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Stage of change and motivation to healthier lifestyle in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

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Published:25th Mar 2020
Backgrounds & aims: Healthy diet and physical activity are the treatment cornerstones of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); their effectiveness is however limited by difficulties in implementing lifestyle changes. We aimed to determine the stage of change and associated psychological factors as a prerequisite to refine strategies to implement behavior changes. Methods: We studied 138 consecutive NAFLD patients (73% males, age 19-73). The diagnosis was confirmed by liver biopsy in 64 cases (steatohepatitis, 47%). All cases completed the validated EMME-3 questionnaire, consisting of two parallel sets of instruments (for diet and physical activity, respectively) and providing stages of change according to transtheoretical model. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with stages making behavioral changes more demanding. Results: The individual profiles were variable; for diet, no cases had precontemplation as prevalent stage of change (highest score in individual profiles); 36% had contemplation. For physical activity, 50% were classified in either precontemplation or contemplation. Minor differences were recorded in relation to associated metabolic complications or steatohepatitis. Logistic regression identified male sex (Odds ratio, 4.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.69-12.08) and age (1.70; 1.20-2.43 per decade) as the independent parameters predicting precontemplation or contemplation for diet. No predictors were identified for physical activity. Conclusion: NAFLD cases have scarce readiness to lifestyle changes, particularly as regards physical activity. Defining stages of change and motivation offers the opportunity to improve clinical care of NAFLD people through individual programs exploiting the powerful potential of behavioral counseling, an issue to be tested in longitudinal studies.

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