Purpose: To test the hypothesis that low levels of vitamin D were associated with Benign Prostatic Enlargement (BPE). We also studied whether body composition, sex hormones, serum SHBG, albumin corrected serum calcium, adiponectin and lipid statuses were associated with BPE. Materials and Methods: 184 representative randomly selected men aged 72 � 76 years, enrolled in the Gothenburg arm of the MrOs study, were investigated. Men with a medical history of prostate cancer, prostate operation or medication for BPE were excluded leaving 155 men to be analyzed. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which BPE, as measured by the total prostate gland volume, was related to clinical, anthropometric, endocrine and metabolic factors, using univariate and multivariate analyses with regression models. Results: The median prostate volume was 40 ml. In multivariate models only 25-OH vitamin D, albumin corrected serum calcium, serum SHBG and HDL-cholesterol were significantly and inversely associated with large prostate glands. Conclusion: The present report adds four independent factors associated with BPE: Low levels of 25-OH vitamin D, serum calcium, SHBG and HDL-cholesterol.