Background: Female breast cancer incidence and mortality data for the duration of 2008, in China, retrieved from the National Central Cancer Registry, was analyzed. Methods: In 2008, there were 56 registries that submitted cancer registration data. Based on the criteria of data quality, a total of 41 registries' data met the requirement and were accepted for analysis. The incidence and mortality rates of breast cancer in females were calculated, including age specific rates, age-standardized rates, proportions, and cumulative rates, stratified by areas (urban/rural). Results: The number of cases included from 41 registries was 66?138?784, with 32?798?187 of these cases found in women (25?898?251 in urban areas and 6?899?936 in rural areas). There were 15?625 new cases reported and 3414 deaths of women with breast cancer, resulting in a mortality to incidence ratio of 0.22. The morphological verified rate was 91.96%, and 0.43% of cases were identified by death certificate only. The crude cancer incidence rate in all areas was 47.64/100?000, and the Age-Standardized Incidence Rates by Chinese standard population, (ASIRC) and World standard population (ASIRW) were 25.26/100?000 and 31.71/100?000, respectively. The cumulative incidence rate (0�74 years old) was 3.44%. Both crude and adjusted incidence rates in urban areas were much higher than those in rural areas. The crude cancer mortality was 10.41/100?000, and the Age-Standardized Mortality Rates by Chinese standard population (ASMRC) and by World population (ASMRW) were 4.90/100?000 and 6.48/100?000, respectively. The cumulative mortality rate (0�74 years old) was 0.071%. Age-adjusted mortality rates in urban areas were also higher than in rural areas. Age specific incidence rates peaked in age group 50�54 in all areas (108.27/100?000) and in urban areas (119.68/100?000). It reached the peak in the 55�59 age group for rural women. Age specific mortalities rose with the increase of age for both women in urban and rural areas, with mortality rates of 76.16/100?000 and 23.73/100?000 in age groups of 85 and above, respectively. Conclusions: Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in Chinese women. Preventative measures, such as health education and screening, are needed in the general population, but especially for those in the high-risk group found in urban areas.