The treatment with pasireotide in Cushing's disease: effect of long-term treatment on clinical picture and metabolic profile and management of adverse events in the experience of a single center.
Purposes: Pasireotide is the first medical therapy officially approved for adult patients with Cushing’s disease (CD) experiencing failure of pituitary surgery or not candidates for surgery. The current study aimed at investigating pasireotide effects on clinical picture and metabolic profile in patients enrolled in the phase III CSOM230B2305 trial at Naples center. In addition, the current study focused on safety issues encountered during the study, detailing the management of the different adverse events associated with the treatment with pasireotide in Naples center.
Methods: Fourteen patients entered the study; eight patients, receiving pasireotide for at least 6 months, were considered for the efficacy analysis, whereas the entire cohort of 14 patients was considered for the safety analysis.
Results: Full or partial disease control was obtained in 85.7% of patients, according to a “per-protocol” methodology analysis, and in 42.9% of patients, according to an “intention-to-treat” methodology analysis, after 12 months of treatment. A relevant improvement in clinical signs and symptoms, mainly in facial rubor, supraclavicular fat pad, bruising, hirsutism, and muscle strength was observed; body weight, body mass index, and waist circumference significantly reduced, and a slight non-significant reduction was observed in the prevalence of visceral obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Deterioration of glucose metabolism represented the most common adverse event, occurring in 71.4% of patients, and requiring a dietary regimen as first step, metformin therapy and/or long-acting insulin as second step, and short-acting insulin, as third step; no patients discontinued treatment for hyperglycaemia. Additional adverse events of interest were nausea (21.4%), and vomiting (14.3%), spontaneously resolved in few weeks or some months, except in one patient unsuccessfully treated with metoclopramide and ondansetron, and diarrhoea (14.3%), improved with loperamide treatment. Millimetric gallstones and biliary sludge (7.1%) were managed with ursodeoxycholic acid, inducing lithiasis and biliary sludge resolution, whereas hypocortisolism-related adverse events (7.1%) were resolved with a reduction in the pasireotide dose.
Conclusions: The current study on a limited series of patients contributes to confirm that pasireotide may be considered a valid option for treatment of patients with CD, although it requires an appropriate management of adverse events, especially hyperglycaemia.