Associations between sex hormones and cognitive and neuropsychiatric manifestations in vascular dementia (VaD)
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Published:25th Mar 2020
Although numerous studies have been carried out to determine the effects of sex hormones on Alzheimer's disease (AD), little is known about the associations between sex hormones and VaD. The aim of this study was to compare serum sex hormone levels between VaD patients and normal controls, and to further determine the link between sex hormones and cognitive and neuropsychiatric manifestations of VaD. Serum levels of total estradiol (TE2), total testosterone (TT), luteinizing hormone (LH), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in 87 VaD patients and 110 cognitive normal controls. The levels of bioavailable estradiol (BE2) and bioavailable testosterone (BT) were calculated. The VaD patients underwent the tests of global cognitive function, verbal memory, and visuospatial, and executive ability. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) was used to assess neuropsychiatric symptoms. Compared to controls, the testosterone and SHBG levels were lower in male VaD patients, and the estradiol levels were higher in female VaD patients. The hormones levels were not correlated with cognitive functions among either male or female VaD patients. There were no associations between hormone levels and neuropsychiatric symptoms among male patients, while the TE2 and TT levels were positively associated with apathy and anxiety, respectively among female patients. Our findings suggested there were sex hormone level changes in VaD patients in comparison with cognitive normal controls. Sex hormones were associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms among female but not male VaD patients.