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  • Cardiovascular and hemodynamic responses on drylan...

Cardiovascular and hemodynamic responses on dryland vs. immersed cycling

Read time: 1 mins
Published:25th Mar 2020


To investigate the effect of water immersion on oxygen uptake (VO2) and central hemodynamic responses during incremental maximal exercise at the same external power output (Pext) and recovery on an immersible ergocycle vs. a dryland ergocycle.


Cross-over design study.


Twenty healthy participants (32?±?7 years; 173?±?6?cm; 71.7?±?9.7?kg) performed maximal incremental exercise tests while pedalling either immersed on immersible ergocycle (Hydrorider®) or on dryland ergocycle (Ergoline 800S; Bitz, Germany). Initial Pext of dryland ergocycle protocol was set at 25?W and increased by 25?W every minute until exhaustion. Pext on immersible ergocycle was controlled by pedalling rate (rpm). Initial rpm was set at 40?rpm and was increased by 10?rpm until 70?rpm and thereafter by 5?rpm until exhaustion. Gas exchange and central hemodynamic parameters were measured continuously during exercise and a 5-min recovery period. Reported VO2, stroke volume, cardiac output (θ) and arteriovenous difference (C(a-v)O2) were compared.


During exercise on immersible ergocycle, VO2 and C(a-v)O2 were lower (P?<?0.0001) whereas stroke volume and θ were higher (P?<?0.05) relative to a dryland ergocycle exercise of equivalent Pext.


During exercise and recovery in immersion, (VO2) and arteriovenous difference were reduced in healthy young participants, while stroke volume and cardiac output were increased for the same Pext. During the recovery, central hemodynamics responses remained higher in immersible ergocycle.

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