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Comparison of 5% versus 15% sucrose intakes as part of a eucaloric diet in overweight and obese subjects: Effects on insulin sensitivity, glucose metabolism, vascular compliance, body composition and lipid profile. A Randomised Controlled Trial

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Published:25th Mar 2020
Source: Metabolism
Aims: The effect of dietary sucrose on insulin resistance and the pathogenesis of diabetes and vascular disease is unclear. We assessed the effect of 5% versus 15% sucrose intakes as part of a weight maintaining, eucaloric diet in overweight/obese subjects. Methods: Thirteen subjects took part in a randomised controlled crossover study (M:F 9:4, median age 46 years, range 37�56 years, BMI 31.7�0.9kg/m2). Subjects completed two 6week dietary periods separated by 4week washout. Diets were designed to have identical macronutrient profile. Insulin action was assessed using a two-step hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp; glucose tolerance, vascular compliance, body composition and lipid profiles were also assessed. Results: There was no change in weight or body composition between diets. There was no difference in peripheral glucose utilization or suppression of endogenous glucose production. Fasting glucose was significantly lower after the 5% diet. There was no demonstrated effect on lipid profiles, blood pressure or vascular compliance. Conclusion: A low-sucrose diet had no beneficial effect on insulin resistance as measured by the euglycaemic glucose clamp. However, reductions in fasting glucose, one hour insulin and insulin area under the curve with the low sucrose diet on glucose tolerance testing may indicate a beneficial effect and further work is required to determine if this is the case.

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