Etelcalcetide for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism.
Introduction: Calcium sensing receptor is an important target for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). Etelcalcetide hydrochloride is a novel peptide calcimimetic agent that has a similar mechanism of action as cinacalcet hydrochloride. Clinical trials of etelcalcetide have been performed in the US, Europe, and Japan, and these trials demonstrated the safety and efficacy of etelcalcetide in dialysis patients. Etelcalcetide has recently been approved in Europe, the US and Japan.
Areas covered: We review the development, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy and safety of etelcalcetide for the treatment of SHPT in hemodialysis patients. We also summarize the clinical evidence regarding cinacalcet to forecast the potential clinical benefit of etelcalcetide.
Expert opinion: Etelcalcetide is an injectable calcimimetic with a longer elimination half-life than cinacalcet. The injectable formulation improves adherence and reduces pill burden, while the frequency of gastrointestinal adverse events has been comparable between cinacalcet and etelcalcetide. The longer half-life of etelcalcetide reduces the fluctuation of biochemical markers of mineral and bone metabolism, but it remains to be determined whether such a sustained effect results in improved outcomes. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of etelcalcetide on clinical outcomes, particularly in comparison with the conventional calcimimetic cinacalcet.