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Defining Incidence, Risk Factors, and Impact on Survival of Central Line-Associated Blood Stream Infections Following Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome

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Published:25th Mar 2020
Central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI) commonly complicate the care of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HCT). We developed a modified CLABSI (MCLABSI) definition which attempts to exclude pathogens usually acquired due to disruption of mucosal barriers during the vulnerable neutropenic period following HCT that are generally included under the original definition (OCLABSI). We conducted a retrospective study of all AML and MDS patients undergoing HCT between August 2009 and December 2011 at the Cleveland Clinic (n=73), identifying both OCLABSI and MCLABSI incidence. The median age at transplantation was 52 years (range, 16-70); 34 had a high (?3) HCT comorbidity index (HCT-CI); 34 received bone marrow (BM), 24 received peripheral stem cells (PSC), and 15 received umbilical cord blood cells (UCB). Among these 73 patients, 23 (31.5%) developed OCLABSI, of whom 16 (69.6%) died, and 8 (11%) developed MCLABSI, of whom 7 (87.5%) died. OCLABSI was diagnosed a median of 9 days from HCT: 5 days (range, 2-12) for UCB and 78 days (range, 7-211) for BM/PSC (p<.001). mclabsi occurred a median of 12 days from hct, with similar earlier ucb and later bm psc diagnosis (p=".030)." risk factors for oclabsi in univariate analysis included cbc (p><.001), hla-mismatch (p=".005)," low cd34+ count (p=".007)," low total nucleated cell dose (p=".016)," and non-caucasian race (p=".017)." risk factors for oclabsi in multivariable analysis were ucb (p><.001) and high hct-ci (p=".002)." there was a significant increase in mortality for both oclabsi (hr 7.14, ci 3.31 � 15.37, p><.001) and mclabsi (hr 6.44, ci 2.28-18.18, p><.001). clabsi is common and associated with high mortality in aml and mds patients undergoing hct, especially in ucb recipients and those with high hct-ci. we propose the mclabsi definition to replace the oclabsi definition given its greater precision for identifying preventable infection in hct patients.>

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