Background & Aims: miRNAs are novel regulators of organ fibrosis. miR-133a plays a role in cardiac and muscle remodeling, but its function in the liver is unclear. We therefore aimed at evaluating a possible function of miR-133a in hepatofibrogenesis. Methods: miR-133a levels were measured in whole liver samples from different murine hepatic fibrosis models and human liver tissue from patients with liver cirrhosis. The cell-specific regulation of miR-133a was assessed in FACS-sorted hepatic cell subpopulations. Murine and human primary hepatic stellate cells (HSC) were isolated and treated with different cytokines to evaluate upstream regulators of miR-133a. Moreover, GRX-cells were transfected with synthetic miR-133a and the effect on extracellular matrix (ECM) gene regulation was assessed. Finally, miR-133a serum levels were measured in a cohort of patients with chronic liver diseases and correlated with disease progression. Results: Overall miR-133a expression levels were unchanged in whole liver RNA-extracts from fibrotic murine and human livers. However, miR-133a was specifically downregulated in HSC during fibrogenesis. Treatment of primary murine and human HSC with transforming growth factor (TGF)- ? resulted in a significant downregulation of miR-133a in these cells. In turn, overexpression of miR-133a in primary murine HSC led to decreased expression of collagens. In addition, miR-133a serum levels were increased in patients with chronic liver disease and indicate the presence and progression of liver cirrhosis. Conclusions: Evidence is presented for a novel antifibrotic functional role of miR-133a in hepatofibrogenesis. miR-133a may thus represent a target for diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in liver fibrosis.