Background: The objective of this study was to analyze the factors associated with change in body mass index (BMI) and with percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) in patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). The following factors were analyzed: sex, age, surgical access (laparotomy vs. laparoscopy), preoperative BMI, waist circumference (WC), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), high blood pressure, and dyslipidemia.
Methods: Retrospective cohort study using a convenience sample of 2070 patients of both sexes, aged 18 to 65 years, undergoing RYGB between 2000 and 2013. The outcomes of interest were BMI and %EWL at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, and 60 months after RYGB.
Results: After 36, 48, and 60 months, approximately 50 % of patients had BMI >30 kg/m2. As for %EWL, 60-month results were poor for 17 % of patients (%EWL <50 %), good for 40 % of patients (%EWL 50-75 %), very good for 24 % of patients (%EWL from >75-90 %), and excellent for 19 % of patients (%EWL >90 %). The four most significant predictors of BMI change 60 months after RYGB (in descending order of magnitude) were preoperative BMI, preoperative WC, surgical access, and age; and of %EWL, surgical access, preoperative BMI, preoperative WC, and age.
Conclusions: After 60 months of follow-up, the most relevant predictors of weight loss after RYGB were lower preoperative BMI and WC, videolaparoscopy as surgical access, and younger age. Further studies must be carried out to elucidate the impact of these factors on RYGB outcomes.