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4-D spatiotemporal analysis of ultrasound contrast agent dispersion for prostate cancer localization: a feasibility study.

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Published:25th Mar 2020
Author: Schalk SG, Demi L, Smeenge M, Mills DM, Wallace KD, de la Rosette JJ, Wijkstra H, Mischi M.
Ref.:IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control. 2015 May;62(5):839-851.
Currently, nonradical treatment for prostate cancer is hampered by the lack of reliable diagnostics. Contrastultrasound dispersion imaging (CUDI) has recently shown great potential as a prostate cancer imaging technique. CUDI estimates the local dispersion of intravenously injected contrast agents, imaged by transrectal dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US), to detect angiogenic processes related to tumor growth. The best CUDI results have so far been obtained by similarity analysis of the contrast kinetics in neighboring pixels. To date, CUDI has been investigated in 2-D only. In this paper, an implementation of 3-D CUDI based on spatiotemporal similarity analysis of 4-D DCE-US is described. Different from 2-D methods, 3-D CUDI permits analysis of the entire prostate using a single injection of contrast agent. To perform 3-D CUDI, a new strategy was designed to estimate the similarity in the contrast kinetics at each voxel, and data processing steps were adjusted to the characteristics of 4-D DCE-US images. The technical feasibility of 4-D DCE-US in 3-D CUDI was assessed and confirmed. Additionally, in a preliminary validation in two patients, dispersion maps by 3-D CUDI were quantitatively compared with those by 2-D CUDI and with 12-core systematic biopsies with promising results.

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