Influence of adjunctive lacosamide in patients with seizures: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Introduction: Adjunctive lacosamide treatment might be promising to treat seizures. However, the results remained controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the efficacy and safety of adjunctive lacosamide versus placebo in patients with seizures.
Methods: PubMed, EMbase, Web of science, EBSCO, and Cochrane library databases were systematically searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of adjunctive lacosamide versus placebo on seizures were included. Two investigators independently searched articles, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included studies. The primary outcomes were 50% responder rate and seizure freedom. Meta-analysis was performed using the fixed-effect or random-effect model when appropriate.
Results: Four RCTs involving 1199 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, compared with placebo treatment, adjunctive lacosamide treatment was associated with a significantly increased 50% responder rate (RR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.51 to 2.36; P<0.00001) and seizure freedom (RR = 4.97; 95% CI = 1.78 to 13.91; P = 0.002), but improved dizziness (RR = 3.97; 95% CI = 2.91 to 5.42; P<0.00001), nausea (RR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.75 to 4.66; P<0.0001), vomiting (RR = 4.11; 95% CI = 2.23 to 7.57; P<0.00001), diplopia (RR = 6.85; 95% CI = 3.36 to 13.94; P<0.00001), treatment-emergent adverse events (RR = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.93 to 2.71; P<0.00001), and serious adverse events (RR = 2.52; 95% CI = 1.33 to 4.78; P = 0.005).
Conclusions: Compared to placebo treatment, adjunctive lacosamide treatment resulted in a significantly improved 50% responder rate and seizure freedom, but with increased dizziness, nausea, vomiting, diplopia, treatment-emergent adverse events, and serious adverse events.