At least half of US adults with asthma have at least 1 other chronic condition. Having asthma and other chronic conditions are associated with poorer asthma outcomes. Several studies considered the relationship between asthma and other specific chronic conditions; results of these studies indicated that having depression or anxiety and/or panic disorder is associated with an increased risk of developing a new asthma diagnosis and with poorer asthma outcomes. In addition, results of these studies indicated that having asthma is associated with an increased risk of developing a new depression or anxiety and/or panic disorder diagnosis. Theoretical models for understanding multiple chronic conditions have emerged, with models that include a balance between patient workload and capacity; classification of specific conditions as concordant and/or discordant and/or dominant; and identification of the gap between what a patient needs and what health care services are able to offer. Potential implications for clinical providers include screening for chronic conditions not yet recognized, such as mental health disorders, promoting and tracking medication adherence in those who have multiple chronic conditions, and simplifying treatment regimens to reduce patient workload.