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Journal

Clostridium difficile Infection after Adult Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation: A Multicenter Study of Epidemiology and Risk Factors

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Published:25th Mar 2020

We sought to describe the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among adult recipients of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) within the first year after HSCT in centers with variable epidemiology of hypertoxigenic strains. A multicenter, retrospective nested case-control study was conducted among 873 auto-HSCT recipients at Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) and Hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont (HMR) between January 2003 and December 2008. Despite center differences in the prevalence of NAP-1 strains during the study period (21% to 43% at JHH versus 80% to 84% in HMR), the 1-year incidence of CDI was similar in the 2 hospitals (6.2% at JHH versus 5.7% at HMR). The median time to infection was 11 days (interquartile range, 1 to 27 days). In case-control analyses, grade ≥2 mucositis (odds ratio [OR], 3.00; P = .02) and receipt of a fourth-generation cephalosporin (OR, 2.76; P = .04) were identified as predictors for CDI. Mucositis was the strongest predictor of risk for CDI in multivariate analysis (adjusted OR, 2.77; P = .03). CDI is a common and early complication of auto-HSCT. Treatment-related gastrointestinal mucosal damage, along with the potentially modifiable risk of antimicrobial exposure, influence the risk for CDI early after auto-HSCT.

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