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Risk factors and outcomes of candida krusei bloodstream infection: a matched, case-control study

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Published:25th Mar 2020
Objectives: To investigate the risk factors and outcomes associated with Candida krusei bloodstream. Methods: We performed a case control study of patients with C. krusei bloodstream infection at the University of Pennsylvania from 1982 to 2010. Controls were without candidemia, and matched to cases on duration of hospitalization and underlying disease. Results: We enrolled 34 cases and 114 matched controls. Most subjects (62%) had hematologic malignancies. In the multivariate model, including a priori the duration of fluconazole use (OR 1.06; 95% CI 1.00, 1.11) and days of neutropenia (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.98, 1.13), risk factors associated with C. krusei bloodstream infection were splenectomy (OR 11.66; 95% CI 1.04, 130.64), and exposure to antimicrobials with anaerobic activity (OR 5.74; 95% CI 1.76, 18.67). Outcomes of infected patients were poor. Only 32% of case patients survived to hospital discharge, compared to 89% of controls. For 48% death was attributed to C. krusei infection. Conclusions: C. krusei bloodstream infection occurs most commonly in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancy. The association with prior fluconazole exposure is less marked than previously described. Splenectomy and the receipt of antimicrobials with anaerobic activity are significant risk factors. The outcome of infected patients remains poor, despite appropriate antifungal therapy.

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