-175.
  12. Fricker M, Heaney LG, Upham JW. Can biomarkers help us hit targets in difficult-to-treat asthma? Respirology. 2017;22(3):430-442.
  13. Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. Oral corticosteroid stewardship statement. November 2018. Accessed 1 March 2024. https://allergyasthmanetwork.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/oral-corticosteroid-stewardship-statement.pdf.
  14. Dalal AA, Duh MS, Gozalo L, et al. Dose-response relationship between long-term systemic corticosteroid use and related complications in patients with severe asthma. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2016;22(7):833-847.
  15. Volmer T, Effenberger T, Trautner C, Buhl R. Consequences of long-term oral corticosteroid therapy and its side-effects in severe asthma in adults: a focused review of the impact data in the literature. Eur Respir J. 2018;52(4):1800703.
  16. Sullivan PW, Ghushchyan VH, Globe G, Schatz M. Oral corticosteroid exposure and adverse effects in asthmatic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018;141(1):110-116.e7.
  17. Bleecker ER, Menzies-Gow AN, Price DB, et al. Systematic literature review of systemic corticosteroid use for asthma management. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2020;201(3):276-293.
  18. Hancock KL, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Blakey JD, et al. Characterisation of the Australian adult population living with asthma: Severe - exacerbation frequency, long-term OCS use and adverse effects. Pragmat Obs Res. 2022;13:43-58.
  19. Phulke S, Kaushik S, Kaur S, Pandav SS. Steroid-induced glaucoma: An avoidable irreversible blindness. J Curr Glaucoma Pract. 2017;11(2):67-72.
  20. Dougherty RH, Fahy JV. Acute exacerbations of asthma: epidemiology, biology, and the exacerbation-prone phenotype. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39(2):193-202.
  21. Khan A, Kamat S, Eckert L, et al. Impact of baseline lung function on future exacerbations in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2018;121(5 suppl):S44.
  22. Matsunaga K, Hirano T, Oka A, et al. Progression of irreversible airflow limitation in asthma: Correlation with severe exacerbations. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015;3(5):759-764.
  23. Foster JM, McDonald VM, Guo M, Reddel HK. "I have lost in every facet of my life": the hidden burden of severe asthma. Eur Respir J. 2017;50(3):1700765.
  24. Louis G, Pétré B, Schleich F, et al. Predictors of asthma-related quality of life in a large cohort of asthmatics: A cross-sectional study in a secondary care center. Clin Transl Allergy. 2021;11(7):e12054.
  25. Ali Z, Dirks CG, Ulrik CS. Long-term mortality among adults with asthma: a 25-year follow-up of 1,075 outpatients with asthma. Chest. 2013;143(6):1649-1655.
  26. Menzies-Gow A, Bafadhel M, Busse WM, et al. An expert consensus framework for asthma remission as a treatment goal. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020;145(3):757-765.
  27. Lommatzsch M, Criée C-P, DeJong CCM, et al. [Diagnosis and treatment of asthma: a guideline for respiratory specialists 2023 - published by the German Respiratory Society (DGP) e. V]. Pneumologie. 2023;77(8):461-543.
  28. Sociedad Española de Neumologia y Cirugía Torácica. GEMA 5.3: Guía Española para el manejo del asma [GEMA 5.3: Spanish asthma management guidelines]. Accessed 1 March 2024. https://www.separ.es/node/1827.
  29. Canonica GW, Blasi F, Carpagnano GE, et al. Severe Asthma Network Italy definition of clinical remission in severe asthma: A Delphi consensus. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2023;11(12):3629-3637.
  30. Blaiss M, Oppenheimer J, Corbett M, et al. Consensus of an ACAAI, AAAAI, and ATS workgroup on definition of clinical remissions in asthma on treatment. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2023;131(6):782-785.

Pediatric Asthma

  1. World Health Organization. Asthma. Accessed 1 March 2024. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/asthma
  2. Tran TN, Zeiger RS, Peters SP, et al. Overlap of atopic, eosinophilic, and TH2-high asthma phenotypes in a general population with current asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2016;116(1):37-42.
  3. Fleming L, Murray C, Bansal AT, et al. The burden of severe asthma in childhood and adolescence: results from the paediatric U-BIOPRED cohorts. Eur Respir J. 2015;46(5):1322-1333.
  4. Ramratnam SK, Bacharier LB, Guilbert TW. Severe asthma in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017;5(4):889-898.
  5. Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA). Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. Updated July 2023. Accessed 1 March 2024. https://ginasthma.org/reports/
  6. Gauthier M, Ray A, Wenzel SE. Evolving concepts of asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015;192(6):660-668.
  7. Wenzel SE. Asthma phenotypes: the evolution from clinical to molecular approaches. Nat Med. 2012;18(5):716-725.
  8. Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Asthma. Accessed 1 March 2024. https://vizhub.healthdata.org/gbd-compare/
  9. Lai CK, Beasley R, Crane J, Foliaki S, Shah J, Weiland S; International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase Three Study Group. Global variation in the prevalence and severity of asthma symptoms: phase three of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Thorax. 2009;64(6):476-483.
  10. Hong J, Bao Y, Chen A, et al. Chinese guidelines for childhood asthma 2016: major updates, recommendations and key regional data. J Asthma. 2018;55(10):1138-1146.
  11. Li X, Song P, Zhu Y, et al. The disease burden of childhood asthma in China: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Glob Health. 2020;10(1):010801.
  12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016 archived national asthma data. Accessed 1 March 2024. https://www.cdc.gov/asthma/archivedata/2016/2016-national-data.htm
  13. Witt WP, Weiss AJ, Elixhauser A. Overview of hospital stays for children in the United States, 2012. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality statistical brief #187. December 2014. Accessed 1 March 2024. https://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports/statbriefs/sb187-Hospital-Stays-Children-2012.pdf
  14. Qin X, Zahran HS, Malilay J. Asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits and post-ED visit hospital and critical care admissions, National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, 2010-2015. J Asthma. 2021;58(5):565-572.
  15. Rabe KF, Vermeire PA, Soriano JB, Maier WC. Clinical management of asthma in 1999: the Asthma Insights and Reality in Europe (AIRE) study. Eur Respir J. 2000;16(5):802-807.
  16. Sullivan PW, Ghushchyan V, Navaratnam P, et al. The national burden of poorly controlled asthma, school absence and parental work loss among school-aged children in the United States. J Asthma. 2018;55(6):659-667.
  17. Vuillermin PJ, Brennan SL, Robertson CF, et al. Anxiety is more common in children with asthma. Arch Dis Child. 2010;95(8):624-629.
  18. Chipps BE, Haselkorn T, Rosén K, Mink DR, Trzaskoma BL, Luskin AT. Asthma exacerbations and triggers in children in TENOR: impact on quality of life. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018;6(1):169-176.e2.
  19. Foronda CL, Kelley CN, Nadeau C, et al. Psychological and socioeconomic burdens faced by family caregivers of children with asthma: an integrative review. J Pediatr Health Care. 2020;34(4):366-376.
  20. Easter G, Sharpe L, Hunt CJ. Systematic review and meta-analysis of anxious and depressive symptoms in caregivers of children with asthma. J Pediatr Psychol. 2015;40(7):623-632.
  21. Waters DM, Olson AM, Fousheé N, et al. Perceptions of stress, coping, and intervention preferences among caregivers of disadvantaged children with asthma. J Child Fam Stud. 2017;26(6):1622-1634.
  22. Costa DD, Pitrez PM, Barroso NF, Roncada C. Asthma control in the quality of life levels of asthmatic patients’ caregivers: a systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2019;95(4):401-409.
  23. Robinson D, Humbert M, Buhl R, et al. Revisiting type 2-high and type 2-low airway inflammation in asthma: current knowledge and therapeutic implications. Clin Exp Allergy. 2017;47(2):161-175.
  24. Fricker M, Heaney LG, Upham JW. Can biomarkers help us hit targets in difficult-to-treat asthma? Respirology. 2017;22(3):430-442.
  25. McGeachie MJ, Yates KP, Zhou X, et al. Patterns of growth and decline in lung function in persistent childhood asthma. N Engl J Med. 2016;374(19):1842-1852.
  26. Dougherty RH, Fahy JV. Acute exacerbations of asthma: epidemiology, biology, and the exacerbation-prone phenotype. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39(2):193-202.
  27. Khan A, Kamat S, Eckert L, et al. Impact of baseline lung function on future exacerbations in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2018;121(suppl 5):S44.
  28. Matsunaga K, Hirano T, Oka A, et al. Progression of irreversible airflow limitation in asthma: correlation with severe exacerbations. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015;3(5):759-764.e1.
  29. Foster JM, McDonald VM, Guo M, Reddel HK. “I have lost in every facet of my life”: the hidden burden of severe asthma. Eur Respir J. 2017;50(3):1700765.
  30. Louis G, Pétré B, Schleich F, et al. Predictors of asthma-related quality of life in a large cohort of asthmatics: a cross-sectional study in a secondary care center. Clin Transl Allergy. 2021;11(7):e12054.
  31. Ali Z, Dirks CG, Ulrik CS. Long-term mortality among adults with asthma: a 25-year follow-up of 1,075 outpatients with asthma. Chest. 2013;143(6):1649-1655.
  32. Fuhlbrigge AL, Weiss ST, Kuntz KM, Paltiel AD; CAMP Research Group. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second percentage improves the classification of severity among children with asthma. Pediatrics. 2006;118(2):e347-e355.
  33. Gandhi NA, Bennett BL, Graham NM, Pirozzi G, Stahl N, Yancopoulos GD. Targeting key proximal drivers of type 2 inflammation in disease. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016;15(1):35-50.
  34. Israel E, Reddel HK. Severe and difficult-to-treat asthma in adults. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(10):965-976.
  35. Fahy JV. Type 2 inflammation in asthma—present in most, absent in many. Nat Rev Immunol. 2015;15(1):57-65.
  36. Alving K, Malinovschi A. Basic aspects of exhaled nitric oxide. In: Horvath I, de Jongste JC, eds. Exhaled Biomarker. European Respiratory Society; 2010:1-31. European Respiratory Monograph No. 49.
  37. Kaur D, Hollins F, Woodman L, et al. Mast cells express IL-13Rα1: IL-13 promotes human lung mast cell proliferation and FcɛRI expression. Allergy. 2006;61(9):1047-1053.
  38. Chung KF. Targeting the interleukin pathway in the treatment of asthma. Lancet. 2015;386(9998):1086-1096.
  39. Kuo CR, Spears M, Haughney J, et al. Scottish consensus statement on the role of FeNO in adult asthma. Respir Med. 2019;155:54-57.
  40. Bjermer L, Alving K, Diamant Z, et al. Current evidence and future research needs for FeNO measurement in respiratory diseases. Respir Med. 2014;108(6):830-841.
  41. Peters MC, Nguyen ML, Dunican EM. Biomarkers of airway type-2 inflammation and integrating complex phenotypes to endotypes in asthma. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2016;16(10):71.
  42. Katial RK, Bensch GW, Busse WW, et al. Changing paradigms in the treatment of severe asthma: the role of biologic therapies. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2017;5(2S):S1-S14.
  43. Parulekar AD, Diamant Z, Hanania NA. Role of T2 inflammation biomarkers in severe asthma. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2016;22(1):59-68.
  44. Gaillard EA, Kuehni CE, Turner S, et al. European Respiratory Society clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis of asthma in children aged 5-16 years. Eur Respir J. 2021;58(5):2004173.
  45. Smith AD, Cowan JO, Brassett KP, et al. Exhaled nitric oxide: a predictor of steroid response. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2005;172(4):453-459.
  46. Ferraro VA, Zanconato S, Baraldi E, Carraro S. Nitric oxide and biological mediators in pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis and asthma. J Clin Med. 2019;8(11):1783.
  47. White MP, Kolstad TK, Elliott M, Cochrane ES, Stamey DC, Debley JS. Exhaled nitric oxide in wheezy infants predicts persistent atopic asthma and exacerbations at school age. J Asthma Allergy. 2020;13:11-22.
  48. Kim JK, Jung JY, Kim H, Eom SY, Hahn YS. Combined use of fractional exhaled nitric oxide and bronchodilator response in predicting future loss of asthma control among children with atopic asthma. Respirology. 2017;22(3):466-472.
  49. Diamant N, Amirav I, Armoni-Domany K, et al. High fractional exhaled nitric oxide levels in asthma patients: Does size matter? Pediatr Pulmonol. 2021;56(6):1449-1454.
  50. Di Cara G, Marcucci F, Palomba A, et al. Exhaled nitric oxide in children with allergic rhinitis: a potential biomarker of asthma development. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2015;26(1):85-87.
  51. di Palmo E, Cantarelli E, Catelli A, et al. The predictive role of biomarkers and genetics in childhood asthma exacerbations. Int J Mol Sci. 2021;22(9):4651.
  52. Menzies-Gow A, Bafadhel M, Busse WW, et al. An expert consensus framework for asthma remission as a treatment goal. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020;145(3):757-765.
  53. Lommatzsch M, Criée C-P, DeJong CCM, et al. Diagnosis and treatment of asthma: a guideline for respiratory specialists 2023. [Published in German by the German Respiratory Society (DGP).] Pneumologie. 2023;77(8):461-543.
  54. Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR). GEMA 5.3: Guía Española para el Manejo del Asma [GEMA 5.3: Spanish asthma management guidelines]. Accessed 1 March 2024. https://www.separ.es/node/1827
  55. Canonica GW, Blasi F, Carpagnano GE, et al. Severe Asthma Network Italy definition of clinical remission in severe asthma: a Delphi consensus. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2023;11(12):3629-3637.
  56. Japan Asthma Society (JAS). Practical Guidelines for Asthma Management (PGAM). Updated July 2023. Accessed 1 March 2024. https://jasweb.or.jp/guideline.html
  57. Blaiss M, Oppenheimer J, Corbett M, et al. Consensus of an American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, and American Thoracic Society workgroup on definition of clinical remission in asthma on treatment. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2023;131(6):782-785.

CRSwNP

  1. Schleimer RP. Immunopathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Annu Rev Pathol. 2017;12:331-357.
  2. Kato A, Klingler AI, Stevens WW, et al. Heterogenous inflammation in chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016;137(2):AB285.
  3. Bachert C, Pawankar R, Zhang L, et al. ICON: chronic rhinosinusitis. World Allergy Organ J. 2014;7(1):25.
  4. Naclerio R, Baroody F, Bachert C, et al. Clinical research needs for the management of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps in the new era of biologics: a National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases workshop. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2020;8(5):1532-1549.e1.
  5. Orlandi RR, Kingdom TT, Smith TL, et al. International consensus statement on allergy and rhinology: rhinosinusitis 2021. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2021;11(3):213-739.
  6. Stevens WW, Peters AT, Tan BK, et al. Associations between inflammatory endotypes and clinical presentations in chronic rhinosinusitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019;7(8):2812-2820.
  7. Staudacher AG, Peters AT, Kato A, Stevens WW. Use of endotypes, phenotypes, and inflammatory markers to guide treatment decisions in chronic rhinosinusitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2020;124(4):318-325.
  8. Sedaghat AR, Kuan EC, Scadding GK. Epidemiology of chronic rhinosinusitis: prevalence and risk factors. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2022;10(6):1395-1403.
  9. Mullol J, Bachert C, Amin N, et al. Olfactory outcomes with dupilumab in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2022;10(4):1086-1095.e5.
  10. Gandhi NA, Bennett BL, Graham NM, Pirozzi G, Stahl N, Yancopoulos GD. Targeting key proximal drivers of type 2 inflammation in disease. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016;15(1):35-50. 
  11. Wise SK, Laury AM, Katz EH, Den Beste KA, Parkos CA, Nusrat A. Interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 compromise the sinonasal epithelial barrier and perturb intercellular junction protein expression. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2014;4(5):361-370.
  12. Chalermwatanachai T, Vilchez-Vargas R, Holtappels G, et al. Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is characterized by dysbacteriosis of the nasal microbiota. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):7926. 
  13. Takabayashi T, Kato A, Peters AT, et al. Increased expression of factor XIII-A in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132(3):584-592.e4.
  14. Vlaminck S, Acke F, Scadding GK, Lambrecht BN, Gevaert P. Pathophysiological and clinical aspects of chronic rhinosinusitis: current concepts. Front Allergy. 2021;2:741788.
  15. Mullol J, Azar A, Buchheit KM, Hopkins C, Bernstein JA. Chronic rhinosinusitis within nasal polyps: quality of life in the biologics era. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2022;10(6):1434-1453.e9.
  16. Chung JH, Lee YJ, Kang TW, et al. Altered quality of life and psychological health (SCL-90-R) in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2015;124(8):663-670.
  17. Pugin B, Deneyer L, Bachert C, et al. Patient Advisory Board for Chronic Rhinosinusitis - A EUFOREA initiative. Rhinology. 2019;57(5):331-335.
  18. Vennik J, Eyles C, Thomas M, et al. Chronic rhinosinusitis: a qualitative study of patient views and experiences of current management in primary and secondary care. BMJ Open. 2019;9(4):e022644.
  19. Hummel T, Whitcroft KL, Andrews P, et al. Position paper on olfactory dysfunction. Rhinology Suppl. 2017;54(26):1-30.
  20. Desai M, Oppenheimer J. The importance of considering olfactory dysfunction during the COVID-19 pandemic and in clinical practice. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021;9(1):7-12.
  21. Qureshi HA, Lane AP. Olfaction now and in the future in CRSwNP. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2023;37(2):168-174
  22. Khan A, Huynh TMT, Vandeplas G, et al. The GALEN rhinosinusitis cohort: chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps affects health-related quality of life. Rhinology. 2019;57(5):343-351.
  23. DeConde AS, Mace JC, Levy JM, Rudmik L, Alt JA, Smith TL. Prevalence of polyp recurrence after endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis. Laryngoscope. 2017;127(3):550-555.
  24. DeConde AS, Mace JC, Alt JA, Soler ZM, Orlandi RR, Smith TL. Investigation of change in cardinal symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis after surgical or ongoing medical management. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2015;5(1):36-45.
  25. Zhang L, Zhang Y, Gao Y, et al. Long-term outcomes of different endoscopic sinus surgery in recurrent chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and asthma. Rhinology. 2020;58(2):126-135.
  26. Rouyar A, Classe M, Gorski R, et al. Type 2/Th2-driven inflammation impairs olfactory sensory neurogenesis in mouse chronic rhinosinusitis model. Allergy. 2019;74(3):549-559.
  27. Saraswathula A, Liu MM, Kulaga H, Lane AP. Chronic interleukin-13 expression in mouse olfactory mucosa results in regional aneuronal epithelium. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2023;13(3):230-241.
  28. Hara Y. Interleukin-4 Directly Activates Olfactory Neurons and Induces Loss of Smell in Mice. Presented at American Academy of Allergy Asthma and Immunology Annual Meeting; 4-7 February 2023; San Antonio, TX, USA.
  29. Han X, Wu D, Sun Z, et al. Type 1/type 2 inflammatory cytokines correlate with olfactory function in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Otolaryngol. 2020;41(5):102587.
  30. Soler ZM, Yoo F, Schlosser RJ, et al. Correlation of mucus inflammatory proteins and olfaction in chronic rhinosinusitis. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2020;10(3):343-355.
  31. Bachert C, Bhattacharyya N, Desrosiers M, Khan AH. Burden of disease in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps. J Asthma Allergy. 2021;14:127-134.
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