To describe choroidal findings in dome-shaped macula associated with high myopia using fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT), and to elucidate the mechanism and natural course of serous retinal detachment (RD) associated with dome-shaped macula.
Retrospective, observational case series.
We reviewed longitudinal imaging results of 52 highly myopic eyes with dome-shaped macula. Changes on FA and ICGA were assessed. Retinal, choroidal, and scleral thicknesses and bulge height were measured on SD OCT.
Serous RD was the most common abnormality associated with dome-shaped macula, detected by SD OCT in 44% of the cases with no associated choroidal neovascularization. Significant differences in the proportion of eyes with pinpoint leakage on FA (P < .001), punctate hypercyanescence on ICGA (P < .001), and pigment epithelium detachment on SD OCT (P < .001) were noted inside the inward bulge of the staphyloma between eyes with and without serous RD. Serous RD was not associated with hyperpermeability areas on ICGA. Eyes with serous RD had thicker choroid (P = .004) and tended to have thicker sclera (P = .067) and greater bulge height (P = .079). Choroidal thickness, scleral thickness, and bulge height were positively correlated (P < .01). All eyes presented a fluctuating course of serous RD during follow-up. Worsening of serous RD was associated with appearance of new punctate hypercyanescent spots on ICGA and leaking points on FA (P < .001 and P = .016, respectively).
Serous RD in dome-shaped macula was likely caused by choroidal vascular changes, similar to central serous chorioretinopathy, but specifically confined in the inward bulge of the staphyloma and secondary to excessive scleral thickening. Serous retinal detachment showed fluctuating changes over time, with alternating active and inactive stages. Angiographic findings in dome-shaped macula suggest the choroid as a target for possible treatment strategies.